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World Medical Journal Reviews
二月医学杂志回顾
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World Medical Journal Reviews 二月医学杂志回顾

Prof. Richard F. Lockey, MD, and WAO Web Editor-in-Chief, reviewed premier medical journal articles for practicing allergists. Read his top 3 picks below and for the other 8 reviews, click here.
教授,医学博士,WAO网站主编,他为在业的变态反应科医生回顾了日前的医学杂志的一些重要文章。

1. BUDESONIDE/FORMOTEROL MAINTENANCE PLUS RELIEVER THERAPY, A NEW STRATEGY IN PEDIATRIC ASTHMA
(A)Three hundred and forty-one (341) children (4-11 years) with A, uncontrolled with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), were included in a 12-month, double-blind, randomized study to determine whether budesonide/formoterol (B/F) 80/4.5 µg qd maintenance plus prn inhalations versus B/F 80/4.5 µg qd maintenance or budesonide 320 µg qd reduced A exacerbations. The B/F qd plus prn use prolonged the time from first exacerbation versus fixed dose B (P = 0.02) and fixed dose combination (P< 0.001). Mild exacerbation days and awakenings were significantly lower with B/F qd plus prn use, and yearly growth improved by one centimeter versus B 320 µg qd (P< 0.01). B/F used daily plus prn use versus fixed dose B and fixed dose combination reduces exacerbation rates (both P<0.001). Editor's comments: Daily use of combination therapy plus prn use may become a new accepted treatment for A. Bisgaard H, et al. Chest 2006; 130: 1733.
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布地奈德/福莫特罗维持用药配合症状缓解性临时使用是小儿哮喘治疗的新策略
共有341位单独使用吸入型皮质激素但病情控制不理想的哮喘患儿入组,本研究随机双盲、历时12个月,观察以下不同用药方法对减少哮喘发作的作用:布地奈德/福莫特罗(B/F80/4.5 µg qd维持用药配合症状缓解性临时使用,B/F 80/4.5 µg qd维持用药,布地奈德320 µg qd。与固定剂量B P = 0.02)和固定剂量B/FP< 0.001)相比,B/F qd维持用药配合症状缓解性临时使用可以有效延缓下一次哮喘发作的时间。接受B/F qd维持用药配合症状缓解性临时使用这一模式治疗的患儿哮喘发作天数以及夜间早醒次数均明显减少,该组身高年增长也比B 320 µg qd组(P< 0.01)多1厘米。与固定剂量B和固定剂量B/F治疗组相比,接受B/F qd维持用药配合症状缓解性临时使用治疗可以减少哮喘发作率(P<0.001)。编者按:布地奈德/福莫特罗维持用药配合按需使用可能会成为哮喘治疗的又一新方式。Bisgaard H, et al. Chest 2006; 130: 1733.

2. TYMPANOSTOMY TUBES AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES AT 9 TO 11 YEARS OF AGE
Four hundred and twenty-nine (429) children, before 3 years, with persistent effusion were randomly assigned to undergo the insertion of tympanostomy tubes either promptly or up to nine months later if effusion persisted. In a previous report, the authors concluded that prompt versus delayed insertion did not result in improved cognitive language, speech or psychosocial development at 3, 4 or 6 years. They now assess literacy, attention, social skills and academic achievement in 391 of these children at 9 to 11 years and conclude that mean scores of 48 developmental measures in children who underwent early insertion of tympanostomy tubes did not differ significantly from the scores in the group that was assigned to undergo delayed insertion at the later age.Editor's comment: The authors suggest that watchful waiting for at least six additional months with bilateral infusions and for an additional nine months with unilateral infusions is the preferred management option in most cases. Recommendations should be individualized. Paradise JL, et al. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 248. Editorial, Berman S. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 300.
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应用鼓膜穿刺管及其对患儿911岁发育影响
本研究共有429位儿童入组,这些儿童在3岁前因为持续性渗出性中耳炎随机接受了鼓膜穿刺管置入术:或者立即置入或者在观察9月后进行。在先前的一项报告中,作者发现:与延迟置入相比,立即置入鼓膜穿刺管不会346岁对儿童的认知语言、说话或心理行为能力有改善作用。这次,他们对这些患儿中的391位在911岁时再次评估了读写能力、注意力、社会技能以及学习成绩,结果发现:通过比较48项平均发育评分,接受早期鼓膜穿刺管置入术的儿童与延迟置入组相比未见显著性差异。编者按:作者建议对于大多数病例,最好对双侧渗出性中耳炎患儿给予至少6个月的观察时间,对单侧渗出性中耳炎患儿给予至少9个月的观察时间。具体操作应当个体化分析。 Paradise JL, et al. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 248. Editorial, Berman S. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 300.

3. MULTIPLE CHEMICAL SENSITIVITIES (MCS): A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF PROVOCATION STUDIES
This is a review of provocation studies of persons reporting MCS from a database search from inception to May 2006. Most studies were insufficiently controlled. The authors conclude that persons with MCS react to chemical challenges; however, responses only occur when they can discern differences between active and sham substances. This suggests that the mechanism of action is related to expectations and prior beliefs rather than to the chemical itself. Editor's comment: Fortunately, humans are not as sensitive to a variety of different environmental agents as believed by some individuals and physicians. Das-Munshi J, et al. JACI 2006; 118: 1257.
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多发性化学物质过敏症(MCS):激发试验相关研究的系统性回顾
文章对有关MCS(多发性化学物质过敏症)激发试验的研究进行了回顾分析,回顾所用研究均截至20065月。文章发现大多数研究对照不够充分。虽然各研究的作者均得到相应结论:存在MCS的患者可以对化学物质激发试验产生反应;但是反应产生的前提是研究人员能够将真正的活性成分和其他混淆物质区分开。这提示其作用机制更与研究者的预期和信心相关,而非化学物质本身。 编者按:所幸的是,人类并非像某些医生坚信的那样对诸多不同的环境物质过敏。Das-Munshi J, et al. JACI 2006; 118: 1257.

4. LONG-TERM COMPARISON OF 3 CONTROLLER REGIMENS FOR MILD-MODERATE PERSISTENT CHILDHOOD ASTHMA (A) : THE PEDIATRIC A CONTROLLER TRIAL
This DB 48-week trial of 285 children (6-14 years) with A compared the efficacy of 3 treatment regimens: fluticasone 100 µg 2x/d (F2X), fluticasone 100 µg/salmeterol 50 µg (FS) in the A.M. and salmeterol 50 µg (S) in the P.M., and montelukast 5 mg (M) in the P.M. F2X and the FS and S were comparable but the F2X was superior for clinic-measured FEV1/FVC (P = .015), maximum bronchodilator response (P = .009), exhaled nitric oxide (P <.001), and methacholine PC20 (P<.001). F2X was superior to M for A control days (64.2% vs. 52.5%; P = .004) and other control outcomes. Growth over 48 weeks was not statistically different among groups. The study confirms the current guideline recommendations favoring inhaled glucocorticoid monotherapy in mild-moderate persistent A. Editor's comment: Inhaled glucocorticosteroids should be the primary treatment for mild-moderate persistent childhood A. Sorkness C, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119: 64.
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对轻中度持续性哮喘(A)儿童应用三种不同控制药物的长期性研究:有关儿童哮喘控制药物的临床试验
本项双盲试验历时48周,共有285位哮喘儿童(6-14岁)入组,比较了以下三种治疗药物的有效性:氟替卡松100 µg 2x/日(F2X),氟替卡松100 µg/沙美特罗50 µgFS)上午一次配合沙美特罗50 µgS)下午一次,孟鲁司特5mgM)下午一次。F2XFS 联合S效果相似,但是F2X在以下指标改善更明显:临床FEV1/FVC测量值(P = .015),最大支气管扩张反应(P = .009),呼气一氧化氮(P <.001),以及乙酰甲胆碱 PC20P<.001)。F2XM相比,在哮喘控制天数(64.2% vs. 52.5%; P = .004)以及其他控制指标上均有优势。经过48周治疗,各组间对生长指标没有统计学差异。本研究印证了当前指南中推荐的:对轻中度持续性哮喘患者可以使用吸入型皮质激素作为单一治疗手段。编者按:对轻中度持续性哮喘患者应当将吸入型皮质激素作为首选治疗手段。Sorkness C, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119: 64.

5. HISTAMINE H4 RECEPTOR (H4R) ANTAGONISTS ARE SUPERIOR TO TRADITIONAL ANTIHISTAMINES IN THE ATTENUATION OF EXPERIMENTAL PRURITUS
The authors demonstrate that scratching responses in mice, induced by histamine and selective H4R agonists, were almost completely attenuated in H4R knockout mice or by pretreatment with a selective H4R antagonist, JNJ 7777120. Pruritus induced by allergic mechanisms was also inhibited by the H4R antagonist or in H4R knockout mice. The inhibitory effect of JNJ7777120 was greater than with a histamine H1 receptor antagonist. The H4R pruritus was shown to be independent of mast cells or other hematopoietic cells and may result from actions on peripheral neurons. The authors conclude that the H4R is involved in pruritic responses in mice more so than the histamine H1 receptor. Editor's comment: Will this new agent provide an alternative and effective therapy for chronic pruritus? I hope so. Dunford PJ, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119: 176.
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组胺H4受体(H4R)拮抗剂与传统抗组胺药物相比,能更好地缓解实验性搔痒症
文章证实组胺和选择性H4R激动剂可以诱发正常小鼠产生搔抓反应,如果使用H4R敲除小鼠或者提前给予正常小鼠选择性H4R拮抗剂(JNJ 7777120),这一反应则会大大削弱。变应性机制产生的搔痒症状也可以被H4R拮抗剂所抑制,或在H4R敲除小鼠中受到抑制。JNJ7777120的抑制作用强于组胺H1受体拮抗剂。H4R性搔痒症不依赖于肥大细胞或者其他的造血细胞,有可能为外周神经元的作用所致。文章作者认为与组胺H1受体相比,H4R更多参与了小鼠体内的搔痒应答。编者按:这个新药是否能成为可选择用于治疗慢性搔痒症的有效方法 ?我希望可以。Dunford PJ, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119: 176.

6. IMPACT OF SALMETEROL/FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE VERSUS SALMETEROL ON EXACERBATION IN SEVERE COPD
After a 4-week, run-in period, 994 clinically stable patients were randomized to one of two treatment groups, 507 received the salmeterol/fluticasone combination 50/500 µg 2x/d (SFC) and 487 received salmeterol 50 µg 2x/d (S) for 44 weeks. There were 334 exacerbations in the SFC and 464 in the S (P <0.0001). The annualized rate of moderate and severe exacerbations per patient was 0.92 in the SFC and 1.4 in the S group (35% decrease). Mean time to first exacerbation in SFC was significantly longer versus S (128 vs. 93 d, p<0.0001). QOL, PEF and use of rescue medication were significantly improved in the SFC group. The authors conclude that SFC is better than monotherapy with S for severe COPD. Editor's comment: SFC reduces exacerbation frequency in high risk patients with severe COPD. Kardos P, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 175: 144.
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比较沙美特罗/ 氟替卡松丙酸盐联合制剂和沙美特罗单剂对重度COPD患者急性发作的作用
经过四周的洗脱期,994位临床症状稳定的COPD患者随机分到两个治疗组,其中507位接受沙美特罗/氟替卡松联合制剂 50/500 µg 2x/日(SFC),487位接受沙美特罗50 µg 2x/日(S),治疗持续44周。在SFC组共有334次急性发作,在S组为464次(P <0.0001)。每位患者每年中重度急性发作率为:SFC组为0.92,而S组为1.4 (降低35%)。 SFC组再次发作距首次发作平均时间间隔比S组明显延长(128 vs. 93 天,<0.0001)。在生活质量,PEF以及缓解药物使用方面,SFC组均有改善。结论:对于重度COPD患者,SFC联合治疗优于S单剂治疗。编者按:对重度COPD的高风险人群使用SFC可以减少急性发作的频率。Kardos P, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 175: 144.

7. ANTIBIOTIC (AB) TREATMENT OF EXACERBATIONS OF COPD; A RANDOMIZED, CONTROLLED TRIAL COMPARING PROCALCITONIN (P)-GUIDANCE WITH STANDARD THERAPY
Serum levels of P increase rapidly in the presence of infection. Two hundred and eight (208) consecutive COPD patients requiring hospitalization for COPD exacerbation were randomized to P-guided or standard AB therapy. Those receiving P-guided therapy were treated with AB according to serum P levels; standard-therapy patients received AB according to the attending physician. The primary outcome was the AB exposure at the index exacerbation and subsequent AB requirements for COPD exacerbation within six months. Secondary outcomes were clinical recovery, symptom scores, length of hospitalization, need for ICU stay, death, lung function, exacerbate rate, and time to the next exacerbation. P-guidance reduced AB prescriptions (P< 0.0001), AB exposure (RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.73; P <0.0001), and permitted significant reduction in total AB exposure for up to 6 months (RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.92; P = 0.004). Outcomes at 14 days to 6 months did not differ, neither did the exacerbation rate, re-hospitalization rate or the mean time to next exacerbation. The authors conclude that P-guidance reduces AB use for up to 6 months with a number-needed-to-treat of 3. Editor's comment: P levels seem to indicate whether AB will or will not benefit patients with a COPD exacerbation. Stolz D, et al. Chest 2007; 131: 9.
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抗生素(AB)治疗COPD急性发作;随机对照试验,比较降钙素原(P)指导下的治疗和标准治疗
在感染情况下,血清P降钙素原)水平迅速增高。208位由于急性发作需要接受住院治疗的持续性COPD患者随机分为两组:接受P-指导下的抗生素治疗或者标准抗生素治疗。那些接受P-指导下治疗个体的抗生素使用是根据血清P水平而决定的,而标准治疗个体的抗生素使用是根据主治医生的判断而定。主要指标包括急性发作期抗生素用量,以及随后6个月控制COPD急性发作的抗生素用量。次要指标包括:临床恢复情况,症状评分,住院时间,需要接受加强医疗看护的时间,死亡率,肺功能,急性发作率,以及距下一次急性发作的时间间隔。接受P-指导下的抗生素治疗可以减少抗生素的处方量(P< 0.0001),减少抗生素的暴露(RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.73; P <0.0001),并可以显著减少6个月内抗生素的使用总量(RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.92; P = 0.004)。下面各指标在14天至6个月没有变化:急性发作率,再次入院率,距下次发作的平均时间间隔。 文章结论:接受P-指导下治疗能在6个月的观察期内减少抗生素用量。编者按:看起来P水平可以用于判断某种抗生素是否有益于COPD患者急性发作的治疗 Stolz D, et al. Chest 2007; 131: 9.

8. FEATURES OF SEVERE ASTHMA IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN: ATOPY AND INCREASED EXHALED NITRIC OXIDE
This study identified features of severe versus mild-to-moderate asthma in school children by assessing lung function, presence of atopy and airway inflammation. A total of 75 children with asthma had lung volume testing, methacholine challenge, allergy evaluation and offline measures of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). The severe asthma sub-group (N=39) required high doses of inhalational corticosteroids (ICS). These 39 children had more symptoms, greater airway obstruction, more gas trapping, increased methacholine sensitivity, higher concentrations of FENO, and greater sensitization to aeroallergens. Both the reduction of FEV1 and increased FENO persisted in the severe versus mild-to-moderate group throughout the study. Despite adjustments in ICS, the number of exacerbations was significantly higher in subjects with severe (83%) versus the mild-to-moderate group (43%). Editor's comment: Repeated exacerbations, greater allergen sensitization, increased airflow obstruction, and increased FENO all characterized more severe asthma in children. Fitzpatrick AM, et al. JACI 2006;118:1218.
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学龄儿童重度哮喘的特征:特应性,呼出一氧化氮增加
本研究通过评估肺功能、特应性状况以及气道炎症情况,对学龄儿童中的重度哮喘和轻中度哮喘的特征进行了鉴别。共有75位哮喘儿童接受了调查:肺容量测试,乙酰甲胆碱激发试验,变应性评估以及不定时测量呼气一氧化氮(FENO)。重度哮喘亚组(N=39)需要使用高剂量的吸入皮质激素(ICS)。该亚组的39位患者症状更多,气道阻塞情况更重,气体陷闭更明显乙酰甲胆碱敏感程度上升,FENO浓度增高,气传变应原致敏程度更严重。与轻中度哮喘患者相比,重度哮喘患者FEV1的降低和FENO的增加在整个研究中持续存在。尽管调整吸入皮质激素的使用,重度哮喘患者急性发作的次数(83%)仍明显高于轻中度哮喘患者(43%)。编者按:反复急性发作,变应原致敏程度更重,气流阻塞更明显,以及更高浓度的FENO,这些特征预示更严重的儿童哮喘患者。Fitzpatrick AM, et al. JACI 2006;118:1218.

9. EGG (E) ORAL IMMUNOTHERAPY (OIT) IN NONANAPHYLACTIC CHILDREN WITH E ALLERGY
E allergic subjects (positive ingestion hx. within 6 months of beginning the study with a + serum CAP of 7 kU/L or greater (2 kU/L or greater for subjects =2 years) or with a + allergic reaction to E within 6 months of beginning the study without a history of anaphylaxis to E underwent a 24-month E OIT involving modified rush, build-up and maintenance phases. DBPC food challenges were performed at study conclusion and E-specific IgE and IgG concentrations measured. E-specific IgG increased significantly, whereas E-specific IgE did not change in the seven subjects who completed the protocol. All tolerated significantly more E protein than at study onset. Two subjects demonstrated oral tolerance. The authors conclude that allergen-specific OIT to protect subjects with food allergy may represent a significant advancement in treatment. Editor's comment: Double-blind control studies with placebo and E oral therapy are now necessary. Buchanan AD, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119: 199.
9.) 对鸡蛋过敏但无严重过敏反应的儿童进行鸡蛋口服免疫治疗(OIT
鸡蛋过敏个体,在研究开始的6个月内出现过消化道症状,同时血清CAP检测值大于等于7 kU/L(大于等于2 kU/L长达2年),或者在研究开始的6个月内对鸡蛋出现过过敏反应但从未出现过严重过敏反应,给与这些儿童为期24个月的鸡蛋口服免疫治疗,包括改良rush阶段、增量阶段以及维持阶段。研究结束时对受试者进行双盲、安慰剂对照激发试验,并检测鸡蛋特异性IgEIgG浓度。在7位受试儿童中,鸡蛋特异性IgG浓度显著增高,但鸡蛋特异性IgE无明显变化。所有患儿与研究初始阶段相比能够耐受更高剂量的鸡蛋蛋白。其中2位患儿实现口服耐受。文章结论:变应原特异性口服免疫治疗可以对食物过敏个体起到保护作用,这可能是变应性疾病治疗学上的又一非凡进步。编者按:目前迫切需要有关鸡蛋口服免疫治疗的双盲安慰剂对照研究。Buchanan AD, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119: 199.

10. REPEATED MEASUREMENTS OF MITE AND PET ALLERGEN LEVELS IN HOUSE DUST OVER A TIME PERIOD OF 8 YEARS
The authors investigated the variability of house dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1) and cat (Fel d 1) allergens in Dutch homes. Mite allergen concentrations for the child's mattress, the parents' mattress and the living room floor were moderately correlated between time-points. Agreement was better for cat vs. mite allergens. They conclude that over a period of 4 years, mite and cat allergens measured in house dust are sufficiently stable to use single measurements with confidence in epidemiologic studies. The within home variance was larger when samples were taken 8 years apart, so that over a longer period, repetition sampling is recommended. Editor's comment: Dust mite and pet allergen levels in homes vary little for at least 4 years. Antens CJM, et al. Clin Exp Allergy 2006; 36: 1525.
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8年时间内对屋尘中螨虫和宠物变应原水平进行重复测量
作者调查了荷兰家庭中户尘螨(Der p 1, Der f 1)和猫(Fel d 1)变应原的可变性。研究发现在儿童床垫、父母床垫以及起居室的螨虫变应原浓度在各时间点间相互关联。与螨虫相比,猫变应原的一致性更强些。作者总结:长达4年的时间里,用同一测量方法进行流行病学调查,结果显示在屋尘中螨虫和猫的变应原测量值十分稳定。如果取样间隔延长至8年,房屋间的变异性增大,因此如果时间间隔过长,建议重复取样为宜。编者按:在至少4年内,家庭中尘螨和宠物变应原水平没有变化。Antens CJM, et al. Clin Exp Allergy 2006; 36: 1525.

11. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOLOGY OF THE H1 ANTIHISTAMINES
This supplement begins with a review of the discovery of histamine and antihistamines. It contains chapters on comparative pharmacology, effects on the cardiovascular system, the central nervous system and their interactions. It concludes with a section on H1 antihistamines and their effects on psychomotor performance and driving. Editor's comment: A complete and excellent review of this subject. del Cuvillo A, et al. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2006; 16: Supplement 1.
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不同H1抗组胺药物的药理学比较
文章首先回顾了组胺和抗组胺药物的发现史。其内容囊括以下章节:不同药物在药理学方面的比较,药物对心血管系统、中枢神经系统的作用,以及药物之间的相互作用。该文章还使用了一个章节的篇幅对H1抗组胺药物及其对精神运动和驾驶方面的作用进行了总结。编者按:这篇文章对该主题进行了充分、出色的回顾。del Cuvillo A, et al. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2006; 16: Supplement 1.



WAO Now: What's New in the World of WAO 今日
WAOWAO领域新进展


World Allergy Forum World Allergy Forum 世界变态反应论坛

"A Global Perspective on Genetics, the Environment and Allergy"
对遗传学,环境学和变态反应学的世界展望


Our international expert faculty was chaired by Thomas A.E. Platts-Mills and Michael A. Kaliner, and provided a worldwide update on genetics, the environment and allergy to almost 300 attendees. The first speaker, Adnan Custovic (United Kingdom), discussed whether or not early exposure to allergen is protective, and the presentation by Robert F. Lemanske Jr. (United States) focused on the environment's influence on genetic responses. The successful symposium was concluded by Erika Von Mutius (Germany), who discussed environmental intervention in the management of allergic diseases.
我们的国际专家讲者由Thomas A.E. Platts-MillsMichael A. Kaliner领衔,在遗传学,环境学和变态反应学方面的知识进行了广泛更新。第一位讲者是Adnan Custovic(英国),他将对“早期变应原暴露是否具有保护作用”进行讨论,Robert F. Lemanske Jr. (美国)的讲座主要围绕环境对基因应答的影响。本次论坛将由Erika Von Mutius(德国)总结发言,讨论环境干预在变应性疾病治疗中的作用。

Presenter slides and audio recordings will soon be available for download on the WAF web page.
各位讲者的幻灯片以及音频拷贝不久将可以从WAF网站上下载得到。

World Allergy Forum is funded through an unrestricted educational grant from
世界变态反应论坛得到以下公司无私的教育资助



Updated GLORIA Module Now Available
可供使用的最新GLORIA单元

An updated version of GLORIA Module 2: Allergic Conjunctivitis, authored by Prof. Connie H. Katelaris and Dr. Allen P. Kaplan, is now available for downloading on the US GLORIA web site
GLORIA单元2的更新版本:变应性结膜炎,著者Connie H. Katelaris 教授和Allen P. Kaplan博士,本单元可从US GLORIA web site下载得到。


2007 April GLORIA Placements
20074月份GLORIA计划

V European Asthma Congress and I World Congress on COPD
21-24 April 2007
Moscow, Russia
第五届欧洲哮喘大会和第一届世界COPD大会
2007421-24
莫斯科,俄罗斯
International GLORIA Faculty
国际GLORIA教员:
Allen P. Kaplan
Presentations
主讲:
Module 5: The Symptoms and Treatment of Asthma
哮喘的临床表现和相关治疗
Module 7: Agioedema
血管神经性水肿

Romanian National Congress of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
26-27 April 2007
Tirgu Mures, Romania
罗马尼亚变态反应和临床免疫国际大会
2007
426-27
特尔古穆列什,罗马尼亚
International GLORIA Faculty
国际GLORIA教员:
Jean Bousquet
Presentations
主讲:
Module 1: Allergic Rhinitis
变应性结膜炎
Module 4: Immunotherapy
免疫治疗

 

GLORIA is supported through unrestricted educational grants from:
GLORIA得到以下公司教育资助的支持

nutricia  shs
dey
dyax & genzyme


New Interactive Case Review
最新互动式病例回顾

Take a moment to test your knowledge with the new Interactive Case Review based on a Clinical Case Report published in the ACII-JWAO - Trouble in Your Own Backyard: Case Report and Review of Imported Fire Ant Sensitivity. Link
花点时间来测试你的知识吧!这里的互动式临床病例回顾来自ACII-JWAO 后花园里的麻烦:有关火蚁过敏反应的病例报道和分析


Call for Applications
接受申请中

  • WAO Short-Term Research Fellowship 2007 Applications
    WAO短期科研奖学金2007年度申请
    The World Allergy Organization (WAO) offers three Short-Term Research Fellowships, to commence in the latter half of 2007, to support junior allergists to visit a center of their choice to learn a research technique. The expected duration of each attachment is 2-3 weeks. WAO will contribute up to a maximum of $2,500 USD, to include travel and accommodations, for each Short-Term Fellowship.
    世界变态反应组织(WAO)在2007年下半年开始提供三项短期科研奖学金以资助初年变态反应医师前往他们向往的医学中心进修学习科研技术。进修持续时间以23周为宜。WAO将会为每位奖学金获得者资助最高2500美元的奖学金,包括旅行费用和食宿费用。
    Priority will be given to junior clinicians within five years of award of the most recent professional degree, who are specializing in allergy and who are affiliated to an academic department or clinical institute. Applicants must be current members of a WAO member society.
    奖学金优先授予那些在近5年内获得专业学位的初年变态反应医师,其专业变态反应,并且隶属于医学院相关科室或临床研究院。申请者必须是目前WAO成员学会的会员。
    The Short-Term Fellowships will be applied to a project which meets one of the WAO Research Priorities:
    短期科研奖学金的申请目的必须符合以下WAO科研优先项目之一
    *Genetic factors involved in the development of allergic disease and response to treatment
    *Allergen characterization and standardization
    *Clinical and basic studies in allergy and asthma

    *参与变应性疾病发病及其治疗反应的遗传学因素
    *变应原鉴定和标准化
    *过敏性鼻炎和哮喘的临床及基础研究


    Application forms may be downloaded here:
  • Link
    申请表可以从此处下载:Link

    Applications must be received by WAO head office not later than 31 May 2007

    申请必须在2007531日前送达WAO办公室
  • The WAO Henning Løwenstein Research Award 2007
The WAO Henning Løwenstein Research Award is a biennial award given to a young scientist who has shown excellence within the field of allergy. WAO and ALK-Abelló will present the award at the World Allergy Congress in Bangkok, 2-6 December 2007.
The winner will receive EURO 20,000 together with a travel grant to attend the World Allergy Congress.
For application guidelines, visit www.alk-abello.com and click on "The WAO Henning Løwenstein Research Award."
Deadline: 30 June 2007

WAO 2007年度Henning Løwenstein科研奖
WAO Henning Løwenstein 科研奖每2年颁发一次,将授予在变态反应领域做出卓越贡献的年轻科学家。WAOALK公司将在2007122-6日曼谷召开的世界变态反应大会上向获得者颁发本次奖项。
科研奖获得者将获得20,000欧元奖励,同时将被资助参加本次世界变态反应大会
访问这里
www.alk-abello.com 并点击"The WAO Henning Løwenstein 科研奖"即可获得申请指南
截止日期: 2007630

Sign up for Online Journal Subscription -

WAO and Hogrefe & Huber Publishers are offering a limited number of free online subscriptions to Allergy & Clinical Immunology International - Journal of the World Allergy Organization for members in developing countries. If you are interested in receiving a complimentary, online subscription, please send an e-mail to info@worldallergy.org, noting "Free Journal Subscription" in the subject line, with the following details:

First name
Last (Family) name
Postal address
City, State/Province and postal code
Country
E-mail address
Name of Member Society

在线杂志订阅申请-

WAOHogrefe & Huber出版公司现为发展中国家的会员提供有限数量的《Allergy & Clinical Immunology International - Journal of the World Allergy Organization免费在线订阅服务。如果您希望得到这份杂志的免费赠阅的电子版,请给我们发送e-mail
info@worldallergy.org,注意在信件的主题栏写“Free Journal Subscription”,并详细注明以下资料:

名字
姓氏
邮政地址
市,州/省和邮政编码
国家
E-mail地址
成员学会的名称




And In Other News


Allergy Book Reviews

其他新闻

Microbial Subversion of Immunity: Current Topics
Editors: Peter J. Lachmann, M.B.A. Oldstone
ISBN #: 1904455050
微生物对免疫力的颠覆:当前的主题
著者: Peter J. Lachmann, M.B.A. Oldstone
ISBN #: 1904455050


List price: $230.00 USD
Available from:
Caister Academic Press
定价:230.00美元
订购网址:
Caister Academic Press

Reviewer: Gary Hellermann PhD
University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida
书评作者:Gary Hellermann PhD
南佛罗利达大学,坦帕,佛罗里达州


Description:
This is a collection of nine reviews focusing on the strategies used by bacteria, viruses and parasites to avoid detection or destruction by the host's immune system. It begins with an overview of the subversion process and its effects on complement, natural killer cells and other parts of the mucosal innate immune system. This is followed by general reviews of the subversive techniques of viruses, bacteria and helminths. Lastly, there are three papers dealing more specifically with the humoral immune response and dendritic cell reaction to viruses, and a description of the measles virus serving as a model for the mechanisms of inhibition of human antiviral defenses.
说明:
本书收集了9篇综述,主要围绕细菌、病毒以及寄生虫是如何逃避宿主免疫系统的侦测与杀灭。本书首先介绍了这种破坏作用的步骤以及在该过程中对补体、自然杀伤细胞以及粘膜先天免疫系统其他部分的影响。随后,作者对病毒、细菌和寄生虫对免疫系统的破坏手段进行了全面介绍。最后,作者使用3篇文章针对机体对病毒产生的体液免疫应答和树突状细胞应答进行了阐明,并指出可以使用风疹病毒这一模型来研究病原体是如何抑制人体抗病毒防御能力的。


Purpose:
The editors point out that all human pathogens by definition have achieved some degree of success in blocking attacks by the immune system and that this review of their methods 'on the battleground' should yield valuable insights into the workings of the immune system. Considering that humans are under constant threat by these highly adaptive organisms, this book fills an important need by bringing together the current findings on microbial subversion of the immune system. The difficulty of the task is matched by the high level of expertise of the contributing authors.
说明:
本书收集了9篇综述,主要围绕细菌、病毒以及寄生虫是如何逃避宿主免疫系统的侦测与杀灭。本书首先介绍了这种破坏作用的步骤以及在该过程中对补体、自然杀伤细胞以及粘膜先天免疫系统其他部分的影响。随后,作者对病毒、细菌和寄生虫对免疫系统的破坏手段进行了全面介绍。最后,作者使用3篇文章针对机体对病毒产生的体液免疫应答和树突状细胞应答进行了阐明,并指出可以使用风疹病毒这一模型来研究病原体是如何抑制人体抗病毒防御能力的。


Audience:
The book's subject, how some viruses, bacteria and parasites manage to avoid our immune defenses, is one of interest to a wide audience teachers, students, researchers and clinicians. The language and concepts are not dauntingly technical, and the current findings are brought out within a logical framework that makes them easy to understand. The contributors to the work all seem to be highly competent and knowledgeable.
说明:
本书收集了9篇综述,主要围绕细菌、病毒以及寄生虫是如何逃避宿主免疫系统的侦测与杀灭。本书首先介绍了这种破坏作用的步骤以及在该过程中对补体、自然杀伤细胞以及粘膜先天免疫系统其他部分的影响。随后,作者对病毒、细菌和寄生虫对免疫系统的破坏手段进行了全面介绍。最后,作者使用3篇文章针对机体对病毒产生的体液免疫应答和树突状细胞应答进行了阐明,并指出可以使用风疹病毒这一模型来研究病原体是如何抑制人体抗病毒防御能力的。


Features:
While the book's main emphasis is on the various ways that microbes circumvent the innate immune response, there is an excellent review chapter on the innate immune system itself that highlights the host's defense mechanisms and sets the stage for a better understanding of microbial subversion.
说明:
本书收集了9篇综述,主要围绕细菌、病毒以及寄生虫是如何逃避宿主免疫系统的侦测与杀灭。本书首先介绍了这种破坏作用的步骤以及在该过程中对补体、自然杀伤细胞以及粘膜先天免疫系统其他部分的影响。随后,作者对病毒、细菌和寄生虫对免疫系统的破坏手段进行了全面介绍。最后,作者使用3篇文章针对机体对病毒产生的体液免疫应答和树突状细胞应答进行了阐明,并指出可以使用风疹病毒这一模型来研究病原体是如何抑制人体抗病毒防御能力的。


The authors of the reviews have done an excellent job combing the literature for the latest information and condensing and summarizing it into a comprehensive report on the state of knowledge about microbial evasion of the human immune system. Each review has an extensive bibliography providing a complete cross section of the current literature.
说明:
本书收集了9篇综述,主要围绕细菌、病毒以及寄生虫是如何逃避宿主免疫系统的侦测与杀灭。本书首先介绍了这种破坏作用的步骤以及在该过程中对补体、自然杀伤细胞以及粘膜先天免疫系统其他部分的影响。随后,作者对病毒、细菌和寄生虫对免疫系统的破坏手段进行了全面介绍。最后,作者使用3篇文章针对机体对病毒产生的体液免疫应答和树突状细胞应答进行了阐明,并指出可以使用风疹病毒这一模型来研究病原体是如何抑制人体抗病毒防御能力的。


Chapter 4 on Viral Immune Evasion is especially well written, comprehensive and illustrated with numerous figures showing the pathways blocked by specific viruses. The chapter on immune system subversion by helminths at 70 pages (35 pages of references!) may well be the definitive work on this subject.
4章的内容是有关病毒的免疫逃避,该章的撰写非常出色,不但内容涉及广泛而且图文并茂,生动地介绍了某些特殊病毒阻断免疫的途径。本章中有关寄生虫对免疫系统颠覆的篇幅多达70页(其中参考文献目录多达35页!),这也许是关于该主题的权威性总结。

Together with chapters on viral inhibition of the humoral immune response, viral effects on dendritic cells and a detailed discussion of the measles virus, the book affords a virtually complete overview of the current research findings. These recent advances in virology demonstrate the great variety of mechanisms employed by these consummate pathogens, and this improved knowledge should provide us with insights to design better vaccines and antiviral drugs.
4章的内容是有关病毒的免疫逃避,该章的撰写非常出色,不但内容涉及广泛而且图文并茂,生动地介绍了某些特殊病毒阻断免疫的途径。本章中有关寄生虫对免疫系统颠覆的篇幅多达70页(其中参考文献目录多达35页!),这也许是关于该主题的权威性总结。

The subjects are covered in good detail and with competent explanations, but the text seems to suffer in places from a lack of editing that could have improved the clarity and readability.
有关这些主题的解释详尽,但是如果能进行更好地对本书进行编辑将会显得思路更清晰、易读性更强。

Assessment:
After reading this book, one comes away with a new appreciation of the value of a healthy and well prepared immune system. The immunocompromized individual is at far greater risk of infection and may even die as a result of an illness that would otherwise be just an inconvenience. By gathering together and evaluating the latest research in this important area of immunology, the authors and editors deserve much credit for producing a work that should be the reference standard in the field for some time.
评价:
通读本书,读者不禁会对我们健康、精致的免疫系统的存在价值大加赞赏。免疫损害个体往往会面临更高的感染风险,甚至可能会死于疾患,而这些对于正常人来说只不过是小麻烦而已。作者和编者通过对免疫学这一重要领域中最新科研发现进行收集和评论完成此书,相信他们的工作会在相当一段时间内成为该领域的参照标准。

Find more allergy book reviews on the WAO Website here.
WAO网站上其它的变态反应学书评见此处

WAO's mission is to be a global resource and advocate in the field of allergy, advancing excellence in clinical care through education, research and training as a world-wide alliance of allergy and clinical immunology societies. Visit us on the Web at www.worldallergy.org
世界变态反应组织的使命是建立一个全球性的变态反应学会联盟,不断推动临床、科研、教学与培训工作的进步。欢迎您浏览我们的网站:www.worldallergy.org


World Allergy Organization (WAO)
Secretariat
世界变态反应组织(WAO)秘书处
555 E. Wells Street, Suite 1100
Milwaukee, WI 53202-3823
Email: info@worldallergy.org
电子信箱: info@worldallergy.org

You have received this message because you are a member of a WAO Member Society, you have subscribed for the monthly e-letter or had previous contact with the World Allergy Organization. If you would prefer not to receive further messages from WAO, please reply to this message with REMOVE in the subject line.
您因如下原因收到此次通讯:您是世界变态反应协会会员,或者您曾向世界变态反应协会订阅过电子月刊,或者您以前曾与世界变态反应协会进行过有关联系。如果您不希望继续收到来自世界变态反应协会的信息,请以删除为主题回复此邮件。


Made possible through an unrestricted educational grant from Novartis.