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Sensitizing Agents Inducers of Occupational Asthma, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis and Eosinophilic Bronchitis

Posted: August 2005
Updated: January 2014

Joaquín Sastre, MD, PhD
Allergy Service
Fundacion Jimenez Diaz
Madrid, Spain
jsastre@fjd.es

 

Santiago Quirce, MD, PhD
Department of Allergy
Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research (IdiPAZ)
Madrid, Spain
squirce@gmail.com

 

Agents Abrev./
Scientific name
Occupation/
Process
References
Isocyanates      
1,3 bis isocyanatomethyl ciclohexane     Simpson C, Garabrant D, Torrey S, Robins T, Franzblau A.. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reaction and occupational asthma associated with 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl) cyclohexane pre-polymer. Am J Ind Med 1996; 30:48-55.
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate MDI Foundry, Plastics Zammit-Tabona M, Sherkin M, Kijek K. Chan H, Chan-Yeung M. 1983. Asthma caused by diphenylmethane diisocyanate in foundry workers. Clinical. bronchial provocation, and immunologic studies. Am Rev Respir Dis 128:226-230.
HDI prepolymer PHDI Spray painting Vandenplas O, Cartier A, Lesage J, Cloutier Y, Perreault G, Grammer I L, Shaughnessy MA, Malo JL. 1993. Prepolymers of hexamethylene, diisocyanate as a cause of occupational asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91:850-861.
Hexamethylene diisocyanate HDI Spray painting Welinder H, Nielsen J, Bensryd J, Skerfving S. 1988. IgG antibodies against polyisocyanates in car painters. Clin Allergy 18:85-93.
Isophorone diisocyanate IPDI Spray painter Clarke CW, Aldons PM.  . Isophorone diisocyanate induced respiratory disease (IPDI). Aust N Z J Med 11:290-292.
MDI prepolymer PMDI Mold makers Vandenp1as O, Malo JL, Dugas M, Cartier A, Desjardins A, Levesque I J, Shaughnessy MA, Grammer LC. 1993. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reaction among workers exposed to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). Am Rev Respir Dis 147:338-346.
Methylisocyanate MIC Rubber Manufacturing Avashia B, Battigelli MC, Morgan WK, Reger RB. 1996. Effects of prolonged low exposure to methyl isocyanate. J Occup Environ Med 38:625-630.
Naphthalene diisocyanate NDI Rubber Manufacturing Harries MG, Burge PS, Samson M, Taylor AJ, Pepys J. 1979. Isocyanate asthma: respiratory symptorns due to 1,5-naphthylene di-isocyanate. Thorax 34:762-766. Fuortes U, Kiken S, Makowsky M. 1995. An outbreak of naphthalene di-isocyanate-induced asthrna in a plastics factory. Arch Environ Health 50:337-340.
TDI prepolymer   Varnishers Vandenplas O, Cartier A, Lesage J, Perrault G, Grammer LC, Malo JL. 1992. Occupational asthma caused by a prepolymer but not the monomer of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). J Allergy Clin Immunol 89:1183-1188.
TDI+HDI+MDI   Various industries Baur X. 1986. Asthma caused by isocyanates. Allergologie 9:487 –496. Baur X. 1995. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) induced by isocyanates. J Allergy Clin Immunol 95:1004-1010.
Toluene diisocyanate TDI Polyurethane, Varnish, Plastics Sastre J, Fernandez-Nieto M, Novalbos A, De las Heras M, Cuesta J, Quirce S Need of monitoring non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness before and after Isocyanate inhalation challenge. 2002. Chest 2003; 123:1276-1279. Mapp CE. Corona PC, De Marzo N. Fabbri L. 1988. Persistent asthma due to isocyanates. A follow-up study of subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate(TDI). Am Rev Respir Dis 137:1326-1329. Moscato G, Dellabianca A, Vinci G, Candura SM, Bossi MC. 1991. Toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma: clinical findings and bronchial responsiveness studies in 113 exposed subjects with work-related respiratory symptoms. J Occup Med 33:720-725. Baur X. Fruhmann G. 1981. Specific IgE antibodies in patients with isocyanate asthma. Chest 80:73-76.
Anhydrides     Drexler H, Weber A, Letzel S, Kraus G, Schaller KH, Lehnert G. 1994. Detection and clinical relevance of a type 1 allergy with occupational exposure to hexahydrophthalic anhydride and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65:279-28315:154-155.
Hexahydrophthalic anhydride HHPA Chemical industry Moller DR, Gallagher JS. Bemstein DI. Wilcox TG. Burroughs HE. Bemstein IL. 1985. Detection or IgE-mediated respiratory sensitization in workers exposed to hexahydrophthalic anhydride. J Allergy Clin Immunol 75:663-672.
Himic anhydride   Flame retardant Rosenman KD, Bernstein DI, O'Leary K, Gal1agher JS, D'Souza L, Bernstein IL. 1987. Occupational asthma caused by himic anhydride. Scand J Work Environ Hea1th 13:150-154.
Maleic anhydride MA Polyester resin production Lee HS, Wang YT, Cheong TH, Tan KT, Chee BE, Narendran K. 1991. Occupational asthma due to maleic anhydride. Br J Ind Med 48: 283-285.
Methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride   Curing agent Welinder H, Nielsen J, Gustavsson C. Bensryd I, Skerfving S. 1990. Specific antobodies to methyltetrahydrophlhalic anhydride in exposed workers. Clin Exp Allergy 20:639-645. Drexler H, Weber A, Letzel S, Kraus G, Schaller KH, Lehnert G. 1994. Detection and clinical relevance of a type 1 allergy with occupational exposure to hexahydrophthalic anhydride and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65:279-28315:154-155.
Methylhexahy-drophthalic MHHPA Chemical industry Tarvainen K, Jolanki R, Estlander T, Tupasela O, Pfaffli P, Kanerva L. 1995. Immunologic contact urticaria due to airbome methylhexahydrophthalic and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydrides. Contact Dermatitis 32:204-209.
Phthalic anhydride PA Plastics, Production of resins Wernfors M, Nielsen J, Schutz A, Skerfving S. 1986. Phthalic anhydride-induced occupational asthma. Int Arch Allergy Appll Immunol 79:77-82. Nielsen J, Bensryd I, Almquist H, Dahlqvist M, Welinder H, Alexandersson R, Skerfving S. 1991. Serum IgE and lung function in workers exposed to phtha1ic anhydride. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63:199-204.
Phthalic anhydride+ Maleic anhydride+ Trimellitic anhydride     Barker RD, van Tongeren MJA, Harris JM, Gardiner K, Venables KM, Newman Taylor AJ. 1998. Risk factors for sensitisation and respiratory symptoms among workers exposed to acid anhydrides: a cohort study. Occup Environ Med 55:684-691.
Pyromellitic dianhydride PMDA Epoxy adhesives Meadway 1. 1980. Asthma and atopy in workers with an epoxy B adhesive. Br J Dis Chest 74:149-154.
Pyromellitic dianhydride+ Phthalic anhydride+ Maleic anhydride     Baur X. Czuppon AB, Rauluk I, Zimmermann FB, Schmitt B, Egen-Korthaus M, Tenkhoff N, Degens PO. 1995. A clinical and immunological study on 92 workers occupationally exposed to anhydrides. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 67:395-403.
Tetrachlorophthalic anhydride TPCA Plastics, Epoxy resins Barker RD, Harris JM, Welch JA, Venables KM, Newman Taylor AJ. 1998. Occupational asthma caused by tetrachlorophthalic anhydride: a 12-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin ImmunoI101:717-719. Liss GM, Bemstein D, Genesove L, Roos JO, Lim J. 1993. Assessment of risk factors for IgE-mediated sensitization to tetrachlorphthalic anhydride. J Allergy Clin lmmunol 92:237-247.  
Triglycidyl isocyanurate   Painter (powder) Quirce S, Fernandez-Nieto M, Gorgolas M, Renedo G, Carnes J, Sastre J. 2004. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by triglycidyl isocyanurate. Allergy; 59:1128. Piirilä P, Estlander T, Keskinen H, Jolanki R, Laakkonen A, Pfäffli P, Tupasela O, Tuppurainen M, Nordman H. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC). Clin Exp Allergy; 27:510-4.
Trimellitic anhydride TMA Plastics, Epoxy resins Zeiss RC, Mitchel1 JH, van Peenen PF, Kavich D, Col1ins MJ, Grammer L, Shaughnessey M, Levitz D. Henderson J, Patterson R. 1992. A clinical and immunologic study of employees in a facility manufacturing trimel1itic anhydride. Al1ergy Proc. 13:193-198.
Amines      
2-dimethylethanolamine   Spray painter Vallieres M, Cockcroft DW, Taylor DM, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE. 1977. Dimethylethanolamine-induced asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 115:867-871.
2-ethanolamine   Spray painter
Cutting oil
Savonius B, Keskinen H, Tuppurainen M, Kanerva L. 1994. Occupationa1 respiratory disease caused by ethanolamines Clin Exp Allergy 49:877-881. Piipari R, Tuppurainen M, Toumi T, et al. 1998, Diethanolamine-induced occupational, a case report. Clin Exp Allergy 28; 358-362.
3-dimethyl propanolamine     Ski manufacturing Brubaker RE, Muranlco HJ, Smith DB, Beclc GJ, Scovel G. 1979. Evaluation and control of a respiratory exposure to 3-(dimethylamine) propylamine. J Occup Med 21:688-690. Sargent EV, Brubaker RE, Mitchel1 CA. 1976. Respiratory effects of occupationa1 exposure to an epoxy resin system. Arch Environ Health 31:236-240.
4-Methylmorpholine NNM Fur dying Belin L, Wass U, Audunsson G, Mathiasson L. 1983. Amines: possible causative agents in the development of bronchial hyperreactivity in workers manufacturing polyurethanes from isocyanates. Br I Ind Med 40:251-25.
Aliphatic amines   Chemical industry Ng TP, Lee HS, Malik MA. Chee CB, Cheong TH, Wang YT. 1995. Asthma in chemical workers exposed to aliphatic polyamines. Occup Med (Lond) 45:45-48.
Aminoethanolamine   Welding, Cable joining Pepys J, Pickering CA. 1972. Asthma due to inhaled chemical fumes: Amino-ethyl ethanolamine in aluminium soldering flux. Clin Allergy 2:197-204.
Ethylenediamine   Photography
Lacquering
Nakazawa T, Matsui S. 1990. Ethylenedianúne-induced late asthmatic responses. J Asthma 27:207-212.
Hexamethylentetramine HTMA Lacquering Gamble JF, McMichael AJ, Williams T, Battigelli M. 1976. Respiratory function and symptoms: an environmental-epidemiological study of rubber workers exposed to a phenolformaldehyde type resin. Am Ind Hyg Assoc 137:499-513.
Piperazine   Chemist Hagmar L, Welinder H. 1986. Prevalence of specific IgE antibodies against piperazine in employees of a chemical plant. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 81:12-16. Welinder H, Hagmar L, Gustavsson C. 1986. IgE antibodies against piperazine and N-methyl-piperazine in asthmatic subjects. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 79:259-262. Quirce S, Pelta R, Sastre J. 2006. Occupational asthma due to piperazine citrate.
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol.;16:138-9.
Quaternary amine Benzalkonium Cleaning products Berstein JA, et al. 1994. A combined respiratory and cutaneous hypersensitivity syndrome induced by work exposure to quaternary amines. J Allergy Clin Immunol 94:257-259.
Triethylene tetramine C6H18N4 Laquering Fawcett IW, Taylor AJ, Pepys 1. 1977. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents—epoxy resin systerns containing phthalic acid anhydride, trimellitic acid anhydride and triethylene tetramine. Clin Allergy 7:1-14 Savonius B, Keskinen H, Tuppurainen M, Kanerva L. 1993. Occupationa1 respiratory disease caused by acrylates. Clin Exp Allergy 23:416-424.
Metals      
Aluminum   Potroom Sorgdrager B, de Looff AJ, Pal TM, van Dijk FJ, de Monchy JG. Factors affecting FEV1 in workers with potroom asthma after their removal from exposure.Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001;74:55-8.
Ammonium hexachloroplatinate Cl6H8N2Pt Platinum refinery Murdoch RD, Pepys J, Hughes EG. 1986. IgE antibody responses to platinum group metals: a large scale refinery survey. Br J Ind Med 43:37-43.
Chloroplatinum   Platinum refinery Baker DB, Gann PH, Brooks SM, Gallagher J, Bemstein IL. 1990. Cross-sectional study of platinum salts sensitization among precious metals refinery workers. Am J Ind Med 18:653-664.
Chromium salts (VI) Cr Paints, Metal plating Park HS. Yu HJ. Jung KS. 1994. OccupationaI asthma caused by chromium. Clin Exp Allergy 24:676-681 Novey HS, Habib M, Wells ID. 1983. Asthma and IgE antibodies induced by chromium and nickel salts. J Allergy Cliln Immunol 72:407-412.
Chromium sulphate Cr2(SO4)3 Paints, Metal plating Sastre J, Fernandez-Nieto M, Marañón F, Pelta R, Fernandez Caldas E, Quirce S 2001. Allergenic cross-reactivity in occupational asthma caused by chrome and nickel. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 108: 650-651.
Cobalt Stellite ( cobalt-based alloy) Co   Shirakawa T, Morimoto K. 1997. Interplay of cigarette smoking and occupational exposure on specific immunoglobulin E antibodies to cobalt. Arch Environ Health 52:124-128 Pisati G. Zedda S. 1994. Outcome of occupational asthma due to cobalt hypersensitivity. Sci Total Environ 150:167-171 Hannu T, Piipari R, Tuppurainen M, Tuomi T. 2007. Occupational asthma due to welding fumes from stellite. J Occup Environ Med.; 49:473-4.
Cobalt sulphate SO4Co Polishers Gheysens B, Auwerx J, Van den Eeckhout A, Demedts M. 1985. Cobalt-induced bronchial asthma in diamond polishers. Chest 88: 740-744. Shirakawa T, Kusaka Y, Fujimura N, Kato M, Heki S, Morimoto K. 1990. Hard metal asthma: cross immunological and respiratory reactivity between cobalt and nickel? Thorax 45:267-271.
Hexachloroplatinate Cl6H2Pt Platinum refinery Merget R, Schultze-Weminghaus G. Muthorst T. Friedrich W, Meier-Sydow J. 1988. Asthma due to the complex salts of platinum-a cross-sectional survey of workers in a platinum refinery. Clin Allergy n 18:569-580.
Iridium chloride Cl3Ir   Bergman A, Svedberg U, Nilsson E. 1995. Contact urticaria with anaphylactic reactions caused by occupational exposure to iridium salt. Contact Dermatitis 32: 14-17.
Nickel sulphate SO4Ni Metal plating Sastre J,, Fernandez-Nieto M, Marañón F, Pelta R, Fernandez Caldas E, Quirce S 2001. Allergenic cross-reactivity in occupational asthma caused by chrome and nickel. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 108: 650-651. Malo JL, Cartier A, Doepner M. Nieboer E, Evans S, Dolovich 1. 1982. Occupational asthma caused by nickel sulfate. J Allergy Clin Immunol 69:55-59. Estlander T, Kanerva L, Tupasela O, Keskinen H, Iolanki R. 1993. Immediate and delayed allergy to nickel with contact urticaria, rhinitis, asthma and contact dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy 23:306-3l0.
Potassium dichromate Cr2O7 K2 Tanning, Plating, Various occupations Keskinen H. Kalliomaki PL, AIanko K. 1980. Occupational asthma due to stainless steel welding fumes. Clin AIlergy 10:151-159 Bright P, Burge PS, O'HicIcey SP, Gannon PF, Robertson AS, Boran A. 1997. Occupational asthma due to chrome and nickel electroplating. Thorax 52:28-32.
Potassium hexachloroplatinate Cl6Pt K2 Platinum refinery Bolm-Audorff U. Bienfait HG, Burkhard J, Bury AH, Merget R, Pressel G, Schultze-Weminghaus G. 1992. Prevalence of respiratory allergy in a platinum refinery. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64: 257-260.
Tungsten C W2 Grinder Bruckner HC. 1967. Extrinsic asthma in a tungsten carbide worlcer. J Occup Med 9:5l8-519.
Zinc (fumes) Zn Welders Malo JL, Cartier A, Dolovich 1. 1993. Occupational asthma due to zinc. Eur Respir 16:447-450.
Zinc chloride and anmonium   Welders Weir DC, Robertson AS, Jones S, Burge PS. 1989. Occupational asthma due to soft corrosive soldering fluxes containing zinc chloride and ammonium chloride. Thorax 44:220-223.
Drugs      
Aescin   Pharmaceutical Munoz X, Culebras M, Cruz MJ, Morell F. 2006. Occupational asthma related to aescin inhalation.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol; 96:494-6.
Aminophylline   Pharmaceutical Rosenberg M, Aaronson D, Evans C. 1984. Asthmatic responses to inhaled aminophy1line: a report of two cases. Ann A1lergy 52: 97-98.
Ampicillin   Pharmaceutical Davies RJ, Hendrick D, Pepys. J, 1974. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents: arnpicillin, benzyl penicillin, 6 amino penicillanic acid and related substances. Clin Allergy 4:227-247.
Amprolium   Pharmaceutical Greene SA, Freedman S.1976. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents: Amprolium hydrochloride. Clin Allergy; 6:105-108.
Cefadroxil   Pharmaceutical   Sastre J, Quirce S, Novalbos A, Lluch M, Bombín C, Umpierrez A.1993. Occupational asthma induced by cephalosporins.. Eur Respir J;13:1189-1191.
Cephalosporine C   Pharmaceutical Stenton SC, Dennis JH, Hendrick DJ. 1995. Occupational asthma due to ceftazidime. Eur Respir J 8:1421-1423. Coutts IL, Dally MB, Taylor A1, Pickering CA, Horsfield N. 1981. Asthma in workers manufacturing cephalosporins. Br Med (Clin Res Ed) 283:950.
Chlorhexidine   Healthcare Waclawski ER, McAlpine LG, Thomson NC. 1989. Occupational asthma in nurses caused by chlorhexidine and alcohol aerosols. BMJ 298:929-930.
Chloroquine hydroxychloroquine   Pharmaceutical Meier H, Elsner P, Wuethrich B.1999. Occupationally-induced contact dermatitis and bronchial asthma in a unusual delayed reaction to hydroxychloroquine. Hautarzt; 50:665-669.
Cimetidine   Pharmaceutical Coutts IL, Lozewicz S, Dally MB, Newman-Taylor A1, Burge PS, F1ind AC, Rogers D]. 1984. Respirator y symptoms related to work in a factory manufacturing cimetidine tablets. Br Med (Clin Res Ed) 288:1418.
Ciprofloxacin   Pharmaceutical Broding HC, Chen Z, Baur X. 1996. Occupational asthma in a ciprofloxacin production. Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Umweltrned 31: l56-l58.
Enflourane   Healthcare Schwettmann RS, Casterline CL. 1976. Delayed asthmatic response following occupational exposure to enfluorane. Anesthesioloy 44:166-169.
Hydralazine   Pharmaceutical Perrin B. Malo JL, Cartier A, Evans S. Dolovich J. 1990. Occupational asthma in a phamaceutical worker exposed to hydralazine. Thorax 45:980-981.  
Ipecacuanha   Pharmaceutical Luczynska CM, Marshall PE, Scarisbrick DA, Topping MD. 1984. Occupational allergy due to inhalation of ipecacuanha dust. Clin Allergy 14:169-175.
Isonicotinic Acid   Pharmaceutical Asai S, Shimoda T, Hara K, Fujiwara K. 1987. Occupational asthma caused by isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) inhalation. J A1Iergy Clin Immunol 80:578-582. Shimoda T. 1990. Detection of IgE antibodies specific to isonicotinic acid hydrazide and its metabolite by enzyme-Iinked immunosorbent assay and the mechanism of sensitization by inhalation or ingestion of this compound. Jpn J Allergol 39:567-576.
Methotrexate   Healthcare Jones G, Mierins E, Karsh J. 1991. Methotrexate-induced asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis; 143:179-181.
Methyldopa   Pharmaceutical Harries MG, Taylor AN, Wooden J, MacAuslan A. 1979. Bronchial asthma due to alpha-methyldopa. Br Med J 1:1461.
Mitoxantrone   Healthcare Walusiak J, Wittczak T, Ruta U, Palczynski C.2002. Occupational asthma due to mitoxantrone. Allergy.;57:461.
Opiate compounds   Pharmaceutical Biagini RE, Bemstein DM, Klincewicz SL, Mittman R, Bemstein lL, Henningsen GM. 1992. Evaluation of cutaneous responses and lung function from exposure to opiate compounds among ethical narcotics-manufacturing workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89: 108-118.
Penicillamine   Pharmaceutical Lagier F. Cartier A, Dolovich J, Malo JL. 1989. Occupational asthma in a pharmaceutical worker exposed to penicillamine. Thorax 44: 157-158.
Penicillins   Pharmaceutical Davies RJ, Hendrick D, Pepys ]. 1974. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents: arnpicillin, benzyl penicillin, 6 amino penicillanic acid and related substances. Clin Allergy 4:227-247. Shmunes E. Taylor JS, Petz LD, Garratty G, Fudenberg HH. 1976. Immunologic reactions in penicillin factory workers. Ann Allergy 36:313-323. Stejska1 VD, Forsbeck M, Olin R. 1987. Side-chain-specific Iymphocyte responses in workers with occupationa1 allergy induced by penicillins. Int Arch AIlergy Appl lmmunoI 82:461-464.
Phenylglycine   Pharmaceutical Kammerrneyer JK, Mathews KP. 1973. Hypersensitivity to phenylglycine acid chloride. J AIlergy Clin Immunol 52:73-84.
Piperacillin   Pharmaceutical Moscato G, Galdi E, Scibilia J, Dellabianca A, Omodeo P, Vittadini G. Biscaldi GP. 1995. Occupational asthma, rhinitis and urticaria due to piperacillin sodium in a pharmaceutical worker. Eur Respir J 8: 467-469.
Psyllium   Pharmaceutical Healthcare Vaswani SK, Hamilton RG, Valenline MD, Adkinson NF. Jr. 1996. Psyllium laxative-induced anaphylaxis, asthma, and rhinitis. Allergy 2 51:266-268. Aleman A, Quirce S, Bombín C, Sastre J.2001 Asthma related to inhalation of Plantago ovata.Med Clin (Barc).;116:20-2.
Salbutamol   Pharmaceutical Agius RM, Davison AG, Hawkins ER, Newman Taylor AJ. 1994. Occupational asthma in salbutamol process workers. Occup Environ Med 51:397-399.
Senna   Healthcare workers
Pharmaceutical
Marks GB. Salome CM, Woolcock Al. 1991. Asthma and allergy J associated with occupational exposure to ispaghula and senna: Products in a pharmaceutical work force. Arn Rev Respir Dis 144: 1065-1069. Helin T, Makinen-Kiljunen S. 1996. Occupational asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis caused by senna. Allergy 51:181-184.
Sevoflurane and isoflurane   anaesthetic staff Vellore AD, Drought VJ, Sherwood-Jones D, Tunnicliffe B, Moore VC, Robertson AS, Burge PS. 2006. Occupational asthma and allergy to sevoflurane and isoflurane in anaesthetic staff.
Allergy;6:1485-6
Spiramycin   Pharmaceutical  Malo JL, Cal1ier A. 1988. Occupational asthma in workers of a pharmaceutical company processing spiramycin. Thorax 43: 371-377.
Tetrachloroisophthalo-nitrile   Fungicide Honda I, Kohrogi H, Ando M, Araki S, Ueno T, Futatsuka M, Ueda A. 1992. Occupational asthma induced by the fungicide tetrachloroisophthalonitri1e. Thorax 47:760-761.
Tetracycline   Pharmaceutical Menon MP. Das AK. 1977. Tetracycline asthma-a case report. Clin Allergy 7:285-290.
Tributil tin oxide   Fungicide Shelton D, Urch B, Tarlo SM. 1992. Occupational asthma induced by a carpet fungicide-tributyl tin oxide. J Al1ergy Clin Immunol 90: to 274-275.
Tylosin tartrate   Pharmaceutical Lee HS, Wang YT, Yeo CR, Tan KT, Ratnam KV. 1989. Occupational asthma due to tylosin tartrate. Br J Ind Med 46:498-499.
Plastics (including their monomers)      
Alkyl aryl polyether alcohol+ polipropylene glycol   Welders Stevens JJ. 1976. Asthma due to soldering flux: a polyether alcohol-polypropylene glycol mixture. Ann Allergy 36:419-422.
Alkylcyanoacrylate   Adhesive Savonius B, Keskinen H, Tuppurainen M, Kanerva L. 1993. Occupationa1 respiratory disease caused by acrylates. Clin Exp Allergy 23:416-424.
Cyanoacrylates   Adhesive Quirce S, Baeza ML, Tonero P, Blasco A, Barranco R, Sastre J 2001. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to cyanoacrylate. Allergy 2001;56:446-449.
Diacrylate   Adhesive Weytjens K, Cartier A, Lemiere C, Malo JL. 1999. Occupational asthma to diacrylate. Allergy 54; 287-296.
Methylcyanoacrylate   Adhesive Savonius B, Keskinen H, Tuppurainen M, Kanerva L. 1994. Occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines. Al1ergy 49:877-881.
Methylmethacrylate   Adhesive Lozewicz S, Davison AG, Hopkirk A, Burge PS, Boldy DA, Riordan JF, McGivem DV, Platts BW, Davies D, Newman Taylor AJ. 1985. Occupational asthma due to methyl methacrylate and cyanoacrylates. Thorax 40:836-839.
Plexiglas (dust)   Glass fibers Kennes B. Garcia-Herreros P, Dierckx P. 1981. Asthma from plexiglas powders. Clin Allergy11:49-54.
Polyethylene   Cable coating, Paper wrapping Stenton SC. Kelly CA. Walters EH. Hendrick DJ. 1989. Occupational asthma due to a repair process for polyethylene-coated electrical cables. J Soc Occup Med 39:33-34. Gannon PF, Burge PS, Benfield GF. 1992. Occupational asthma due to polyethylene shrink wrapping (paper wrapper's asthrna). Thorax 47:759.
Polypropylene   Plastic Malo JL, Cartier A. Pineault L. Dugas M. Desjardins A. 1994b. Occupational asthma due to heated polypropylene. Eur Respir 7:415-417.
Polyvinylchloride   Meat wrappers Lee HS, Yap J, Wang YT, Lee CS, Tan KT, Poh SC. 1989. Occupational asthma due to unheated polyvinylchloride resin dust. Br J Ind Med 46:820—822.
Styrene   Plastic Fernandez-Nieto M, Quirce S, Fraj J, del Pozo V, Seoane C, Sastre B, Lahoz C, Sastre J. 2006. Airway inflammation in occupational asthma caused by styrene. J Allergy Clin Immunol. ;117:948-50. Hayes JP, Lamboum L, Hopkirk JA, Durharn SR, Tay1or AJ. 1991. Occupational asthma due to styrene. Thorax 46:396-397. Moscato G. Biscaldi G. Cottica D. Pugliese F, Candura S, Candura F: 1987. Occupational asthma due to styrene: two case reports. Occup Med 29:957-960.
Synthetic textile fibres (rayon, nylon) Polyester (orlon, terylene)   Textile Muitari et al. 1978. Natural and synthetic fibers as causes of asthma and rhinitis. Ann Allergy 41: 48-50.
Dyes      
Basic blue 99 (hair dye)   Hairdressing Wigger-Alberú W, EIsner P, Wuthrich B. 1996. Immediate-type allergy to the hair dye basic blue 99 in a hairdresser. Allergy 51:64-65.
Carmine Dactolylopius coccus. E-120 Carmine extraction
Food industry
Quirce S, Cuevas M, Olaguibel JM, Tabar AI. 1994. Occupational asthma and immunologic responses induced by inhaled carmine among employees at a factory making natural dyes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:44-52. Stücker W, Roggenbuck D, Kichbach G. 1996. Asthmatic reaction after occupational exposure to the food colouring material cochineal carmine. Allergo J 5:143-146.  
Dyes for textile fibers   Textile dye Zuskin E, Mustajbegovic J, Schachter EN, Doko-Jelinic J. 1 997. Respiralory function of tcxtile workers employed in dyeing cotton and wool fibers. Am J Ind Med 31:344-352. Park HS, Lee MX, Kim BO, et al. 1991. Clinical and immunologic evaluations of reactive dye-exposed workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol;87:639-49.
Henna black Indigofera argentea Hairdressing Scibilia J, Galdi E, Biscaldi G, Moscato G. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by black henna. Al1ergy 52:231-232.
Henna red Lausonia alba Hairdressing Starr JC, Yunginger J, Brasher GW.1982 Immediate type I asthmatic response to henna following occupational exposure in hairdressers. Ann Allergy 48: 98-9.
Ink for ECG     Keskinen H, Nordman H, Terho EO. 1981. ECG ink as a cause of asthma. Allergy 36:275-276.
Lanasol 4G yellow   Dyeing Romano C, Sulotto F, Pavan I, Chiesa A, Scansetti G. 1992. A new case of occupationa1 asthma from reactive dyes with severe anaphylactic response to the specific chal1enge. Am J Ind Med 21:209-216.
Pyrazolone   Photography Nakano Y, Tsuchiya T, Hirose K, Chida K.2000. Occupational asthma caused by pyrazolone derivative used in silver halide photographic paper. Chest 118:246-8.
Remazol black(dye for textile fibers)   Textile dye Nilsson R, Nordlinder R, Wass U, Meding B, Belin L. 1993. Asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis in workers exposed to reactive dyes. Br J Ind Med 50:65-70.
Other chemicals      
1,2-benzisotiazoline-3 Isothiazolinone   Chemical industry Moscato G, Omodeo P, Dellabianca A, Colli MC. Pu gliese F, Locatelli C, Scibilia J. 1997. Occupationa1 asthma and rhinitis caused by 1,.2-benzisothiazolin-3-in a chemica1 worker. Occup Med (Oxf) 47:249-251.
1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3, 3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate TBTU Biochemistry laboratories Miralles JC, Negro JM, Alonso JM, Garcia M, Sanchez-Gascon F, Soriano J. 2003. Occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma due to TBTU and HBTU sensitization. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 13):133-4.
Ammonium chloride   Soldering Weir DC, Robertson AS, Jones S, Burge PS. 1989. Occupational asthma due to soft corrosive soldering fluxes containing zinc chloride and ammonium chloride. Thorax 44:220-223.
Aziridine   Chemical industry Kanerva L, Keskinen H, Autio P, Estlander T, Tuppurainen M, Jolandki R. 1995. Occupational respiratory and skin sensitisation caused by polyfunction alaziride hardener. Clin Exp Allergy; 25:432-39
Azodicarbonamide   Plastics, rubber Normand JC, Grange F, Hemandez C, Ganay A, Davezies P, Bergeret c A, Prost G. 1989. Occupational asthma after exposure to azodicarbonamide: report of four cases. Br J Ind Med 46:60-62. Slovak AJ. 1981. Occupational asthma caused by a plastics blowing agent, azodicarbonamide. Thorax 36:906-909.
Captafol   Pesticide Royce S, Wa1d P, Sheppard D, Ba1mes J. 1993. Occupationa1 asthma in a pesticides manufacturing worker. Chest 103:295-296.
Chloramine-T   Cleaners Healthcare Kramps JA. Van Toorenenbergen AW, Vooren PH, Dijkman JH. 1981. Occupational asthrna due to inhalation of chloramine-T. II. Demonstration of specific IgE antibodies. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 64:428-438. Kujala VM, Reijula KE, Ruotsalainen EM. Heikkinen K. 1995. Occupational asthma due to chloramine-T solution. Respir Med 89:693-695. Dijkman JH, Vooren PH, Kramps A. 1981. Occupational asthma due to inhalation of cloramine-T. I. C1inical observations and inhalation-provocation studies. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 64:422-427.
Cutting oils /metal working fluid   Metalic molding Hendy MS, Beattie BE, Burge PS. 1985. Occupational asthma due to an emulsified oil mist. Br Ind Med; 42:51-54. Robertson W, Robertson AS, Burge CB, Moore VC, Jaakkola MS, Dawkins PA, Burd M, Rawbone R, Gardner I, Kinoulty M, Crook B, Evans GS, Harris-Roberts J, Rice SB, Burge PS. 2007. Clinical investigation of an outbreak of alveolitis and asthma in a car engine manufacturing plant.
 Thorax; 62: in press
Diazonium   Photocopying
Fluoro polymers
Graham VA, Coe ML, Davies RJ. 1981. Occupational asthma after exposure to a diazonium salt. Thorax 36:950-951 Luczynska CM, Hutchcroft BJ. Harrison MA, Doman ID, Topping MD. 1990. Occupational asthma and specific IgE to a diazonium salt intermediate used in the polymer industry. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85:1076-1082.  
EPO 60   Mold making Lamboum EM. Hayes JP. McAUister WA, Taylor AJ. 1992. Occupational asthma due to EPO 60. Br J Ind Med 49:294-295.
Ethylcyanoacrylate   Adhesives Quirce S, Baeza ML, Tonero P, Blasco A, Barranco R, Sastre J. 2001. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to cyanoacrylate. Allergy; 56:446-449. Kopp SK. McKay RT, Moller DR, Cassedy K. Brooks SM. 1985. Asthma and rhinitis due to ethylcyanoacrylate instant glue. Ann Intem Med 102:613-615.
Ethylene dioxide   Healthcare Verraes S. Michel 0. 1995. Occuptional asthma induced by ethylene oxide. Lancet 346:1434-1435.
Ethyleneimine   Plastics Kanerva L. Estlander T. Jolanki R, Tarvainen K. 1995. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria caused by polyfunctional aziridine hardener. Contact Derrnatitis 33:304-309.
Eugenol 4 allyl-2-methoxy phenol; C10H12O2 Hairdresser Quirce S, Fernandez-Nieto M, del Pozo V, Sastre B, Conde-Salazar L, Lahoz C, Sastre J. 2007. Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by eugenol in a hairdresser Allergy (in press)
Fluazinam and chlorothalonil   Pesticides Draper A, Cullinan P, Campbell C, Jones M, Newman Taylor A. 2003. Occupational asthma from fungicides fluazinam and chlorothalonil. Occup Environ Med; 60:76-7.
Formaldehyde   Resins, Varnish, Healthcare Lemiere C, Desjardins A, Cloutier Y, Drolet D, Perrault G, Cal1ier A, Malo JL. 1995. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde resin dust with and without reaction to forrnaldehyde gas. Eur Respir J 8: 861-865. Burge PS, Harries MG, Lam WK, O'Brien IM, Patchett PA. 1985. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde. Thorax 40:255-260. Gannon PF, Bright P, Campbell M, O'Hickey SP, Burge PS. 1995. Occupational asthrna due to glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in endoscopy and x ray departments. Thorax 50:156-159.
Freon   Refrigeration Malo JL, Gagnon G, Cartier A. 1984. Occupational asthma due to heated freon. Thorax 39:628-629.
Furfuryl alcohol   Mold makers Cockcroft DW. Cartier A, Jones G, Tarlo SM, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE. 1980. Asthma caused by occupational exposure to a furan-based binder system. J Al!ergy Clin Immunol 66:458-463.
Glutaraldehyde   Healthcare .Quirce S, Gómez, M, Aleman A, Cuesta J, De las Heras M, Sastre J 1999. Occupational asthma caused by glutaraldehyde in a nurse in a renal dyalysis unit. Allergy 54:1121-2 Curran AD, Burge PS, Wlley K. 1996. Clinical and immunologic evaluation of workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. Allergy 51:826-832.
Hexachlorophene   Healthcare Nagy L, Orosz M. 1984. Occupational asthma due to hexachlorophene. I Thorax 39:630-631.
Iso-nonanyl oxybenzene sulfonate   Laboratory Hendrick DJ, Connol1y MJ. Stenton SC, Bird AG, Winterton IS. Walters EH. 1988. Occupational asthma due to sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate, a newly deve1oped detergent ingredient. Thorax 43:501-502. Stenton SC, Dennis JH, Walters EH, Hendrick DJ. 1990. Asthmagenic properties of a newly developed detergent ingredient: sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate. Br J Ind Med 47:405-410.
Isothiazolinono   Chemical industry Bourke SJ. Convery RP, Stenton SC, Malcolm RM, Hendriclc DJ. 1997. Occupational asthma in an isothiazolinone manufacturing plant. Thorax 52:746-748.
Lasamide 2,4-dichloro-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid Pharmaceutical Klusackova P, Lebedova J, Pelclova D, Salandova J, Senholdova Z, Navratil T. 2007. Occupational asthma and rhinitis in workers from a lasamide production line. Scand J Work Environ Health.;33:74-8.
Lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride   Pharmacist Burge PS, Richardson MN. 1994. Occupational asthma due to inditrect exposure to lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium manufacturing plant. Thorax; 52:746-8.
Metabisulfite   Agricultural Malo JL, Cartier A, Desjardins A. 1995. Occupational asthma caused by dry metabisulphite. Thorax 50:585-586.
Methyl blue   Healthcare Rodenstein D, Stanescu DC. 1982. Bronchial asthma following exposure to ECG ink. 1982. Ann Allergy; 48:351-2.
Nihydrin   Laboratory Stenton SC, Dennis JH, Walters EH, Hendrick DJ. 1990. Asthmagenic properties of a newly developed detergent ingredient: sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate. Br J Ind Med 47:405-410. Piirila P. Estlander T. Hytonen M, Keskinen H, Tupasela O,Tuppurainen M. 1997. Rhinitis caused by ninhydrin deveIops into occupational asthma. Eur Respir J 10:1918-1921.
Ortho-phthalaldehyde   Healthcare Fujita H, Ogawa M, Endo Y. A case of occupational bronchial asthma and contact dermatitis caused by ortho-phthalaldehyde exposure in a medical worker. J Occup Health. 2006;48:413-6
Persulphates (Na, K)   Hairdressing Parra FM. Igea JM, Quirce S, Ferrando MC, Martin JA. Losada E. 1992. Occupational asthma in a hairdresser caused by persulphate salts. Allergy 47:656-660.
Pulverized fuel   Power station Davison AG, Durham S, Taylor AJ, 1986. Asthma caused by pulverised fuel ash. Br Med J; 292:1561.
Sulphathiazoles   Healthcare Rosberg M. 1946. Asthme bronchiale caused by sulphathiazole. 1946. Acta Med Scand; 126:185-90.
Tetrazene   Detonators Burge PS. Hendy M, Hodgson ES. 1984. Occupational asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis due to tetrazene in a detonator manufacturer. Thorax 39:470-471.
Tooth enamel dust   Dentists Ousholder GT, Chan JT. 1993. Tooth enamel dust as an asthma stimulus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 75:599-601.
Triglycidyl isocyanurate   Painters Piirila P, Estlander T. Keskinen H. Jolanki R. Laakkonen A. Pfaffli P, Tupasela 0. Tuppurainen M. Nordman H. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC). Clin Exp Allergy 27: 510-514. Quirce S. Fernández-Nieto M, Górgolas, Rebedo G, Carnés J, Sastre J. 2004. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by triglycidyl isocyanurate. Allergy;59:1128
Animals      
Storage mites
Tyrophagus longior, T. putrescentiae, Glycyphagus destructor, G. domesticus, Acarus siro, A. farris, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum
  Agricultural Lutsky I, Teichtahl H, Bar-Sela S. 1984. Occupational asthma due to poultry mites. J Allergy Clin Immunol 73:56-60. Oertmann C. Müsken H. Bergmann K-C. 1995. Allergy by house dust mites in the poultry house. Allergologie 18:327-330. van Hage-Hamsten M, Ihre E, Zetterstrom 0, Johansson SG. 1988. Bronchial provocation studies in farrners with positive RAST to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor. Allergy 43:545-551. Blainey AD, Topping MD, Ollier S, Davies RJ. 1989. Allergic respiratory disease in grain workers. The role of storage mites. J Allergy Clin Immunol 84:296-303.
Tetranicus urtica, Panonychus ulmi Red Spider Greenhouse workers Delgado L, Orta C, Navarro AM, Conde J Martinez A. Martinez J, Palacios R. 1997. Occupational allergy in greenhouse workers: sensitization to Teranychus urticae. Clin Exp Allergy 27:640-645. Burches E, Pelaez A, Morales C, Braso JV, Rochina A, Lopez S, Benito M. 1996. Occupational allergy due to spidermites: Tetranychus urticae (Koch) and Panonychus citri (Koch). Clin Exp AIlergy 26: 1262-l267. Musk AW, Venables KM, Crook B, Nunn AJ, Hawkins R, Crook GD. Graneek BJ, Tee RD, Farrer N, Johnson DA. 1989. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sensitisation to flour in a British bakery. Br J Ind Med 46:636-642. Kim YK, Lee MH, Jee YK et al. 1999. Spider mite allergy in apple-cultivating farmers: European red mite (Panonychus ulmi) and two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) may be important allergens in the development of work-related asthma and rhinitis symptoms. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 104:1285-1292.
Panonychus citri   Orange agriculture See : Burches et al. Kim YK, Son JW, Kim HY. et al. 1999. Citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) is the most common sensitizing allergen of asthma and rhinitis in citrus farmers. Clin Exp Allergy 29:1102-1109.
Amblyseius cucumeris   Horticulture Giséle CM et al.2002. Prevalence of sensitization to the predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris as a new occupational allergen in horticulture. Allergy 57: 614.
Insects     Dyne D, Campion K. Griffin P. 1996. Occupational ailergy among workers producing arthropods for organic pest conrol purposes. Ann Agric Environ Med 3:33 -36.
Anisakis simplex Anisakis simplex Fishmonger Armentia A, Lombardero M, Callejo A, Martín Santos JM, Gil FJ, Vega J, et al. 1998. Occupational asthma by Anisakis simplex. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102:831-4.
Beetles Tenebrio monitor, Alphitobius, Diaperinus domestica Fishing bait
Grain handlers
Siracusa A, Bettini P, Bacoccoli R, Severini C, Verga A, Abbritti G. 1994. Asthma caused by live fish bait. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93: 424-430. Schroeckenstein DC, Meier-Davis S, Bush RK. 1990. Occupational sensitivity to Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yel1ow mealworm). J A1Iergy Clin Immunol 86:182-188. Friedrich H. 1986. Mealworm asthma. A contribution to the allergic occupational asthma. Allergologie 9:519-521. Sheldon JM, Johnston JH. 1941. Hypersensitivity to beetles (coleoptera). Report of a case. J Allergy 12:493-7. Cuesta J, Heras M, Sastre J, Lluch M, Fernandez M, Lahoz C, Alvarez Cuesta E.1997. Asthma caused by Dermestidae (Black carpet beetle): a new allergen in house dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99:147-9.
Book louse Liposcelis bostrychophilus Cleaners, Millworkers Wittich FW. The nature of various mill dust allergens.1940. Lancet 60:418-21.
Caddis fly Trichoptera   Kagen SL. Inhalant allergy to arthropods: Insects, arachnids and crustaceans. In: Inhalant Allergy to Arthropods. De SL Kagen. 1986. Clinical Reviews in Allergy 8:1-125.
Chironomid midges Chironomus thumi Fish feeders Liebers V, Hoemstein M, Baur X. 1993. Humoral immune response to the insect allergen Chi t 1 in aquarists and fish-food factory workers. Allergy 48:236-239.
Chrysonilla sitophila   Carpenters Tarlo SM, Wai Y, Dolovich J, Summerbell R. 1996. Occupational asthma induced by Chrysonilia sitophila in the logging industry. J Allergy Clin Immunol 97:1409-1413.
Cockroach Blatella germanica Laboratory Steinberg DR, Bernstein DI, Gallagher JS, Arlian L, Bernstein IL. 1987. Cockroach sensitization in laboratory workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 80:586-590.
Cricket Achatea domestica Laboratory Harfi HA.1980. Immediate hypersensitivity to cricket. Ann Allergy; 44:162-3. Bagenstose AH, 3d, Mathews KP, Homburger HA, Saaveard-Delgado AP. 1980. Inhalant a1lergy due to crickets. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65:71-74.
Dermestidae spp   Museum personnel Brito FF, Mur P, Barber D, Lombardero M, Galindo PA, Gomez E, Borja J. 2002. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in a wool worker caused by Dermestidae spp.
Allergy 57(12):1191-4.
Ech inodorus plamosus (larvae) Echinodorus plamosus Bait, fish-feeders Resta O, Foschino-Barbaro MP, Carnimeo N, Di Napoli PL, Pavese I, Schino P. 1982. Occupational asthma from fish-feed Echinodorus plamosus larva. Med Lav 73:234-236.
Eurygaster and Ephestia   Agriculture Armentia A, Lombardero M, Martinez C, Barber D, Vega JM, Callejo A. Occupational asthma due to grain pests Eurygaster and Ephestia. J Asthma 2004;41:99-107.
Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Laboratory Spieksma FT. Vooren PH. Kramps JA. Dijkman JH. 1986. Respiratory allergy to laboratory fI11it flies (Drosophila melanogasler). J Allergy Clin Immunol 77:108-113.
Gipsy moth Limantria dispar Entomologists Etkind PH, Odell TM, Canada AT, Shama SK, Finn AM, Tuthil1 R. 1982. The gypsy moth caterpillar: a significant new occupational and public health problem. Occup Med 24:659-662.
Grain weevil Sitophilus granarius, Sitophilus zeamais Grain handlers Lunn JA, Huges DT. Pulmonary hypersensitivity to the grain weevil.1967. Br J Ind Med;24:158-61.
Grasshopper Melanoplus sanguinipes Laboratory Von Der Bijl VWF.1963.Asthma als berfskankheit: Allergi gegen heuschrecken. Allergi und Asthma;9:154-5.
Green bottle Lucilia caesar Fishing bait Siracusa A, Bettini P, Bacoccoli R, Severini C, Verga A, Abbritti G. 1994. Asthma caused by live fish bait. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93: 424-430.
Ground bugs Lygaeidae Bottling Garcia Lazaro MA, Abengozar Muela R, Arias Irigoyen L, Cabanes Higuero N, Ventas Alguacil P, Moral de Gregorio A, Senent C1. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by hypersensitivity to ground bugs. 1 Allergy Clin Immunol 99:267-268
Honey-bee Apis mellifera Food industry-honey Ostrom NK. Swanson MC. Agarwal MK. Yunginger JW. 1986. Occupational allergy to honeybee-body dust in a honey-processing plant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 77:736-740. Johnson A, Dittrick M, Chan-Yeung M. 1999. Occupational asthma caused by honey. Allergy 54:183-90.
Locust Locusta migratoria Laboratory workers Soparkar GR, Patel PC, Cockcroft DW. 1993. Inhalant atopic sensitivity to grasshoppers in research laboratories. J AIlergy Clin Immunol 92:61-65. Tee RD, Gordon DJ, Hawkins ER, Nunn AJ, Lacey J, Venables KM, Cooter RJ, McCaffery AR, Newman Taylor AJ. 1988. Occupational allergy to locusts: an investigation of the sources of the allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81:517-525. Hernandez MD, Giner A, Morales P, Alarlar R, et al. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to Locusta migratoria (LM). Clin Allergy 1980; 10:235-6.  
Moths, butterflies Galleria mellonella, Ephestia kuehniella Bait Grain handlers   Siracusa A, Bettini P, Bacoccoli R, Severini C, Verga A, Abbritti G. 1994. Asthma caused by live fish bait. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93: 424-430 Cabanieu C, Bezian JH, Moichau-Beauchant G, et al. 1971. Recherche des anticorps precipitants dans lállergie a Ephestia kuehniella. Rev Francai Allergol 11:257-63
Mushroom fly Brachycera spp. Mushroom workers Cimarra M, Martinez-Cocera C, Chamorro et al. 1999 Occupational asthma caused by champignon flies. Allergy 54: 521-5.
Sewer fly Psychoda alternata Sewer workers Gold BL, Mathews KP, Burge HA. 1985. Occupational asthma caused by sewer flies. Am Rev Respir Dis 131:949-952
Sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina Laboratory Kaufman GL. Gandevia BH, BeUas TE, Tovey ER, Baldo BA. 1989. Occupational llergy in an entomological research centre. Clinical aspects of reactions to the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina. Br J Ind Med 46:473-478.
Silkworm Bombyx mori Silkworkers Harindranath N, Prakash O, Subba Rao PV. 1985. Prevalence of occupational asthma in silk filatures. Ann Allergy 55:511-515
Water Flea Daphnia   Meister W. 1978. Professional asthma owning to Daphnia -allergy. Allergie und Immunologie 24:191-193.
Shellfish      
Clams   Food industry Desjardins A, Malo JL, L' Archeveque A, Cartier A, McCants M, Lehrer SB. 1995. Occupational IgE-mediated sensitization and asthma caused by clam and shrimp. J Allergy Clin ImmunoI 96:608-617.
Lobster   Food industry Lemiere C, Desjardins A, Lehrer S, Malo JL. 1996. Occupational asthma to lobster and shrimp. Allergy 51:272-273.
Nacre   Pearl industry Orriols R, Aliaga JL, Anto JM et al. 1977. High prevalence of mollusc shell hypersensitivity pneumonitis in nacre factory workers. Eur Respir J 10: 780-86.
Shrimp   Food industry Desjardins A, Malo JL, L' Archeveque ], Cartier A, McCants M, Lehrer SB. 1995. Occupational IgE-mediated sensitization and asthma caused by clam and shrimp. J Allergy Clin ImmunoI96:608-617. Lemiere C, Desjardins A, Lehrer S, Malo JL. 1996. Occupational asthma to lobster and shrimp. Allergy 51:272-273.
Snow crab   Food industry Cartier A, Malo JL, Ghezzo H, McCants M, Lehrer SB. 1986. IgE sensitization in snow crab-processing worlcers. J Al!ergy Clin Immunol 78:344-348.
Fish      
Salmon, tuna, sardine, trout   Food industry Douglas ]D, McSharry C, Blaikie L, Morrow T, Miles S, Franklin D. 1995. Occupational asthma caused by automated salmon processing. Lancet 346:737-740. Rodriguez J, Reano M, Vives R, Canto G, Daroca P, Crespo JF, Vila C, Vil1arrea1 D, Bensabat Z. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by fish inhalation. A1Iergy 52:866-869. Sherson D, Hansen 1, Sigsgaard T. 1989. Occupationally related respiratory symptoms in trout-processing workers. Allergy 44: 336-341.
Animal products      
Casein   Tanners 0laguibel JM. Hemandez D. Morales P. Peris A. Basomba A. 1990. Occupational asthma caused by inhalation of casein. Allergy 45: 306-308. Rossi GL, Corsico A, Moscato G. 1994. Occupationa1 asthma caused by milk proteins: report on a case. J Al1ergy Clin Immunol 93: 799-801.
Cow dander   Farmers Hinze S, Bergmann K-C. 1995. Cow hair asthma: symptoms and clinical course. Allergo J 4:97-101
Deer dander   Farmers Nahm DH, Park JW, Hong CS. 1996. Occupational asthma due to deer dander. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 76:423-426.    
Egg   Food industry Smith AB, Bernstein DI, London MA, Gallagher J, Ornella GA. Gelletly SK, Wallingford K, Newman MA. 1990. Evaluation of occupational asthma from airbome egg. Chest; 98:398-404. Bernstein JA, Kraut A, Bernsstein DI, Warrington R, Bolin T, Warren CP, Bernstein IL. 1993. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg lysozyme. Chest 103:532-535.
Feathers   Farmers Perfetti L, Cartier A. Malo JL. 1997. Occupational asthma in poultry-slaughterhouse workers. Allergy 52:594-595.
Frogs   Frog fisherman Armentia A, aldiv-Santos J, Subiza J, Pola J, Zapata C, Valdivieso R, Losada E. 1988. Occupational asthma due to frogs. Ann Allergy 60:209-210.
Ivory dust   Ivory workers Arrnstrong RA, Nei1l P, Mossop RT. 1988. Asthma induced by ivory dust: a new occupational cause. Thorax 43:737-738.
Laboratory animal danders: Rat, mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, gerbil, hamster, cat, dog   Laboratory Krakowiak A, Szulc B. Gorski P. 1997. Occupational respiratory diseases in laboratory animal workers: initial results. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 10:31-36. Bush RK, Wood RA.1998. Laboratory animal allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102:99-112. Hollander A, Doekes G, Heederik D. 1996. Cat and dog al1ergy and total IgE as risk factors of 1aboratory animal allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:545-554.
Laboratory animal urine   Laboratory workers Venables KM, Tee RD, Hawkins ER, Gordon DJ, Wale CJ, Farrer 2 NM, Lam TH, Baxter PJ, Newman Taylor AJ. 1988. Laboratory animal allergy in a pharmaceutical company. Br J Ind Med 45: 660-666.
Lactoalbumin   Food industry Rossi GL, Corsico A, Moscato G. 1994. Occupationa1 asthma caused by milk proteins: report on a case. J Al1ergy Clin Immunol 93: 799-801.
Mink urine   Farmers Jimenez Gomez I, Anton E, Picans I, Jerez J, Obispo T. 1996. Occupational asthma caused by mink urine. Allergy 51:364-365.
Pig urine   Laboratory Haries MG, Cromwell 0. 1982. Occupational asthma caused by allergy to pigs' urine. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 284:867.
Pigeon, dove, cockatiel, parakeet, duck, turkey: Feathers and droppings   Breeders Calvert JE, Baldwin CI, Allen A, Todd A Bourke SJ.1999. Pigeon fancier´s lung: A complex disease. Clin Exp Allergy; 29: 166-75.
Roe Deer   Animal rehabilitation center Carballada F, Sanchez R, Carballas C, Lombardero M, Boquete M. 2006. Occupational respiratory allergy to roe deer.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol.;97:707-10
Shark cartilage   Dietetic product industry San-Juan S, Garces M, Caballero ML, Monzon S, Moneo I. 2004. Occupational asthma caused by shark cartilage dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 14:1227-8.
Plants      
       
3-carene Terpene Carpenters Eriksson KA, Levin 0, Sandstrom T, Lindstrom-Espeling K. Linden G, Stjernberg NL. 1997. Terpene exposure and respiratory effects among workers in Swedish joinery shops. Scand Work Environ Health 23:114-120.
Albilfloxia Tradescantia Floral workers Wuthrich B,Johansson SG. 1997. Allergy to the omamental indoor green plant Tradescantia (Albilfloxia). Al1ergy: 52 (5):556-59.
Algae Alage chorella Pharmacist Ng TP, Tan WC, Lee YK, 1994. Occupational asthma in a pharmacist induced by Chorella, a unicelular algae preparation. Respir Med 88:555-7.
Amarylis Amaryllidaceae Horticultural Jansen AP, Visser FJ, Nierop G, de Jong NW, Waanders-de Lijster de i Raadt J, Vermeulen A, van Toorenenbergen AW. 1996. Occupational asthma to amaryllis. Allergy 51:847-849.
Aniseed Pimpinella anisum Food industry Fraj J, Lezaun A,Colas C, Duce F, DorninguezMA, Alonso MD. 1996. Occupational asthma induced by aniseed. Allergy 51:337-339.
Aromatic herbs   Herbalist Lemiere C, Cartier A, Lehrer SB, Malo JL. 1996. Occupational asthma caused by aromatic herbs. Allergy 51:647-649.
Artichoke Cynara scolymus Agriculture, Food industry Miralles JC, Garcia-Selles J, Bartolome B, Negro JM. 2003. Occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma due to artichoke (Cynara scolymus).Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. Jul;9:92-5.
Asparagus Asparagus o. Food industry Lopez-Rubio A, Ibañez J, Crespo JF, Vives R, Daroca P, Reano M. 1998. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to asparagus: detection of allergens by immunoblotting. Allergy 53 1216-1220.
Baby´s breath Gypsophila paniculata Floral workers Antepara I, Jauregui I, Urrutia I, Gamboa PM, Gonzalez G, Barber D. 1994. Occupational asthma related to fresh Gypsophila paniculata. Allergy 49:478-480. Twiggs JT; Yunginger JW Agarwal MK, Reed CE. 1982. Occupational asthma in a florist caused by the dried plant, baby 's breath. J A11ergy Clin Immunol; 69:474-48.
 Bells of Ireland  Molucella laevis Plant growers Miesen WM, van der Heide S, Kerstjens HA, Dubois AE, de Monchy JG. 2003. Occupational asthma due to IgE mediated allergy to the flower Molucella laevis (Bells of Ireland).Occup Environ Med 60:701-3.
Brasil Gingseng or Voacanga africana Pfaffia paniculata Pharmaceutical Subiza J, Subiza JL, Escribano PM. Hinojosa M, Garcia R. Jerez M, Subiza E. 1991. Occupational asthma caused by Brazil ginseng dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 88:731-736.
Cabbage Brassica oleracea Food industry Quirce S, Madero MF, Fernandez-Nieto M, Jimenez A, Sastre J. 2005. Occupational asthma due to the inhalation of cauliflower and cabbage vapors. Allergy. ;60:969-70
Cacao Theobroma cacao Food industry Perfetti L. Lehrer SB. McCants M. Malo JL. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by cacao. A11ergy 52:778-780.
Carnation Dianthus caryophyllus Floral workers Sanchez-Guerrero I, Escudero A, Bartolomé B, Palacios R. 1999. Ocupational allergy caused by carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). J Allergy Clin Immunol; 104:181-185.
Cauliflower and broccoli  pollen Brassica oleracea botrytis B. oleracea italica/cymosa Agriculture Hermanides HK, Lahey-de Boer AM, Zuidmeer L, Guikers C, van Ree R, Knulst AC. 2006. Brassica oleracea pollen, a new source of occupational allergens.
Allergy;61:498-502.
Chicory Chichorium intybus Food industry Nemery B, Demedts M. 1989. Occupationa1 asthma in a chicory grower. Lancet 1:672-673.
Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum Floral workers Blamoutier E. 1956. Un cas de sensibilisation au chrysanteme (jeuilles et fleurs) asthme et dermite du visage. Sem Hop Paris 32:2865. Schuberl H, Prater E, Diener C. 1990. Pollinosis bei Chrysanthemenzüchtern. Z Gesamte Hyg 36:162-166. Suzuky S, Kuroume, Tomoooro M, Tomidokoro Hkanbe Y, Matsumura. 1975. Chrysanthemum pollinosis in Japan. Int Arch A11ergy Appll Immunol; 48:800-811.
Coriander Coriandrum sativum Food industry Schwartz HJ, Jones RT, Rojas AR, Sqillace DL, Yunginger JW. 997. Occupatioanl rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to fennel seed. Ann Allergy Astha Immunol; 78:37-40
Diplotaxis erucoides (pollen)   Vine growers Garcia-Ortega P, Bartolome B, Enrique E et al. 2001. Allergy to Diplotaxis erudoides pollen: occupational sensitization and cross-reactivity with other common plants. Allergy 56:679-683.
Entada gigas Entada scandens Floral workers Rubin JM, Duke MB. 1974. Unusual cause of bronchial asthma. Cacoon seed used for decorative purposes. N Y State J Med 74 538-539.
Fennel Foeniculum vulgare Food industry Schwartz HJ, Jones RT, Rojas AR, Squillace DL, Yuyinger JW. 1997. Occupational allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to fennel seed. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol;78: 37-40.
Fenugreek Trigonella foenumgraecum Food industry Dugue J, Bel J, Figueredo M.1993. Le fenugrec responsable d´un nouvel asthme professionel. Presse Medd 22:922.
Fibers: Linen, jute, stipa grass Linen usitatssimum, Corchorus olitorius, Stipa tenacissima   Fiber processors Plaster workers Muittari A, Veneskoski T. 1978. Natural and synthetic fibers as causes of asthma and rhinitis. Ann Allergy 41:48-50 Baz G, Hinojosa M, Quirce S, Cuevas M 1999. Occupational asthma caused by esparto grass (Stipa tenacissima) fibers. Allergy 54:86-7.
Ficus Ficus benjamina Plant keepers Diez-Gomez ML, Quirce S, Aragoneses E, Cuevas M. 1998. Asthma caused by Ficus benjamina latex: Evidence of cross-reactivity with fig fruit and papain. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 80:24-30. Axelsson IG, Johansson SGO, Zetterstrom O. 1987. Occupational allergy to weeping fig in plant keepers. Allergy 42:161-167.
Flowers and dry flowers   Floral workers Piirila I: Keskinen H, Leino T; Tupasela O, Tuppurainen M. 1994. Occupational asthma caused by decorative flowers: review and case reports. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 66:131-36.
Freesia Freesia spp. Horticulture Toorenbergen van AW, Dieges PH. 1984. Occupational allergy in horticulture: demonstration of immediate-type allergic reactivity of freesia and papriha plants. Int Arch A11ergy Appll Immunol 75:44-47.
Garlic dust Allium sativa Food industry Falleroni AE, Zeiss CR, Levitz D. 1981. Occupational asthma secondary to inhalation of garlic dust.J Allergy Clin Immunol 68: 156-160.
Gluten   Bakers Lachance P, Cartier A, Dolovich J. Malo JL. 1988. Occupational asthma from reactivity to an alkaline hydrolysis derivative of gluten. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81:385-390.
Grass Lolium p. Gardeners Subiza J, Subiza JL, Hinojosa M, Varela S, Cabrera M, Marco F. 1995. Occupational asthrna caused by grass juice. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96:693-695.
Green and roasted coffee Coffea arabica Coffee proccesors Larese F, Fiorito A, Casasola F, Molinari S, Peresson M, Barbina P, Negro C. 1998. Sensitization to green coffee beans and work-related allergic symptoms in coffee workers. Am J Ind Med 34: 623-627. Zuskin E, Kanceljak B, Skuric Z, Bulkovic D. 1985. Bronchial reactivity in green coffee exposure. Br J Ind Med 42:415-420. Jones RN, Hughes JM, Lehrer SB, Butcher BT, Glindmeyer HW, Diem JE, Hammad YY, Salvaggio J. Weill H. 1982. Lung function consequences of exposure and hypersensitivity in workers who process green coffee beans. Am Rev Respir Dis 125:199-202. Lemiere C, Malo JL, McCants M, Lehrer S. 1996. Occupational asthma caused by roasted coffee: immunologic evidence that roasted coffee contains the same antigens as green coffee, but at a lower concentration. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:464-466.
Green bean Phaseolus Homemakers Igea JM, Femandez M, Quirce S, de la Hoz B, Diez Gomez ML. 1994.  Green bean hypersensitivity: an occupational allergy in a homemaker. J Allergy Clin Immuno1 94:33-35
Hop Humulus lupulus Brewing Industry Newmark FM. 1978. Hops a1lergy and terpene sensitivity: an occupational disease. Ann Allergy 41:311-312.
Korean ginseng - Sanyak   Pharmaceutical Lee JY, Lee YD, Bahn JW, Park HS. 2006. A case of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by Sanyak and Korean ginseng dusts.
Allergy;61:392-3
Limonium Limonium tataricum Floral workers Quirce S. García-Figueroa B, Olaguibel JM.Muro MD, Tabar AI. 1993. Occupational asthma from dried flowers of Llimonium tataricum. Allergy; 48: 285-29.
Liquorice root Glycyrrhiza glabra Herbalist Cartier A, Malo JL, Labreque M, 2002. Occupational asthma due to liquorice roots. Allergy 57:863.
Madagascar Jasmine Stephanotis floribunda Greenhouse workers Van der Zee JS, de Jager KSN, Kuipers BF, Stapel SO. Outbreak of occupational allergic asthma in a Stephanotis floribunda nursery. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103:950-2.
Marianne thistle Silybum marianum Floral workers Wollemann G, Seifert H-U, Borew. 1987. Berufsbedingte Rhinoconjuntivitis auf Mariendistelsamen (Silybum marianum). Allergologie 10: 505-508.
Mimosa Acacia floribunda Florist Ariano R, Panzini RC, Amedo J 1991.. Pollen allergy to mimosa (Acacia floribunda) in a Mediterranean area: an occupational disease. Ann A11ergy 66: 253-6.
Mushroom Agaricus bisporus Mushroom processors Symington IS, Kerr JW, McLean DA. 1981. Type I allergy in mushroom soup processors. Clin Allergy 11:43-47.
Narcisuss Narcissus pseudonarcissus Florist Concalo S, Freitas JD, Sousa I. 1987. Contact dermatitis and respiratory symptoms from Narcissus pseudonarcissus. Contact Dermatitis; 16:115-17.
Nutmeg Mysristicia fragans Food industry Sastre J, Olmo M, Nova1vos A, Ibáñez M D, Lahoz C. 1996. Occupational asthma due to different spices. A1lergy 51:117-120.
Onion Allium spp Food industry or Agriculture Navarro JA, Pozo MD, Gastaminza, Moneo I, Audicana MT. 1995. Allium cepa sedes:a new occupational allergen. J Allergy Cl in Immunol; 96: 690-3.
Opium Papaver s. Pharmaceutical Moneo I. Alday E, Ramos C. Curiel G. 1993. Occupational asthma o causcd by Papaver somlliferum. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 21:145-148.
Paprika Capsicum annum Food industry Sastre J, Olmo M, Nova1vos A, Ibáñez M D, Lahoz C. 1996. Occupational asthma due to different spices. A1lergy 51:117-120.
Pea Lathyrus odoratus Horticultural Jansen A, Vermeulen A, van Toorenenbergen AW, Dieges PH. 1995.  Occupational asthma in horticu1ture caused by Lathyrus odoratus. J Allergy Proc 16:135-139.
Pectin   Food industry Cohen AJ, Forse MS, Tarlo SM. 1993. Occupational asthma caused by pectin inhalation during the manufacture of jam. Chest 103:309-311.
Raspberry   Food industry Occupational asthma due to freeze-dried raspberry. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Jun 90(6):660-3.
Ricine Ricinus communis Pharmaceutical Merget R. Heger M, Wahl R. Cromwell O, Rasche K, Schultzen Weminghaus G. 1994. Seasonal occupational asthma in an agricultural products merchant-a case report. Allergy 49:897-901.
Rose Rosa rugosa. Pharmaceutical Greenhouse workers Kwaselow A, Rowe M. Sears-Ewald D. Ownby D. 1990. Rose hips: a new occupational allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85:704-708. Demir AU, Karakaya G, Kalyoncu AF. 2002. Allergy symptoms and IgE immune response to rose: an occupational and an environmental disease. Allergy.57:936-9.
Saffron Crocus sativus Saffron proccesors Feo F, Martinez J, Martinez A, Galindo PA, Cruz A, Garcia R, Guerra F, Palacios R. 1997. Occupational allergy in saffron workers. Allergy 52:633-641.
Sarsaparilla Smila Herbalist Vandenplas 0, Depelchin S, Toussaint G, Delwiche JP, Weyer RV. C Saint-Remy JM. 1996. Occupational asthma caused by sarsaparilla root dust. J Allergy Clin Immuno 97:1416-1418.
Sesame Sesame indicum Food industry Keskinen H, Ostrnan P, Vaheri E, Tarvainen K, Grenquist-Norden B, Karppinen O; Nordman H. 1991. A case of occupational asthma. Rhinitis and urticaria due to sesame seed. Clin Exp Allergy 21: 623-624.
Sisal Agave sisalana Sisal workers Zuskin E, Kanceljak B, Mustajbegovic J. Schachler EN, Kem J. 1994. Respiralory function and immunological reaclions in sisal workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 66:37-42.
Spatheflower Spathiphyllum wallisii, Spathiphyllum tloribundum Floral workers Kanerva L, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Kiistala R, Granlund H. 1995 Ocupational allergy caused by Spatheflower (Spathiphyllum wallisii). A11ergy; 50(2): 174-178. Cahen YD. Lundberg, M. Wüthrich B 1997. lndoor Allergy to Spatheflower (Spathiphyllum tloribundum) A11ergy; 52:114-115.
Sunflower Helianthus annua Agricultural Bousquet J, Dhivert H, Clausel A-M, Hewitt B, Michel F-B. 1985. Occupational allergy to sunflower pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 75: 70-74. Quirce S. Garcia-Figueroa B, Olaguibel JM, Muro MD, Tabar AI. 1985. Occupational asthma and contact urticaria suflower pollen. J A11ergy Clin Immunol; 75: 70-74. Vandenplas O, Van der Borght T, Delwich JP. 1998. Occupational asthma caused by sunflower seed dust. Allergy 53:907-8.
Sunflower, pollen and seeds Helianthenum annuus Agricultural, Laboratory Vandenplas 0, Vander Borght T, Delwiche JP. 1998. Occupational asthma caused by sunflower-seed dust. Allergy 53:907 –908. Bousquet J, Dhivert H. Clauzel AM, Hewitt B, Michel FB. 1985. Occupational allergy to sunflower pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 75:70-74.
Tea Camelia sinensis Tea proccesing Cartier A, Malo JL. 1990. Occupational asthma due to tea dust. Thorax 45:203-206. Shirai T, Sato A, Hara Y. 1994. Epigallocatechin gallate. The major causative agent of green tea-induced asthma. Chest;106:1801-5.
Tobacco dust Nicotiana tabacum Tobacco workers Lander F. Gravesen S. 1988. Respiratory disorders among tobacco workers. Br J Ind Med 45:500-502. Baur X. 1993. Occupational hypersensitivity against tobacco dust.: Allergologie 16:94-95.
Tulip, lily Tulipa, Lilium longiflorum Floral workers Äuer A. 1986. Contact urticaria and respiratory symptoms from tulip and lilies. Contact Dermatitis; 14: 317 –319. Piirila P, Kanerva L, Alanko K, Estlander T, Keskinen H, Pajari-Backas M, Tuppurainen M. 1999. Occupational IgE-mediated asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact urticaria caused by Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) and tulip. Allergy, 54:273-7.
Vetch Vicia sativa Agriculture Juste-Picon S, Blanco Cannona JG, Garces Sotillos MD. 1991. Occupa-tional asthma caused by vetch (Vicia sativa). J Allergy Clin Immunol 88:135-136.
Yarrow and Safflower Achillea millefolium, Carthamus tinctorious Florist Compes E, Bartolome B, Fernandez-Nieto M, Sastre J, Cuesta J. 2006. Occupational asthma from dried flowers of Carthamus tinctorious (safflower) and Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Allergy.;61:1239-40.
Vegetable gums      
Arabic or acacia gum Acacia del senegal Printers
Food industry
Fowler PBS. 1952. Printer´s asthma. Lancet 2:755-7. Aleman A, Quirce S. 1999. Asma ocupacional por goma arábiga en la industria alimentaria. Rev Esp Alergol Inmunol Clin 14:2-3.
Carob bean gum Ceratonia siliqua Food industry Scoditti A, Peluso P, et al.1996. Asthma to carob bean flour. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, 77: 81.
Guar gum Cypamopsis tetragonolobus Carpet manufacturing   Malo JL, Cartier A, L' Archeveque J. Ghezzo H, Soucy F, Somers 1, Dolovich 1. 1990. Prevalence of occupational asthma and immunologic sensitization to guar gum among employees at a carpet-manufacturing plant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 86:562-569.
Karaya gum Sterculea urens Hairdresser Wagner W. 1980. Karaya gum hypersensitivity in an enterostomal therapist. JAMA 243:432.
Natural rubber latex Hevea brasiliensis Health care Latex processing Vandenplas O, Binard-Van Cangh F, Brumagne A, Caroyer JM, Thimpont J, Sohy C, Larbanois A, Jamart J.2001. Occupational asthma in symptomatic workers exposed to natural rubber latex: evaluation of diagnostic procedures. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107:542-7. Yassin MS, Lierl MB, Fischer TJ. O'Brien K, Cross J, Steinmetz C. 1994. Lalex allergy in hospital employees. Ann Al1ergy 72:245-249. Baur X. Chen Z. Allmers H, Beckmann U, Walther I. 1995. Relevance of latex aeroallergen for healthcare workers. Allergology Intemational 20:105-111. Grzybowski M, Ownby DR, Peyser PA, Johnson CC, Schork MA 1996. The prevalencc of anti-latex IgE antibodies among rcgistered nurses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:535-544.
Tragacanth gum Astragalus gummifer Food industry Danoff D, Lincoln L, et al.1978.”Big Mac Attack”.N Engl J Med 298(19):1095-6.
Flours      
Barley Hordeum vulgare Bakers Vidal C, Gonzalez-Quintela A. 1995. Food-induced and occupational asthma due to barley flour. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 75:121-124.
Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum Bakers Park HS. Nahm DH. 1996. Buckwheat flour hypersensitivity: an occupational asthma in a noodle maker. Clin Exp Allergy 26: 423-427. Fernandez R, Moneo I, Pola J, uerc T, Zapata C, Hinojosa M, Losada E. 1989. Occupational asthma and contact urticaria caused by buckwheat flour. Ann Allergy 63:149-52.
Corn   Zea mays Food processing Martin-Garcia C, Hinojosa M, Porcel S, Leon F, Berges P. 2003. Corn-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis.Allergy;58:534-5.
Grass pea Lathyrus sativus Carpenter Anton Girones M, de la Hoz Caballer B, Munoz Martin T, Cuevas Agustin M, Sanchez-Cano M. 2005. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma by exposure to Lathyrus sativus flour.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr).;33:326-8.
Lupin seed /flour Lupinus albus Bakers Crespo J, Rodríguez J, Vives R, James JM, Reaño M, Daroca P, Burbano C, Muzquiz M.2001. Occupational IgE mediated allergy after exposure to lupine seed flour. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 108: 295-297. Campbell CP, Jackson AS, Johnson AR, Thomas PS, Yates DH. 2007. Occupational sensitization to lupin in the workplace: occupational asthma, rhinitis, and work-aggravated asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 119:1133-9.  
Oilseed rape Brassiba napus Grain handlers Suh CH, Park HS, Nahm DH, Kim HY. 1998. Oilseed rape allergy presented as occupational asthma in the grain industry. Clin Exp Allergy;28:1159-63.
Pea Lathyrus odoratus Food industry Bhagat R, Swystun VA, Cockcroft DW. 1995. Occupational asthma caused by pea flour. Chest 107:1772.
Rye Secalle cerealle Bakers Baur X, Degens PO, Sander 1. 1998. Baker's asthma: still among the most frequent occupational respiratory disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102:984-997.
Soy: bean, flour, lectine, trysin inhibitor Glycine max Bakers Quirce S, Polo F, Figueredo E, Gonzalez R, Sastre J. 2000. Occupational asthma caused by soybean flour in bakers-differences with soybean-induced epidemic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 30:839-846. Quirce S, Fernandez-Nieto M, Polo F, Sastre J.2002. Soy-bean trysin inhibitor is an occupational inhalant allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 109:178. Alvarez MJ, Tabar Al, Quirce S, Olaguibel JM, Lizaso MT, Echechipia S, Fernandez A, Garcia BE. 1996. Diversity of allergens causing occupational asthma among cereal workers as demonstrated by exposure procedures. Clin Exp Allergy 26:147-153. Baur X. Sauer W, Weiss W, Fruhmann G. 1989. Inhalant allergens in modern baking industry. Immunol Allergy Pract 11:13-15. Lavaud F, Perdu D, Prevost A, Vallerand H, Cossal1 C, Passemard F. 1994. Baker's asthma related to soybean lecithin exposure. Allergy 49:159-162.
Wheat Triticum aestivum Bakers Baur X, Degens PO, Sander 1. 1998. Baker's asthma: still among the most frequent occupational respiratory disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102:984-997. De Zotti R, Larese F, Bovenzi M, Negro C, Molinari S. 1994. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers. Occup Environ Med 51:548-552. Houba R, Heederik D, Doekes G. 1998. Wheat sensitization and work-related symptoms in the baking industry are preventable. An epidemiologic study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158:1499-1503.
Woods      
alpha-amylase inhibitor   Sawmill, furniture López-Rico R, Moneo I, Rico A, Curiel G, Fernandez-Monge R, Salcedo G. 1998. Cereal alpha-amylase inhibitors cause occupational sensitization in the wood industry. Clin Exp Allergy; 28:1286-91
Abiruana Pouteria   Booth BH, Lefoltdt RH, Moffit EM. 1976. Hypersensitivity to wood dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 57:352-7.
African maple Triplochiton scleroxylon Sawmill, furniture S Quirce, Marañón F, Hinojosa M, Ferre A, Fernandez-Caldas E, Sastre J.2000. Identification of obeche wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon) allergens causing occupational asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 106:400-401. Hinojosa M, Losada E, Moneo I, Fernandez J, CaITillo T, Sanchez-Cano M. 1986. Occupational asthma caused by African maple (Obeche) and Ramin: evidence of cross reactivity between these two woods. Clin Allergy 16:145-153. Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340. Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60.
African zebrawood Microberlinia Sawmill, furniture Bush RK, Yunginger JW, Reed CE. 1978. Asthma due to African zebrawood (Microberlinia) dust. Am Rev Respir Dis l17: 60l-603.
Alder Alnus alginosa Sawmill, furniture Ahman M, van Hage-Hamsten M. Johansson SGO. 1995. IgE-mediated allergy to wood dusts probably does not explain the high prevalence of respiratory symptoms among Swedish woodwork teachers. Allergy 50:559-562.
Antiaris Antiaris   Higuero, MC, Zabala, BB., Villamuza, Gómez,CM., de Gregorio, AM, Fernandez CS. 2001. Occupational asthma caused by IgE-mediated reactivity to Antiaris wood dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107: 554-556.
Ash Fraxinus excelsior Sawmill, furniture Fenandez-Rivas M, Perez-Caital C, Senent C. 1997. Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by ash (Fraxinus excelsior) wood dust. Allergy 52:196-199. Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340. Spiewak R, Bozek A, Maslowski T, Brewczynski PZ. 1994. Occupational asthma due to wood dust exposure (ash. oak, beech and pine) -a case study. Ann Agric Environ Med 1:73-76.
Beech Fagus selvatica Sawmill, furniture Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340. Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60.
Bethabara     Yacoub MR, Lemiere C, Labrecque M, Malo JL. 2005. Occupational asthma due to bethabara wood dust. Allergy;60:1544-5
Cedar of Lebanon Cedra libani Sawmill Greenberg, M. 1972. Respiratory symptoms following brief exposure to cedar of Lebanon (Cedra libani) dust. Clin Allergy; 2: 219-224
Cedrorana Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke   Eire MA, Pineda F, Losada SV, de la Cuesta CG, Villalva MM. 2006. Occupational rhinitis and asthma due to cedroarana (Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke) wood dust allergy.
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol.;16:385-7.
Central American walnut Juglans olanchana Furniture Bush, R.K., Clayton, O.1983. Asthma due to Central American Walnut (Juglans olanchana) dust. Clin Allergy; 13: 389-394.
Cherry Prunus avium Sawmill, furniture Abendroth RR, Kalveram CM, Kalveram KJ. 1992. Wood dust allergy: clinical findings, diagnosis, prognosis, new trends in protection at work. Allergologie 15:300-303.  
Cinnamon Cinnamomum zelanicum Sawmill Uragoda. 1984. Asthma and other symptoms in cinnamon workers. Br J Ind Med 41:224-7.
Cocabolla Dalbergia retusa Furniture Eaton, K.K 1973. Respiratory allergy to exotic wood dust. Clin Allergy 1973; 3: 307-310.
Colophony, abietic acid   Welders Burge PS, Harries MG, O'Brien I, Pepys J. 1980. Bronchial provocation studies in workers exposed to the fumes of electronic soldering fluxes. Clin Al!ergy 10: l3 7 –149. Burge PS. Edge G, Hawkins R, White V, Taylor AJ. 1981. Occupational asthma in a factory making flux-cored solder containing colophony. Thorax 36:828-834. So SY, Lam WK, Yu D. 1981. Colophony-induced asthma in a poultry vender. Clin Allergy 11: 395-399.
Eastern white cedar Thuja occidentalis Sawmill, furniture Cartier A, Chan H. Malo JL, Pineau L. Tse KS, Chan-Yeung M. 1986ª. Occupational asthma caused by eastem white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) with demonstration that plicatic acid is present in this wood dust and is the causal agent. J Al!ergy Clin Imrnunol 77:639-645. Malo JL, Cartier A, L. Archeveque J. Trudeau C, Courteau JP. Bherer L. 1994 Prevalence of occupational asthma among workers exposed to eastem white cedar. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150: 1 1697-1701.
Falcata wood Albizia falcataria furniture Tomioka K, Kumagai S, Kameda M, Kataoka Y. 2006. A case of occupational asthma induced by falcata wood (Albizia falcataria). J Occup Health. ;48:392-5.
Fernanbouc Caesalpinia echinata Furniture Hausen BM, Herrmann B. 1990. Bow-makers disease: an occupational disease in the manufacturing of bows for string instrument. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 115:169-173.
Gabon   Sawmill, furniture Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60.
Imbuia (Brazilian walnut) Phoebe porosa Sawmill, furniture Jeebhay MF, Prescott R, Potter PC, Ehr1ich RI. 1996. Occupational asthma caused by imbuia wood dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 97: I 1025-1027
Iroko Cholophora excelsa Sawmill, furniture Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60  
Jatoba wood (Brasilian cherry)  Hymenaea courbaril   Quirce S, Parra A, Antón E, Fernández-Nieto M, Jerez J, Sastre J. 2004. Occupational asthma caused by tali and jatoba wood dusts, J Allergy Clin Immunol; 113: 361-3.
Kejaat Pterocarpus angolensis Furniture Ordman, D.1949. Wood dust as an inhalant allergen. Bronchial asthma caused by kejaat wood (Pterocarpus angolensis). S Atr Med 23: 973-975
Limba Terminalia superba Sawmill, furniture Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.
Mahagoni african Khaya anthoteca Sawmill, furniture Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.
Mahagoni american Swietenia mahagoni Sawmill, furniture Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60.
Makone Tieghemella heckeli Sawmill, furniture Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340. Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60.
Mukali Aningeria robusta Sawmill, furniture Garces Sotillos MM, Blanco Carmona 1G, Juste Picon S, Fernandez-Gaston P, Perez Fernandez R, Alonso Gil L. 1995. Occupational asthma and contact urticaria caused by mukali wood dust (Aningeria robusta). 1 Investig Allergol Clin Irnmunol 5:113-114.
Oak Quercus robur Sawmill, furniture Abendroth RR, Kalveram CM, Kalveram KJ. 1992. Wood dust allergy: clinical findings, diagnosis, prognosis, new trends in protection at work. Allergologie 15:300-303. Malo JL, Cartier A, Desjardins A. Van de Weyer R, Vandenplas O. 1995. Occupational asthma caused by oak wood dust. Chest 108: 856-858. Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.
Pau marfin Balfourodendron riedelianum Sawmill, furniture Basomba A, Burches E, Almodoyar A, de Rojas DH. 1991. Occupational rhinitis and asthma caused by inhalation of Balfourodendron riedelianum (Pau Marfim) wood dust. A11ergy 46: 316-318
Picea Picea abis Sawmill, furniture Kersten W. Von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60. Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.
Pine Pinus sylvestris Sawmill, furniture Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60 Spiewak R, Bozek A, Maslowski T, Brewczynski PZ. 1994. Occupational asthma due to wood dust exposure (ash, oak, beech and pine)-a case study. Ann Agric Environ Med 1:73-76
Ramin Gonystylus bancanus Furniture Hinojosa M, Losada E, Moneo I, Quercusqz J, Carrillo T, Quercus-Cano M. 1986. Occupational asthma caused by African maple (obeche) and ramin: evidence of cross reactivity between these two woods. Clin Allergy 16:145-153.
Sequoia-California redwood Sequoia sempervirens Sawmill Chan-Yeung, M., Abboud, R. Occupational asthma due to California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) dust. Am Rev Respir Dis 1976; 114: 1027-1031.
Soapbark Quillaja saponaria Sawmill, furniture Raghuprasad PK. Brooks SM. Litwin A, Edwards JJ, Bemstein IL, Gallagher J. 1980. Quillaja bark (soapbark)-induced asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65:285-287
Spindle tree Eunomimus europaeus Furniture Herold DA, WaJ1 R, Maasch HJ, Hausen BM, Kunkel G. 1991. Occupational wood-dust sensitivity from Euonymus europaeus (spindle tree) and investigation of cross reactivity between wood and Artemisia vulgaris pollen (mugwort). Allergy 46: 186-190.
Tali wood  Erythrophleum suaveolens Furniture Quirce S, Parra A, Antón E, Fernández-Nieto M, Jerez J, Sastre J. 2004. Occupational asthma caused by tali and jatoba wood dusts. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 113: 361-3.
Tall oil Pine resin Rubber tyres Tarlo SM. 1992. Occupational asthma induced by tall oil in the rubber tyre industry. Clin Exp Allergy 22:99-101.
Tanganika aningre   Furniture Paggiaro, P.L., Cantalupi, R., Fileri, M. Y cols. 1980. Bronchial asthma due to inhaled wood dust. Tanganyka aningre. Clin Allergy; 11: 605-610.
Teka Tectona grandis Sawmill, furniture Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.
Western red cedar, plicatic acid Thuja plicata Sawmill, furniture Chan-Yeung M, Desjardins A. 1992. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and level of exposure in occupational asthma due to westem red cedar (Thuja plicata). Serial observations before and after developrnent of symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis 146:1606-1609. Lam S, Tan F, Chan H. Chan-Yeung M. 1983. Relationship between types of asthmatic reaction. Nonspecific bronchial reactivity, and specific IgE antibodies in patients with red cedar asthma. J Allergy Clin ImmunoI 72:134-139. Cote I, Kennedy S, Chan-Yeung M. 1990. Sensitivity and specificity of PC20 and peak expiratory flow rate in cedar asthma. Allergy Clin Immunol 85:592-598.
Microorganisms      
Molds      
Aspergillus fumigatus   Bakers, Refuse collection workers Allmers H, Huber H, Baur X. 1997. Bronchopulmonary mould allergy of a refuse collection worker. Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Umweltmed 32:64-67. Quirce S, Cuevas M, Diez-Gomez M, Femandez-Rivas M, Hinojosa M, Gonzalez R. Losada E. 1992. Respiratory allergy to Aspergillus -derived enzymes in bakers. Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90: 970-978.
Aspergillus niger   Laboratory workers Seaton A, Wales D. 1994. Clinical reactions to Aspergillus niger in a biotechnology plant: an eight year fol1ow up. Occup Environ Med 51:54-56.
Cryptococcus albidus
Trichosporum spp.

Gyrodontium versicolor
  Summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis Miyagawa T, Hamagami S, Tanigawa N. 2000. Cryptococcus albidus-induced summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.;161:961-6. Yoshizawa Y, OTAN Y, Hayakawa H, Sat A, Suga M, Ando M. 1999. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis in Japan: a nationwide epidemiologic survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol.;103:315-20.
Debaryomyces hansenii   Humidifiers Yamamoto Y, Osanai S, Fujiuchi S, Yamazaki K, Nakano H, Ohsaki Y, Kikuchi K. 2002. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis induced by the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii. Eur Respir J 20:1351-3.
Dictyostelium discoideum Slime mould Cleaners Gottlieb SJ, Garibaldi E, Hutchesoj PS, Slavin RG. 1993. Occupational asthma to the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. J Occup Med 35:1231-1235.
Dust with molds   Bakers Musk AW, Venables KM, Crook B, Nunn AJ, Hawkins R, Crook GD. Graneek BJ, Tee RD, Farrer N, Johnson DA. 1989. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sensitisation to flour in a British bakery. Br J Ind Med 46:636-642. Wallenstein G, Bergmann I, Rebohle E, Gemeinhardt H, Thürmer H. 1980. Occupational respiratory diseases due to moulds in millers and bakers. Z Erkrank Alm-Org 154:229-233.
Neurospora spp.   Carpenters Cote I, Chan H, Brochu G, Chan-Yeung M. 1991. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to neurospora in a plywood factory worker. Br J Ind Med 48:279-282.
Paecilomyces spp.   Carpenters Wilhelmsson B, Jemudd Y, Ripe E, Holmberg K. 1985. Nasal hypersensivity in wood fumiture workers. Rhinology 23:297-302.
Penicillium citrinum   Mushroom worker Yoshikawa S, Tsushima K, Koizumi T, Kubo K, Kumagai T, Yamazaki Y. 2006. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by spores of Penicillium citrinum in a worker cultivating Enoki mushroom.
Intern Med;45:537-41
Plasmopara viticola   Agricultural Wenzel W, Becker WM, Mazur G, Gödde M.1994. Occupational sensitization to Plasmopara viticola. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 93: 457-463.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae   Bakers Belchi-Henandez I, Mora-Gonzalez A. lniesta-Perez I. 1996. Baker's asthrna caused by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in dry powder form. J Allergy Clin Immunol 97:131-134. Baldo BA, Baker RS. 1988. lnhalant allergies to fungi: reactions to bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and identification of baker's yeast enolase as an important allergen. lnt Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 86:201-208.
Termophilic actinomycetes   Farmers Bourke SJ, Dalphin JC, Boyd G, McSharry C, Baldwin CI, Calvert JE. 2001. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Current concepts.Eur Respir J Suppl 32: 81s-92s.
Gram (-): Acinetobacter Iwoffi Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas fluorescens,     Humidifiers Selman M. 2004. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a multifaceted deceiving disorder.
Clin Chest Med;25:531-47
Amoebas: Acanthamoeba castellani ;Amoeba proteus; Naegleria gruber,   Humidifiers van Assendelft A, Forsen KO, Keskinen H, Alanko K. 1979. Humidifier-associated extrinsic allergic alveolitis.
Scand J Work Environ Health.;5:35-41.
Mycobacteria Mycobacterium immunogenum Mycobacterium avium   Metal removal fluids Trout D, Weissman DN, Lewis D, Brundage RA, Franzblau A, Remick D. 2003. Evaluation of hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers exposed to metal removal fluids.Appl Occup Environ Hyg 18:953-60. Marras TK, Wallace RJ Jr, Koth LL, Stulbarg MS, Cowl CT, Daley CL. 2005. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis reaction to Mycobacterium avium in household water.
Chest.;127:664-71
Mushrooms:
Lyophyllum aggregatum (Shimeji), Pleorotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji or Japanese mushroom)
  Mushroom workers Moore JE, Convery RP, Millar BC, Rao JR, Elborn JS. 2005. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with mushroom worker's lung: an update on the clinical significance of the importation of exotic mushroom varieties.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol.;136:98-102 Tsushima K, Fujimoto K, Yamazaki Y, Takamizawa A, Amari T, Koizumi T, Kubo K.2001. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by spores of Lyophyllum aggregatum. Chest. Oct 120:1085-93. Sastre J., Ibañez MD., Lopez M., Lehrer SB.1990. Respiratory and immunological reactions among Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) workers. Clin Allergy; 20:13-19. Vereda A, Quirce S, Fernandez-Nieto M, Bartolome B, Sastre J. 2007. Occupational asthma due to spores of Pleurotus ostreatus. Allergy.;62:211-2
Enzymes      
Alcalase from Bacillus subtilis   Detergent industry Johnsen CR, Sorensen TB, Ingemann Larsen A, Bertelsen Secher A, Andreasen E, Kofoed GS, Fredslund Nielsen L, Gyntelberg F. 1997. Allergy risk in an enzyme producing plant: A retrospective follow up study. Occup Environ Med 54: 671-675. Franz T, McMurrain KD. Brooks S, Bemstein IL. 1971. Clinical, immunologic, and physiologic observations in factory workers exposed to B. subtilis enzyme dust. Allergy 47: 170-180.
Bromeline   Pharmaceutical Gailhofer G, Teubl I, Wilders-Trusching M, Ludvan M. 1987. Allergic asthma caused by Bromelin. Dermatosen 35: 174-176.
Cellulase from Aspergillus niger   Bakers
Wood industry
Losada et al. Occupational asthma caused by cellulase.1986. J Allergy Clin Immunol 77: 635-639. Sander I, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Siethoff C, Lohaus C, Meyer HE, Baur S X. 1998. Allergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in the baking industry: Identification of beta-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger as a new allergen (Asp n 14). J Allergy Clin Immunol 102: 256-264. Travainen K, Kanerva L, Thpasela O, Grenquist-Norden B, Jolanki R, Estlander T, Keskinen H. 1991. Allergy from cellulase and xylanase enzymes. Clin Exp Allergy 2: 609-615. Kim HY, Nahm DH, Park HS, Choi DC. 1999. Occupational asthma and IgE sensitization to cellulase in a textile industry worker. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 82:174-8.
Empynase   Health care workers Bahn JW, Lee JY, Jang SH, Kim SH, Kim HM, Park HS. 2006. Sensitization to Empynase (pronase B) in exposed hospital personnel and identification of the empynase allergen.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 36:352-8.
Esperase   Detergent industry Zachariae H, Hoech-Thomsen J. Witrneur O, Wide L. 1981. Detergent enzymes and occupational safety. Observations on sensitization during esperase production. Allergy 36:513-516. Johnsen CR, Sorensen TB. Ingemann Larsen A, Bertelsen Secher A, Andreasen E, Kofoed GS, Fredslund Nielsen L. Gyntelberg F. 1997. Allergy risk in an enzyme producing plant: a retrospective follow up study. Occup Environ Med 54:671-675.
Glucoamylase   Bakers Quirce S, Bartolomé B, Fernandez.Nieto M, et al, 2002. Glucoamylase: Another fungal enzyme associated with baker's asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 89: 197-202. Sander I, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Siethoff C, Lohaus C, Meyer HE, Baur S X. 1998. Al1ergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in the baking industry: identification of beta-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger as a new allergen (Asp n 14). J Allergy Clin Immunol 102:256-264.
Glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger   Bakers Baur X. 1981. Isolated enzymes of bacterial, plant and mould origin as potent inhalent and potential ingestiye antigens. A11ergologie 4: 87-89.
Hemicellulase   Bakers Baur X. Sauer W, Weiss W, Fruhmann G. 1989. Inhalant allergens in moderm baking industry. Immunol Allergy Pract 11: 13-15.
Lactase   Pharmaceutical Muir DC, Verrall AB, Julian JA, Millman JM, Beaudin MA, Dolovich J. 1997. Occupational sensitization to lactase. Am J Ind Med 31: 570-571
Lypase   Detergent industry Brant A, Hole A, Cannon J, Helm J, Swales C, Welch J, Taylor AN, Cullinan P. 2004. Occupational asthma caused by cellulase and lipase in the detergent industry. Occup Environ Med 61:793-5.
Lysozyme   Food industry Pharmaceutical Bemstein JA, Kraut A, Bemstein DI, Warrington R, Bolin T, Warren CP. Bemstein IL. 1993. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg Iysozyme. Chest 103:532-535. Anibarro Bausela B, Fontela JL. 1996. Occupational asthma in a cheese worker. Allergy 51:960-961. Park HS. Nahm DH. 1996. Buckwheat fiour hypersensitivity: an occupational asthma in a noodle maker. Clin Exp Allergy 26: 423-427.
Pancreatin from pig   Food industry Aiken T, Ward R, Peel E, Hendrick D. 1997. Occupational asthma due to porcine pancreatic amylase. Occup Environ Med 54: 762-764. Wiessmann KJ, Baur X. 1985. Occupational asthma fol1owing long-term inhalation of pancreatic extracts. Eur J Respir Dis 66: 13-20.
Papain   Pharmaceutical Baur X. Konig G, Bencze K, Fruhmann G. 1982. Clinical symptoms and results of skin test, RAST and bronchial provocation test in thirty-three papain workers: Evidence for strong immunogenic potency and clinically relevant proteolytic effects of airbome papain.Clin Allergy 12:9-17 Merget R, Bergmann E. Schiirling B. 1995. Severe occupational asthma from papain. Allergo J 4:365-369.
Pepsin   Food industry (cheese) Anibarro Bausela B, Fontela JL. 1996. Occupational asthma in a cheese worker. Allergy 51:960-961. Drexler H, Beyer B. 1997. 0ccupational asthma due to pepsin powder in a women checking meat for Trichinae. Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Umweltmed 32:145-147. L. Belleri, E. Brunelli, M. Crippa, M. Golia, O. Vanoni, L. Alessio.2002 Occupational exposure to pectinase. Allergy 57: 755.
Peptidase from serratia   Pharmaceutical, Food industry Park HS. Nahm DH. 1997. New occupational allergen in a phannaceutical industry: serratial peptidase and Iysozyme chloride. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 78:225-229.
Phytase from Aspergillus niger   Animal formula feed Straburger K, Bossert J, Baur X, Zober A. 1998. Sensitization due to the enzymes phytase and xylanase. In: Hallier E, Bünger J, editors. 38. Jahrestagung Dtsch Ges Arbeits Umweltmedizin, Fulda, p525-527. Doekes G, Karnminga N, Helwegen L, Heederik D. 1999. Occupational IgE sensitisation to phytase, a phosphatase derived from Aspergillus niger. Occup Environ Med 56:454-459.
Proteases   Detergent industry Franz T, McMurrain KD. Brooks S, Bemstein IL. 1971. Clinical, immunologic, and physiologic observations in factory workers exposed to B. subtilis enzyme dust. Allergy 47:170-180.
ß-xylanase from Asp niger   Laboratory Baur X, Sander I. Posch A. Raulf-Heimsoth M. 1998. Baker's asthrna due to enzyme xylanase-a new occupational allergen. Clin Exp Allergy 28: 1591-1593. Sander I, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Siethoff C, Lohaus C, Meyer HE, Baur S X. 1998. Al1ergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in the baking industry: Identification of ß-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger as a new allergen (Asp n 14). J Allergy Clin Immunol 102: 256-264. Travainen K, Kanerva L, Thpasela O, Grenquist-Norden B, Jolanki R, Estlander T, Keskinen H. 1991. Allergy from cellulase and xylanase enzymes. Clin Exp Allergy 2: 609-615.
Suparen Rennet of Endothica parasitica Cheese makers Niinimaki A, Saari S. 1978. Dermatological and allergic hazards of cheesemakers. Scand J Work Environ Hea1th 4: 262-263.
Trypsin from cow and pig   Plastic, Pharmaceutical   Colten HR, Polakoff PL, Weinstein SF, Strieder D. 1975. Immediate hypersensitivity to hog trypsin resulting from industrial exposure. N Eng J Med 292: 1050-1053. Johnsen CR, Sorensen TB. Ingemann Larsen A, Bertelsen Secher A, 1 Andreasen E, Kofoed GS, Fredslund Nielsen L. Gyntelberg F. 1997. Allergy risk in an enzyme producing plant: a retrospective follow up study. Occup Environ Med 54:671-675.
α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae   Bakers Baur X. Chen Z, Sander I. 1994. Isolation and denomination of an important allergen in baking additives: a-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae (Asp o 1). Clin Exp Allergy 24:465-470. Quirce S, Cuevas M, Diez-Gomez M, Femandez-Rivas M, Hinojosa M, Gonzalez R. Losada E. 1992. Respiratory allergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in baker's asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90: 970-978. Losada et al. 1992. Occupational asthma caused by a-amylase inhalation: Clinical and immunological findings and bronchial response patterns. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89: 118-125. Vanhanen M, Tuomi T, Hokkanen H, Tupasela 0, Tuomainen A, Holmberg PC, Leisola M, Nordman H. 1996. Enzyme exposure and enzyme sensitisation in the baking industry. Occup Environ Med 53: 670-676.

OCCUPATIONAL EOSINOPHILIC BRONCHITIS
Acrylate   Industry Lemiere C, Efthimiadis A, Hargreave FE. 1997. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma: an unknown occupational airway disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol.;100:852-3.
Bunashimeji or Japanese mushroom Hypsizigus marmoreus Mushroom worker Tanaka H, Saikai T, Sugawara H, Takeya I, Tsunematsu K, Matsuura A, Abe S. 2002. Workplace-related chronic cough on a mushroom farm. Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji) Chest.;122:1080-5
Chloramine T   Heath care worker Krakowiak AM, Dudek W, Ruta U, Palczynski C. 2005. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma due to chloramine exposure. Occup Med ;55:396-8
Formaldehyde     Yacoub MR, Malo JL, Labrecque M, Cartier A, Lemiere C. 2005. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis. Allergy.;60:1542-4.
Latex Hevea brasiliensis Health care worker Quirce S, Fernandez-Nieto M, de Miguel J, Sastre J. 2001. Chronic cough due to latex-induced eosinophilic bronchitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol.;108:143.
Lysozyme   Baker Quirce S. 2004. Eosinophilic bronchitis in the workplace.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol.;4:87-91.
Stainless  steel (welding)   Industry Yacoub MR, Malo JL, Labrecque M, Cartier A, Lemiere C. 2005. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis. Allergy.;60:1542-4.
Toluene diisocyanate TDI Industry Di Stefano F, Di Giampaolo L, Verna N, Di Gioacchino M. 2007. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour. Thorax ;62:368-70.
Wheat flour   Baker Di Stefano F, Di Giampaolo L, Verna N, Di Gioacchino M. 2007. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour.Thorax;62:368-70.
Tetrahydro phthalic anhydride.   Industry Kobayashi O. 1994.  A case of eosinophilic bronchitis due to epoxy resin system hardener, methle endo methylene tetrahydro phthalic anhydride. Arerugi;43:660-2.