wao logo  


WAO News & Notes

July Medical Journal Review
七月医学杂志回顾
WAO Member Society Spotlight
聚焦WAO成员
WAO Now: What's New in the World of WAO
今日WAO:WAO领域新进展
And In Other News . . .
其他新闻

July World Medical Journal Review

七月医学杂志回顾

Prof. Richard F. Lockey, MD, WAO Web Editor-in-Chief, reviewed premier July medical journal articles for practicing allergists.
Richard F. Lockey教授,医学博士,WAO网站主编,他为在业的变态反应科医生回顾了七月医学杂志的一些重要文章。

1. EFFECTS OF EARLY INTERVENTION WITH INHALED BUDESONIDE ON LUNG FUNCTION IN NEWLY DIAGNOSED ASTHMA
This randomized, double-blind study of 7,165 patients (5 to 66 yrs) with persistent asthma for < 2 years determined whether early intervention with low-dose inhaled budesonide (IB) prevents severe asthma-related events and decline in lung function. Patients received IB (200 µg qd for children < 11 years and 400 µg qd for others) or placebo for three years in addition to the usual asthma medications. IB treatment significantly improved pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1 percentage of predicted and reduced the mean declines from baseline for bronchodilator FEV1 at one and three years: -0.62% and -1.79% for IB and -2.11% and -2.68% for placebo, respectively (p<0.001). The decline was more marked for males, active smokers, and subjects > 18 years. The smallest treatment effects occurred in adolescents. Editor's comment: This multinational study demonstrates that low-dose IB improves lung function in recent-onset persistent asthma and reduces the loss of lung function over time. O'Byrne PM, et al. Chest 2006; 129: 1478.
译文
1. 一旦确诊哮喘后使用吸入布地奈德进行早期干预对肺功能的影响
这 是一个由7,165例(5至66岁)病程短于2年的持续性哮喘患者参加的随机、双盲研究,目的是评价应用小剂量吸入布地奈德(IB)能否预防严重的哮喘相 关事件以及阻止肺功能的下降。患者除了使用通常的哮喘药物以外,分别使用IB(11岁以下儿童为200 μg每天一次,其他患者为400 μg每天一次)或安慰剂治疗三年。结果显示,IB治疗能显著改善FEV1(包括用支气管扩张剂前和后)占预计值的百分数,并且在观察的第一年和第三年,IB能减少支气管扩张剂后FEV1较基线时下降的程度:其中IB治疗组分别为-0.62%和-1.79%,安慰剂组为-2.11%和-2.68%,(p<0.001)。而且这种下降程度在18岁以上的男性吸烟患者中尤为明显。但这种治疗在青少年中的效果并不明显。编者按:这项由多个国家参与的研究显示,低剂量IB治疗能改善新近发病的持续性哮喘患者的肺功能,并且随着时间延长还能降低肺功能的下降幅度。O'Byrne PM, et al. Chest 2006; 129: 1478.

2. SENSITIZATION TO AEROALLERGENS AND AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS (AHR) AT 7 YEARS OF AGE
One hundred thirty-one children at high risk for atopy underwent both skin-prick tests (SPT) to a panel of aeroallergens and a methacholine challenge test between 6.5 and 8.8 years (median-age 7.0 yr) of age to investigate the relationship between current and early life factors and AHR. Fifty-one percent (67) had at least one positive SPT and 28% (37) had AHR. After adjusting for relevant covariates, AHR was strongly associated with sensitization to at least four aeroallergens: cat, dust mite, cockroach, and ragweed. No relationship was found with early life exposure to perennial aeroallergens or other perinatal and first-year-of-life factors (daycare attendance, breastfeeding, tobacco exposure, and lower respiratory tract infection). The authors conclude that among young children at risk for atopy, sensitization to specific aeroallergens, but not early life exposures, is associated with increased AHR. Editor's comment: The major risk factor for AHR in this study was sensitization to cat, dust mite, cockroach, and ragweed. TePas EC, et al. Chest 2006; 129: 1500.
译文
2. 7岁儿童中气传过敏原的敏感性和气道高反应性(AHR)的调查
为 了调查当前和以往生活中的某些因素和AHR的相关性,131例6.5岁至8.8岁(年龄中位数为7岁)的具有高危特应性体质的儿童接受了一系列气传过敏原 的皮肤点刺试验(SPT)和乙酰甲胆碱激发试验。其中41%(67例)的儿童至少对一项过敏原的SPT阳性,28%(37例)存在AHR。经过调整相关因 素后,AHR至少和4种过敏原密切相关,包括猫、尘螨、蟑螂和豚草。但是和早期暴露于常年性气传过敏原或者其它围产期及一岁以内得某些因素(如日间护理状 况、母乳喂养、香烟烟雾暴露、下呼吸道感染等)没有关系。作者结论认为,在特应性体质的低龄儿童中,对特异性气传过敏原的敏感性和AHR的增高有关,但和 早期暴露状况无关。编者按:这项研究发现AHR的主要危险因素是对猫、尘螨、蟑螂和豚草的致敏。TePas EC, et al. Chest 2006; 129: 1500.

3. EARLY RISE IN EXHALED NITRIC OXIDE AND MAST CELL ACTIVATION IN REPEATED LOW-DOSE ALLERGEN CHALLENGE
Eight subjects with mild allergic asthma completed two 7-day repeated low-dose challenge periods with diluent and allergen, respectively. Subjects were symptom free at inclusion and were investigated when not exposed to specific allergen. Pulmonary function and symptoms were followed, and nitric oxide fraction (Fe,NO) and urinary mediators were correlated to changes in airway responsiveness to histamine and adenosine. There were no pulmonary function changes or asthma symptoms. Repeated allergen exposure, in contrast to diluent, caused significant increases in histamine responsiveness (2.3 doubling doses), an early and gradual increase in Fe,NO (up to a doubling from baseline) and a small increase in the mast cell marker 9α11β-prostaglandin F2 after adenosine challenge. Editor's comment: Serial low-dose allergen exposure causes airway inflammation. Ihre E, et al. Eur Respir J 2006; 27: 1152.
译文
3. 低剂量过敏原反复激发后增加早期呼出气体中的一氧化氮量,促进肥大细胞活化
八例轻度过敏性哮喘患者参加了这项为期2周的研究,在每一周内患者分别重复接受了低剂量的稀释剂和过敏原的激发试验。在入组时,患者均没有任何哮喘症状,且没有特异过敏原的接触。研究观察了患者的肺功能和症状,结果发现一氧化氮含量(Fe,NO)和尿中的介质含量与气道对组胺和腺苷的反应性的变化有关。但是肺功能和哮喘症状没有变化。与稀释剂激发相比,重复于过敏原后能引起组胺反应性的显著变化(2.3的双倍剂量)。用腺苷激发后,早期就出现Fe,NO的升高并逐渐递增(直至基线值的两倍),肥大细胞标志物9α11β-前列腺素F2也有轻微升高。编者按:连续低剂量的过敏原暴露可导致气道炎症。Ihre E, et al. Eur Respir J 2006; 27: 1152.

4. RAPID SUBCUTANEOUS IgG REPLACEMENT THERAPY IS EFFECTIVE AND SAFE IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS WITH PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCIES – A PROSPECTIVE, MULTI-NATIONAL STUDY
Sixty patients (16 children, 44 adults) participated in this study to evaluate: (1) IgG levels when switching patients from intravenous IgG (IVIG) infusions in hospital to subcutaneous (SCIG) self-infusions at home using the same cumulative dose, (2) protections against infections, and (3) safety of a new, ready-to-use 16% IgG preparation. Ten adults who had been on SCIG therapy for years served as controls. In total, 2,297 infusions were given and 28 (1%) had systemic adverse reactions, none severe. SCIG administration was safe and high IgG levels were easily maintained resulting in protection against infections. Editor's comment: SCIG is safe and effective and could be more cost effective than IVIG. Gardulf A, et al. J Clin Immunol 2006; 26: 177.
译文
4. 一个前瞻性的多国性研究-快速皮下IgG替代治疗儿童和成人原发性免疫缺陷病是有效和安全的
60 例患者(16例儿童,44例成人)参加了这项研究以评价:(1)患者从住院时静脉输注IgG(IVIG)换成在家自行皮下注入(SCIG)相同累积剂量 IgG后的体内IgG水平变化,(2)能否防止感染,以及(3)一种新型的随时可用的16%IgG制剂的安全性。10例已经接受多年SCIG治疗的成人患 者作为对照。研究总共进行了2,297次注射,其中28次(1%)出现了全身性不良反应,但没有发生严重不良反应。SCIG治疗是安全的,并且能够很容易 维持一个较高的IgG水平,从而能有效的防止感染。编者按:SCIG治疗是安全有效的,且比IVIG治疗更加经济。Gardulf A, et al. J Clin Immunol 2006; 26: 177.

5. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS OF ASTHMA SEVERITY: A 9-YEAR INTERNATIONAL PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY
The Global Initiative for Asthma categorization was used in 2002 to investigate severity of asthma in 856 subjects identified with asthma from 1991-93 in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. The severity (remittent, intermittent, mild, moderate, severe), as measured at baseline, was a determinant of a patient's severity at follow-up. Moderate and severe persistent asthma are characterized by early deterioration of lung function. High IgE levels and persistent cough/mucus hypersecretion are strong markers of moderate/severe asthma. Remission occurs primarily in individuals with less severe asthma. Editor's comment: Severe asthma begets severe asthma. de Marco R, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 117: 1249.
译文
5. 哮喘严重性的预示因素:一项为期9年的国际前瞻性队列研究
1991 至93年进行的欧洲社区呼吸健康调查中,856例诊断为哮喘的患者在2002年根据全球哮喘防治创议重新评价了其哮喘的严重程度。在基线时的严重性(弛张 性〔remittent〕,间歇性,轻度,中度,重度)决定了以后随访中患者的严重程度。中重度持续性哮喘的特征就是肺功能的早期恶化。高IgE水平和持 续性咳嗽/过多的粘液分泌也是发生中/重度哮喘的重要标志。哮喘缓解主要发生在那些程度较轻的患者中。编者按:重症哮喘在起病时就已经是严重的哮喘。de Marco R, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 117: 1249.

6. FUNCTIONAL POLYMORPHISMS IN THE MANNAN-BINDING LECTIN (MBL) 2 GENE: EFFECT ON MBL LEVELS AND OTITIS MEDIA
Twelve genetic variants in the MBL2 gene and functional MBL serum levels were determined in a cohort of children with recurrent acute otitis media. Haplotypes were constructed and associated with functional MBL serum levels and the number of otitis episodes in the previous year. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region, in exon 1, and in exon 4 of MBL2 were found to contribute to increased risk for otitis media in children younger than two years of age . Editor's comment: MBL is clinically important during early childhood when maternally derived antibodies and protective adaptive immunity is not fully developed. Wiertsema SP, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 117: 1344.
译文
6. 甘露聚糖结合凝集素(MBL)2基因的功能多态性:MBL水平和中耳炎的关系
在 一系列复发性急性中耳炎儿童患者中测定了MBL2基因的12种遗传性变型和MBL在血清中的功能水平。MBL的构成单倍型和血清中MBL的功能水平及在前 几年中的中耳炎发作次数有关。结果发现,MBL2的启动子、第一外显子和第四外显子区域的单核苷酸多态性会增加2岁以下儿童发生中耳炎的危险性。编者按:在幼童期来自母体的抗体逐渐减少,而自身的保护性获得性免疫尚不成熟时,MBL有着重要的临床意义。Wiertsema SP, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 117: 1344.

7. CHEMOKINES INDICATE ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS (ABPA) IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS
Levels of the Th2 chemokines thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) were measured in patients with CF and ABPA, asthma and ABPA, CF colonized with Aspergillus fumigatus, CF sensitized to A. fumigatus, atopic patients with CF, and non-CF atopic control subjects. Serum levels of TARC differentiate patients with CF or patients with asthma with ABPA with all others. Longitudinally, levels of TARC indicate ABPA exacerbations, suggesting TARC as a marker for identification and monitoring of ABPA in patients with CF. TARC vs IgE is a more sensitive marker for exacerbations for patients with CF and ABPA. Editor's comment: Perhaps TARC is a therapeutic target in patients with ABPA. Hartl D, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173; 1370.
译文
7. 囊性纤维化患者中趋化因子可以预测变态反应性支气管肺曲菌病(ABPA)
分 别测定同时患有CF和ABPA,哮喘和ABPA,CF伴有烟曲菌定植,CF并对烟曲菌敏感,特应性体质的CF患者,以及特应性体质的非CF对照个体的 Th2趋化因子,即胸腺和激活可调节趋化因子(TARC)和巨噬细胞来源趋化因子(MDC)的水平。CF或者哮喘患者中的血清TARC水平与其他ABPA 患者的是不一致的。从纵向来看,TARC水平升高标志了ABPA的恶化,因此,TARC可以作为CF患者中发生ABPA时的鉴定和监测指标。对于同时患有 CF和ABPA的患者来说,TRAC/IgE比值是监测病情恶化更敏感的指标。编者按:也许可以将TRAC作为ABPA患者治疗的一个靶位点。Hartl D, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173; 1370.

8. MAJOR CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS AFTER FIRST-TRIMESTER EXPOSURE TO ACE INHIBITORS
A cohort of 29,507 infants was studied between 1985 and 2000. Two hundred nine and 202 were exposed to ACE inhibitors and other antihypertensive medications, respectively, during the first trimester and compared to 29,096 controls. Infants with only first trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors, had an increased risk of major congenital malformations (risk ratio (RR), 2.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72 to 4.27), particularly of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems (RR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.89 to 7.30). ACE inhibitors should be avoided during pregnancy. Editor's comment: All physicians should be aware that ACE inhibitors used during pregnancy are associated with congenital malformations. Cooper WO, et al. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 2443.
译文
8. 妊娠早期暴露于ACE抑制剂后出现的重要先天畸形
这 是一项在1985至2000年进行的共有29,507例婴儿参加的队列研究。其中在妊娠早期有209例暴露于ACE抑制剂,202例暴露于其它抗高血压药 物,其他29,096例作为对照。结果发现,只有那些在妊娠早期暴露于ACE抑制剂的婴儿发生重要先天畸形的危险性增加了(危险比率〔RR〕,2.71; 95%置信区间〔CI〕,1.72-4.27),特别是增加了心血管和中枢神经系统畸形的危险性(RR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.89-7.30)。妊娠期应避免使用ACE抑制剂。编者按:所有医生应该认识到妊娠期使用ACE抑制剂可能会引起先天畸形。Cooper WO, et al. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 2443.

9. RHINITIS MEDICAMENTOSA (RM)
RM is a condition induced by the overuse of nasal decongestants. The term RM, also called rebound or chemical rhinitis, is also used to describe the adverse nasal congestion that develops after using medications other than topical decongestants. Such medications include oral ß-adrenoceptor antagonists, antipsychotics, oral contraceptives, and antihypertensives. There are different mechanisms through which congestion is caused by topical nasal decongestants vs. oral medications. This article reviews rhinitis medicamentosa as well as drug induced rhinitis. It reviews its presentation, physiology of nasal congestion, mechanisms of action of nasal decongestants, pathophysiology of RM, histology of RM, treatment of RM, and the need for further research. Editor's comment: RM and drug induced rhinitis have to be first recognized before they can be treated. Ramey JT, et al. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2006; 16: 148.
译文
9.药物性鼻炎(RM)
RM 是指由于过量使用鼻粘膜减充血剂引起的一种疾病状态。RM,也被称作反跳性鼻炎或化学性鼻炎,有时也用于描述使用除了局部减充血剂以外的其他药物后引起的 鼻堵不良反应。这些药物包括β肾上腺素受体拮抗剂,抗精神病药物,口服避孕药和抗高血压药物等。鼻腔局部减充血剂与口服药物两者引起的鼻堵有着不同的作用 机制。这篇文章主要总结了药物性鼻炎,同时也包括药物诱发的鼻炎。内容包括发病状况,鼻腔充血的生理学,鼻部减充血剂的作用机制,RM的病理生理学,RM 的组织学,RM的治疗,以及今后的研究方向。编者按:要治疗RM和药物诱发的鼻炎,首先要认识这些疾病。Ramey JT, et al. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2006; 16: 148.

10. LOW-DOSE INHALED AND NASAL CORTICOSTEROID USE AND THE RISK OF CATARACTS
A matched nested case-control analysis was performed in a population-based cohort of elderly people who had been dispensed medications for airway disease through a universal drug benefit plan. Inhaled (lung) corticosteroid (IGC) use was associated with a dose-related increase in both the risk of all cataracts and severe cataracts requiring extraction, and the increase in risk of severe cataracts was apparent even at daily doses of < 500 µg. The authors conclude that among the elderly, even low-doses of IGC are associated with a small but significant excess risk of cataracts requiring extraction. This excess risk was not observed with nasal corticosteroids (NGC). Editor's comment: ICG and NGC should be used in the lowest possible doses to maintain disease control. Ernst P, et al. Eur Respir J 2006; 27: 1168.
译文
10.使用低剂量吸入和鼻用皮质激素后发生白内障的危险性
这 是一项在患有气道疾病并采用通用的有效药物治疗方案的的老年患者人群队列中,进行的嵌套配对病例对照分析试验。使用吸入(肺部)皮质激素(IGC)和发生 各型白内障、以及发生需要手术摘除的重度白内障的危险性均成剂量性,而且即使每日使用剂量<500 μg发生重度白内障的危险性也会显著增加。作者结论指出,老年人中即使使用低剂量的IGC,也会轻度增加有统计学意义的、需要手术摘除的白内障的危险性。 但在鼻用皮质激素(NGC)中未发现这种危险性。编者按:在疾病的维持治疗过程中,应该尽可能的使用最小剂量的ICG和NGC。Ernst P, et al. Eur Respir J 2006; 27: 1168.

11. REVIEW OF THE MAST CELL
This review contains articles by Chang TW et al, "Anti-IgE as a mast cell-stabilizing therapeutic agent"; Rivera J, et al, "Molecular regulation of mast cell activation"; Metcalfe DD, et al, "Mast cell biology in evolution"; Bradding P, et al, "The role of the mast cell in the pathophysiology of asthma"; Gurish MF, et al, "Mast cells: Ontogeny, homing, and recruitment of a unique innate effector cell". Editor's comment: The mast cell is an extraordinarily complex cell and remains the sentinel cell of allergic inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 117: (6).

Anti-IgE as a mast cell-stabilizing therapeutic agent
Molecular regulation of mast cell activation
Mast cell biology in evolution (No abstract available)
The role of the mast cell in the pathophysiology of asthma
Mast cells: Ontogeny, homing, and recruitment of a unique innate effector cell
译文
11.有关肥大细胞的综述
这 些综述包括Chang TW等人的《抗IgE作为稳定肥大细胞的治疗药物》;Rivera J等人的《肥大细胞活化的分子调节》;Metcalfe DD等人的《肥大细胞的生物学进化过程》;Bradding P等人的《肥大细胞在哮喘病理生理学中的作用》;Gurish MF等人的《肥大细胞:作为一种独特的先天效应细胞的发生学,归巢和募集》。编者按:肥大细胞是一类独特的复杂的细胞,并且至今依然是变态反应炎症的哨兵细胞。J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 117: (6).

《抗IgE作为稳定肥大细胞的治疗药物》
《肥大细胞活化的分子调节》
《肥大细胞的生物学进化过程》 (未提供摘要)
《肥大细胞在哮喘病理生理学中的作用》
《肥大细胞:作为一种独特的先天效应细胞的发生学,归巢和募集》

12. EOSINOPHILS
Proceedings of a workshop in Tokyo, Japan, June 11, 2005 entitled "Eosinophils in Allergy and Related Diseases" is published in the International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. Papers included: Kishimoto S, et al, "Chemotaxis of Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophils to 2-Arachidonoylglycerol: Comparison with other Eosinophil Chemoattractants"; Itakura A, et al, "Interleukin 5 Plays an Essential Role in Elicitation of Contact Sensitivity through Dual Effects on Eosinophils and B-1 Cells"; Kushiya M, et al, "Differential Effects of Salbutamol and Montelukast on Eosinophil Adhesion and Superoxide Anion Generation"; Komiya A, et al, "Expression and Function of Toll-Like Receptors in Human Basophils"; Adachi T, et al, "The Role of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor in Eotaxin Signaling of Eosinophils"; Ueki S, et al, "Procaterol Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Expression in Human Eosinophils"; Matsumoto K, et al, "CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide Prolongs Eosinophil Survival through Activation of Contaminating B Cells and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in vitro"; Hashimoto T, et al, "IL-2-Induced IL-13 Production by Allergen-Specific Human Helper T Cell Clones"; and Mori A, et al, "Th2-Cell-Mediated Chemokine Synthesis Is Involved in Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice". Editor's comment: This is a very interesting review of the advances in eosinophillic biology and their role in allergic diseases. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2006; 140: 1-62.

Chemotaxis of Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophils to 2-Arachidonoylglycerol: Comparison with other Eosinophil Chemoattractants
Interleukin 5 Plays an Essential Role in Eliciatation of Contact Sensitivity through Dual Effects on Eosinophils and B-1 Cells
Differential Effects of Salbutamol and Montelukast on Eosinophil Adhesion and Superoxide Anion Generation
Expression and Function of Toll-Like Receptors in Human Basophils
The Role of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor in Eotaxin Signaling of Eosinophils
Procaterol Upregulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Expression in Human Eosinophils
CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide Prolongs Eosinophil Survival through Activation of Contaminating B Cells and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in vitro
IL-2-Induced IL-13 Production by Allergen-Specific Human Helper T Cell Clones
Th2-Cell-Mediated Chemokine Synthesis Is Involved in Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice
译文
12.嗜酸性粒细胞
这是发表在 《 International Archives of Allergy and Immunology》 的关于2005年6月11日在日本东京举办的专题研讨会的会议记录,题目是《在变态反应及其相关疾病中的嗜酸性粒细胞》。包括的论文有: Kishimoto S等人的《2-Arachidonoylglycerol引起的人类外周血嗜酸性粒细胞的化学趋化性:和其它嗜酸性粒细胞化学趋化因子的比较》; Itakura A等人的《在诱发接触过敏反应过程中,白细胞介素5通过嗜酸性粒细胞和B-1细胞的双重效应发挥重要作用》;Kushiya M等人的《沙丁胺醇和孟鲁司特在嗜酸性粒细胞黏附和超氧负离子产生方面的不同效应》;Komiya A等人的《人类嗜碱性粒细胞中Toll样受体的表达和功能》;Adachi T等人的《嗜酸性粒细胞中,血小板衍生生长因子受体在嗜酸细胞活化趋化因子的信号传导过程中的作用》;Ueki S等人的《丙卡特罗能上调人类嗜酸性粒细胞中过氧化物酶体增生物激活受体的表达》;Matsumoto K等人的《CpG寡聚脱氧核苷酸在体外通过活化混杂的B细胞和类浆样树突状细胞延长嗜酸性粒细胞的存活时间》;Hashimoto T等人的《IL-2通过过敏原特异性的人类T辅助细胞克隆诱导IL-13的产生》;以及Mori A等人的《大鼠中Th2细胞介导的趋化因子合成参与了变态反应气道炎症》。编者按:这些都是关于嗜酸性粒细胞的生物学及其在过敏性疾病中作用等研究进展方面非常有意思的一些文章。. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2006; 140: 1-62.

《2-Arachidonoylglycerol引起的人类外周血嗜酸性粒细胞的化学趋化性:和其它嗜酸性粒细胞化学趋化因子的比较》
《在诱发接触过敏反应过程中,白细胞介素5通过嗜酸性粒细胞和B-1细胞的双重效应发挥重要作用》
《沙丁胺醇和孟鲁司特在嗜酸性粒细胞黏附和超氧负离子产生方面的不同效应》
《人类嗜碱性粒细胞中Toll样受体的表达和功能》
《嗜酸性粒细胞中,血小板衍生生长因子受体在嗜酸细胞活化趋化因子的信号传导过程中的作用》
《丙卡特罗能上调人类嗜酸性粒细胞中过氧化物酶体增生物激活受体的表达》
《CpG寡聚脱氧核苷酸在体外通过活化混杂的B细胞和类浆样树突状细胞延长嗜酸性粒细胞的存活时间》
《IL-2通过过敏原特异性的人类T辅助细胞克隆诱导IL-13的产生
《大鼠中Th2细胞介导的趋化因子合成参与了变态反应气道炎症》

13. IN VIVO AND IN VITRO ALLERGY TESTING
The current issue of the journal of the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology, is a review of in vivo and in vitro allergy testing. Articles included: Morris AJ, "To allergy test or not to test?"; Koshak E, "Do in vitro IgE tests have a role in identifying atopic asthma?"; Morris A, "Is allergy testing cost-effective?"; Potter PC, "Clinical indications and interpretation of the CAST"; Lopata AL, "Specialized in vitro diagnostic methods in the evaluation of hypersensitivity – an overview"; and Morris A, "ALLSA Position Statement: Allergen skin-prick testing." Editor's comment: An excellent review of allergy testing. Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology 2006; 19: 2-25.

To allergy test or not to test?
Do in vitro IgE tests have a role in identifying atopic asthma?
Is allergy testing cost-effective?
Clinical indications and interpretation of the CAST
Specialized in vitro diagnostic methods in the evaluation of hypersensitivity – an overview
ALLSA Position State: Allergen skin-prick testing
译文
13.过敏原检测的体内和体外法
最新一期的南非变态反应学会(ALLSA)的杂志,《Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology》 刊登了关于过敏原检测的体内和体位法的一些综述。文章包括:Morris AJ的《何时进行过敏原检测?》;Koshak E的《体外IgE测定在鉴别特应性哮喘方面具有什么样的作用?》;Morris A的《过敏原检测的成本-效益比?》;Potter PC的《CAST的临床适应症及其结果的解释》;Lopata AL的《评价超敏反应的一些特殊体外诊断方法-概述》;以及Morris A的《ALLSA官方文件:过敏原皮肤点刺试验》。编者按:关于过敏原检测方面非常好的综述。Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology 2006; 19: 2-25.

《何时进行过敏原检测?》
《体外IgE测定在鉴别特应性哮喘方面具有什么样的作用?》
《过敏原检测的成本-效益比?》
《CAST的临床适应症及其结果的解释》
《评价超敏反应的一些特殊体外诊断方法-概述》
《ALLSA官方文件:过敏原皮肤点刺试验》

14. APPROACHES TO THE TREATMENT OF HYPEREOSINOPHILIC SYNDROMES: A WORKSHOP SUMMARY REPORT
Hypereosinophilic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by the presence of marked peripheral blood eosinophilia, tissue eosinophilia, or both, which cause a wide variety of clinical manifestations. This group of clinicians discusses current and future approaches to therapy for 3 eosinophil-mediated disorders: hypereosinophilic syndrome, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disease. Editor's comment: Excellent workshop summary on hypereosinophilic syndromes. Klion AD, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 117: 1292.
译文
14.关于嗜酸性粒细胞增多综合征的治疗方法:工作报告摘要
嗜 酸性粒细胞增多综合征是以外周血嗜酸性粒细胞增多和/或组织嗜酸性粒细胞增多为特征,可引起各种临床表现的一组异源性疾病。这份报告讨论了以下3种嗜酸性 粒细胞相关疾病的目前和今后可能的治疗方法,包括嗜酸性粒细胞增多综合征,变应性肉芽肿性血管炎和嗜酸性粒细胞相关的胃肠道疾病。编者按:这是关于嗜酸性粒细胞增多综合征的一份很好的工作报告。Klion AD, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 117: 1292.


WAO Member Society Spotlight – The Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand

聚焦WAO成员-泰国变态反应和免疫学会

Dear Colleagues,
尊敬的各位同道:

Asia is the largest continent in the world. Its population is almost ten-fold that of the United States. Consequently, patients suffering from allergic and immunologic diseases in Asia are a large pool of underserved population due to limited human resources and infrastructures. Within the last decade, several advances in allergy research and development have been made in Asia, beginning in Japan and Korea. In 1991, the Asia-Pacific Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology was founded, and its first congress was launched in Bangkok, Thailand. In 1997, the Asia-Pacific Association of Pediatric Allergy, Respirology and Immunology took shape and has served as a hub for communication between key researchers and pediatric allergists in Asia. These developments have led to a quick leap in research and insights into allergy in Asia, both in research and in clinical care.
亚 洲作为全球最大的一个洲,人口约为美国的10倍。但由于缺乏足够的人力、物力和财力,亚洲有很大一部分变态反应性和免疫性疾病患者得不到很好的治疗。不过 近十年以来,首先从日本和韩国开始,亚洲的变态反应学研究开始取得了一些进展并逐渐得到发展。1991年,亚太变态反应和临床免疫联合会成立,并在泰国曼 谷举办了第一次全体会议。1997年,亚太儿科变态反应、呼吸病学和免疫学联合会也正式成立,从而为亚洲该领域的主要研究者和儿童变态反应学家之间的搭建 一个交流的平台。所有这些工作促进了亚洲变态反应在科研和临床各个方面的快速的跳跃式发展。

During December 2-6, 2007, in Bangkok, Thailand, Asia will have a chance to host a world-premier event in Allergy – the XX World Allergy Congress (WAC 2007), the biannual meeting of the World Allergy Organization (WAO). As a prelude to this forthcoming meeting, the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand (AIST) is planning a warm-up event for the WAC 2007. The Allergy and Immunology Network in Asia, Quantum Leap to the Future Summit Meeting will be held in Pattaya, a famous seaside resort of Thailand, October 5-6, 2006. The meeting will feature several keynote speakers from Japan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, France, Italy and the United States. Topics covered will be broad, including basic and every-day clinical research.
2007 年12月2-6日,位于亚洲的泰国曼谷将举办变态反应学界最盛大的国际会议-第二十届世界变态反应大会(WAC 2007),该会议是世界变态反应组织(WAO)每年举办两次会议中的一次。作为这次即将到来的会议的前奏,泰国变态反应和免疫学会(AIST)计划为 WAC 2007组织一次热身活动。即2006年10月5-6日将在泰国著名的海滨疗养胜地Pattaya举办亚洲变态反应和免疫学网络,跨向未来的峰会。这次会 议邀请的一些主要讲者将来自日本、香港、印度尼西亚、法国、意大利和美国等。会议的议题也十分广泛,包括基础以及日常的临床工作研究。

Since Thailand is within easy reach for most Asian countries, traveling to our Congress will be quick and affordable to most members of national allergy societies in Asia. The cost for joining the Congress is kept to a minimum to allow participation even from newly-developing countries in Asia. Moreover, ample time will be allowed to acquaint new comers to old guards in allergy and immunology. We cordially invite you to enjoy the Summit and look forward to seeing you in Pattaya in October 2006.
泰 国具有优越的地理位置,绝大部分亚洲国家来这里都很方便,因此对于亚洲大部分国家的变态反应学会成员来说,参加我们的会议是很容易的事情,也是可以承受 的。为了能让一些新的发展中国家的成员也能来参加,本次会议的费用定的很低。另外,会议也为新老变态反应和免疫学会成员相互认识交流提供了充裕的时间。在 此,我们诚挚的邀请您来参加本次峰会,期待能在2006年十月的Pattaya和各位相见。

Pakit Vichyanond
President
Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand
泰国变态反应和免疫学会
主席
Pakit Vichyanond


WAO Now: What's New in the World of WAO

今日WAO:WAO领域新进展

New WAO Conversation
新的WAO访谈

Listen to Michael A. Kaliner, WAO President, enlighten you on "what is WAO" and talk about the importance of gathering allergy knowledge from throughout the world.
WAO主席Michael A. Kaliner,将向各位介绍WAO的一般情况以及全世界联合起来共同研究变态反应知识的重要性。


gloria logoNew GLORIA Modules

新的GLORIA项目

WAO has recently developed three new modules that are available for member societies to apply to host:
WAO最近开展了3个新的项目,各成员学会可以在此申请东道主资格:

Module 7: Angioedema
This new module reviews the pathophysiology, diagnosis, genetics and management of acquired and genetic forms of angioedema.
项目7:血管性水肿

这个新的计划回顾了各型获得性和遗传性血管性水肿的病理生理学、诊断、遗传学和管理。

Module 8: Anaphylaxis
The module has been developed to provide a global overview on the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis and management of this life-threatening allergic condition.
项目8:严重过敏反应

这个项目为学员提供了关于严重过敏反应这种危及生命的变态反应状态的一些全局性的概述,包括其病理生理学、流行病学、诊断和管理等。

Module 9: Diagnosis of IgE Sensitization
This module reviews the specificity and sensitivity of the major diagnostic tests, skin testing and allergen-specific IgE antibody serology, that help to determine the pathological mechanisms underlying allergic symptoms.
项目9:IgE致敏的诊断

这个项目介绍了一些主要诊断试验方法,皮肤试验和过敏原特异性IgE抗体血清学诊断的特异性和敏感性,从而帮助学员认识过敏症状下面潜在的病理学机制。

Click here for details on all GLORIA modules.
有关GLORIA项目的详细资料,请点击此处

2006 Seminars & Conferences Remaining Placements
2006剩余的已安排的学术研讨会和大会会议

Seminars & Conferences, WAO's newest educational program, offers Member Societies the opportunity to apply for an international lecturer, who they would not otherwise be able to afford, to invite to their annual allergy meeting. The remaining 2006 placements include:
学术研讨会和大会会议,这些同样也是WAO最新的教育计划,能够帮助各成员学会邀请一位国际讲者去参加他们的变态反应年会,而这仅靠他们学会可能是无法负担的。2006剩余的已安排项目包括:

17th Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy Annual Scientific Meeting
WAO Invited Lecturer: Ronald Dahl
7-10 September 2006
Manly Beach, New South Wales, Australia
第17届大洋洲临床免疫和变态反应年度学术会议

WAO特邀讲者:
Ronald Dahl
澳大利亚新南威尔士州Manly Beach
2006年9月7-10

ALL-4-Kids Congress: Joint Meeting of Allergy Society of South Africa & the South African Pediatric Association
WAO Invited Lecturer: Michael A. Kaliner
7-11 September 2006
South Africa
ALL-4-Kids会议:南非变态反应学会和南非儿科学会联合会议

WAO特邀讲者:
Michael A. Kaliner
南非
2006年9月7-11

To apply for a WAO Invited Lecturer in 2007, please fill out the online application.
如需邀请2007年度WAO特邀讲者,请填写在线申请表

WAO Long-Term Research Fellowship – reminder!
WAO长期研究学员资格-请注意

Applications for the first WAO Long-Term Research Fellowship should be submitted to WAO head office not later than 30 September 2006.
向WAO总部申请第一期WAO长期研究学员资格的最后截止日期是2006年9月30日。

Application forms may be downloaded here.
点击此处下载申请表。

Sign up for On-Line Journal Subscription –
在线杂志订阅申请-

WAO and Hogrefe & Huber Publishers are offering a limited number of free on-line subscriptions to Allergy & Clinical Immunology International - Journal of the World Allergy Organization for members in developing countries. If you are interested in receiving a complimentary, on-line subscription, please send an e-mail to info@worldallergy.org, noting "Free Journal Subscription" in the subject line, with the following details:

First name
Last name
Postal address
City, State/Province and postal code
Country
E-mail address
Name of Member Society

WAO和Hogrefe & Huber出版公司现为发展中国家的会员提供有限数量的《Allergy & Clinical Immunology International - Journal of the World Allergy Organization》免费在线订阅服务。如果您希望得到这份杂志的免费赠阅的电子版,请给我们发送e-mail至info@worldallergy.org,注意在信件的主题栏写“Free Journal Subscription”,并详细注明以下资料:

名字
姓氏
邮政地址
市,州/省和邮政编码
国家
E-mail地址
成员学会的名称


And In Other News

其他新闻

Allergy Book Review
变态反应书评

STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY of the COMPLEMENT SYSTEM
Morikis D, Lambris JD, eds.
2005 CRC Press
补体系统的结构生物学
Morikis D和Lambris JD主编
2005 CRC Press

List price: $169.95
Available from:
CRC Press
定价:169.95美元
出版商:CRC Press

Reviewer:
Dr Olga Patricia MARTINEZ, MB BS, FRACP, FRCPA, PhD
Royal Perth Hospital, PathWest, School of Surgery and Pathology, University of Western Australia
书评作者:Olga Patricia MARTINEZ医生,医学士、外科学士、澳大利亚皇家内科医师学会会员、澳大利西亚皇家病理学家学会会员、公共卫生博士
西澳大利亚大学 外科和病理学学院 PathWest Royal Perth 医院

Description:
The discovery of the complement proteins and molecules involved in their activation and inhibition has taken many years. This book describes the current knowledge of the structure of complement components and of complement activator and inhibitory molecules. Each chapter is dedicated to particular components, with a detailed description of their structure and function and how these correlate with each other. The final two chapters describe molecules that control complement activation, for which analogues could potentially be designed and produced for therapeutic purposes.
说明:
人们历时很多年发现了补体系统的各种蛋白及参与其活化和抑制过程中的各种分子。本书介绍了目前关于补体组分以及补体活化和抑制分子的结构学知识。每一章专 门介绍某个特定的组分,详细其结构和功能以及与其它组分的相互关系。最后两章介绍了控制补体激活的分子,可以根据这些分子设计一些类似物用于治疗。

Purpose:
The purpose of this book was to assemble a volume containing the current state-of-the-art of the structural biology of components, activators and inhibitors of the complement system, with structure-function correlations.
目的:
这册图书是为了给读者介绍补体系统各组分、活化剂和抑制剂的结构生物学,及其结构功能关系的当前的最新认识。

Audience:
This book is predominantly targeted to researchers interested in understanding the many molecules participating in complement-mediated responses, including activating and inhibiting molecules and their interactions. It is also directed to researchers interested in protein dynamics and thermodynamics of these processes. Some sections of the book that describe the role of the complement system in innate and acquired immunity would be of interest to immunologists. The potential for synthetic molecules to control complement activation is of interest to clinicians dealing with immune-mediated disorders.
读者:
本书主要是面向对参与补体介导反应的各种分子感兴趣的各位研究者,包括活化和抑制分子及其相互作用。同时也适合那些对蛋白质动力学及这些过程的热力学感兴 趣的研究者。免疫学家对于书中介绍补体系统在先天性和获得性免疫作用等方面的内容也可能会感兴趣的。另外,对于主治各类免疫介导疾病的医生而言,那些潜在 的、控制补体活化的合成分子也是他们感兴趣的。

Features:
The first chapter provides a historical overview of discovery, purification and description of three-dimensional structure of complement proteins. Subsequent chapters describe in detail the molecular and modular structure of complement control proteins (CCP), individual complement proteins, some complement receptors and activators and inhibitors. Each chapter is well ordered with a table of contents and contains clear tables and diagrams. Each chapter concludes with an extensive list of references and, where required, acknowledgment of funding and contribution by colleagues.
特色:
本书的第一章概要介绍了补体蛋白的发现历史、纯化过程及其三维结构。随后章节详细介绍了补体控制蛋白(CCP)的各种分子及其模块结构,包括补体蛋白,一 些补体受体和活化及抑制分子等。书中的每一章都列有目录,结构有序,还配有清晰的图表。每一章还列出了很多进一步学习需要的参考文献,以及向资助基金和参 与工作同事的致谢。

A companion CD is provided with the book. This contains all figures and legends in separate Acrobat files. Most figures are in black and white, but some have color to highlight specific features. There are links to the PDB (Protein Data BanK) for all structures discussed and for complement-related proteins and viral, semi-synthetic or synthetic complement regulators or inhibitors reviewed. The CD also contains the "RasTop" bio-molecular structure visualization program, which reads and displays PDB coordinate files.
本书还附有相应的CD光盘。内容为Acrobat文件格式的书中所有的图表及其说明。大多数图表都是黑白的,但有少数在重点的、特征性的部分做了彩色标 记。书中讨论到的所有补体相关蛋白、病毒、半合成或人工合成的补体调节剂或抑制剂的结构都列出了PDB(蛋白数据库)的链接。该光盘还包含“Ras Top”生物分子结构可视化程序软件,可用于阅读和显示PDB相应的文件。

Assessment:
The existence of the complement system has been recognized for many years. However, detailed description of the structure of its many components has taken many years and many techniques. This book brings together much of the currently available knowledge in this area. While there are still many unanswered questions about the precise mechanism of action and the many interactions involved in complement-mediated reactions, the potential for new therapeutic interventions makes it an exciting area for further investigation. The detailed information provided in STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY of the COMPLEMENT SYSTEM would be extremely useful for future researchers in this area, making this book a must-have for those intending to pursue this interesting field of research.
评估:
自从人们知道存在补体系统至今已有好多年了。但是逐个认识这一系统中很多成分的结构却用了很多技术,也花费了很多年。本书为大家带来了这一领域中很多最新 的知识。尽管关于这一系统确切的作用机制,补体介导反应的各种相互作用等仍然存在很多尚未得到准确答案的问题,但作为潜在的新治疗干预方法的靶目标,使得 这一领域成为今后研究的热点。今后这领域的研究者将从《补体系统的结构生物学》介绍的内容中受益匪浅,本书将会是今后致力于这一领域研究人员的必备图书。

Find more allergy book reviews on the WAO Website here.
WAO网站上其它的变态反应学书评见此处

The World Allergy Organization's mission is to build a global alliance of allergy societies to advance excellence in clinical care, research, education and training. Visit us on the Web at http://www.worldallergy.org/

World Allergy Organization (WAO)
Secretariat
555 E. Wells Street, Suite 1100
Milwaukee, WI 53202-3823
Email: info@worldallergy.org

You have received this message because you are a member of a WAO Member Society, you have subscribed for the monthly e-letter or had previous contact with the World Allergy Organization. If you would prefer not to receive further messages from WAO, please reply to this message with REMOVE in the subject line.

世界变态反应组织的使命是建立一个全球性的变态反应学会联盟,不断推动临床、科研、教学与培训工作的进步。欢迎您浏览我们的网站: http://www.worldallergy.org/

世界变态反应组织(WAO)秘书处
555 E. Wells Street, Suite 1100
Milwaukee, WI 53202-3823
电子信箱:info@worldallergy.org

您因如下原因收到此次通讯:您是世界变态反应协会会员,或者您曾向世界变态反应协会订阅过电子月刊,或者您以前曾与世界变态反应协会进行过有关联系。如果您不希望继续收到来自世界变态反应协会的信息,请以删除为主题回复此邮件。



Made possible through an unrestricted educational grant from Novartis.
由诺华教育基金提供资助

译者:北京协和医院 顾建青    Translated by Gu jianqing MD  PUMCH Dep. of ALLERGY