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WAO News & Notes - August 2007
Volume 4, Issue 8

WAO is pleased to announce the three winners of the Free Registration Drawing at the EAACI Congress and the CMICA Congress: Felix Gastager, Silvia Novakova and Roberto Gonzalez Galvon. Congratulations!

Medical Journal Review
八月医学杂志回顾
WAO Now: What's New in the World of WAO

今日WAOWAO领域新进展

·       New Educational Postings on the WAO Website

·       WAO网站新教育

·       Call for Applications

·       召集申请

·       Upcoming Allergy Meetings

·       即将到来的变态反应会议

And In Other News . . .
其他新闻

 


Medical Journal Reviews
                 
医学杂志回顾
Prof. Richard F. Lockey, MD, WAO Web Editor-in-Chief, and Guest Reviewer Gary Hellermann, PhD, reviewed premier medical journal articles for practicing allergists. Read their top 3 picks below and for the other 9 reviews, click here.
Richard F. Lockey
教授,医学博士,WAO网站主编,他为在业的变态反应科医生回顾了主要医学杂志的一些重要文章。以下是4篇主要的文章,点击这里阅读其它10篇。

1. Palivizumab (P) prophylaxis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and subsequent recurrent wheezing.
There is substantial evidence that lower respiratory tract infections of children with RSV within the first two years of life predispose them to wheezing. Preterm infants are at especially great risk of RSV bronchiolitis within the first year of life, and prophylaxis with the anti-RSV antibody P helps reduce their risk of respiratory infections. Whether or not this treatment translates into a reduction in subsequent wheezing is the subject of this study. Preterm infants (≤35 weeks gestation) without chronic lung disease were selected from 27 different sites according to whether they had received P or not. Recurrent wheezing was assessed monthly over a period of 24 months. The results show a significant reduction of about 50% in the incidence of recurrent wheezing in preterm infants receiving P. Editor’s comment: While palivizumab has a proven track record in reducing RSV infections in high risk infants, its cost precludes its widespread prophylactic use. The development of an effective RSV vaccine is still a desirable goal. Simoes EA et al. J Pediatr 2007; 151:34.
1.
帕丽珠RSV单克隆抗体)预防呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)感染和继发的复发性喘鸣
有确切证据证实出生后两年内发生下呼吸道合胞病毒感染的儿童容易发生哮喘。早产儿在出生后一年内尤其容易发生合胞病毒性支气管炎,因此如果使用帕丽珠RSV单克隆抗体可帮助其减少这种病毒的感染率。本研究的目的是明确这种治疗是否有助于帮助患儿减少哮喘的发生。没有慢性肺部疾病的早产儿(孕周≤35周)按照是否接受过帕丽珠治疗分为两组,这些患儿来自27个不同地区。如组后24个月内,每月进行一次哮喘评价。相对未治疗组,接受帕丽珠治疗的婴儿复发性哮喘显著减少了约50%。编者评论:在高危儿童,帕丽珠治疗可以减少呼吸道合胞病毒感染,但价格较贵,阻碍其广泛的预防性应用。开发有效的呼吸道合胞病毒疫苗依然是一种很有前景的目标。Simoes EA et al. J Pediatr 2007; 151:34

2. Effect of inhaled interleukin-5 (IL-5) on eosinophil (E) progenitors in the bronchi and bone marrow of asthmatic and non-asthmatic volunteers.
There is a shift in our understanding of the role of the E in asthma. They are now seen less as misguided pathogenic cells bent on creating an inflammatory condition and more as players in a complex scenario where many factors contribute to the condition. In this report, the role of E progenitor numbers in the bone marrow was examined in asthmatic vs non-asthmatic subjects. IL-5 induces the expansion and proliferation of Es in bone marrow and upregulates IL-5 receptor expression. Healthy and mild atopic asthmatic subjects were randomized into two groups, one of which received recombinant human IL-5 by inhalation and the other vehicle only. Spirometry was measured at baseline and 6 h after IL-5 inhalation. Blood samples were taken at 0, 6 and 24 h and at 24 h bronchial and bone marrow biopsies were done along with bronchoalveolar lavage. IL-5 significantly decreases the number of CD3+ E progenitor cells in the bone marrow of asthmatics and increases Es in bronchial mucosa of healthy persons.  There was no effect on FEV1 or airway hyperreactivity. Editor’s comment: The demonstration of a signaling axis between IL-5 levels in the lung and eosinophil progenitor production in bone marrow suggests that more comparisons between local and systemic effects of inflammatory mediators need to be done. Menzies-Gow AN et al. Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:1023.

2雾化吸入白细胞介素-5 IL-5 )对哮喘和非哮喘志愿者支气管及骨髓的嗜酸祖细胞(E)的影响
我们对嗜酸粒细胞在哮喘中所起作用正在转变。现在嗜酸粒细胞并不象以往那样被认为是哮喘的主要炎症细胞,而是和其它众多的细胞因子一起共同引起哮喘。在这篇文章中,研究了哮喘患者和非哮喘志愿者的骨髓嗜酸祖细胞数量的作用。IL-5诱导骨髓中嗜酸细胞的扩散和增生和IL-5受体的表达上调。健康志愿者和轻度过敏性哮喘患者被随机分为两组,其中一组接受重组IL-5吸入,另一组仅接受载体吸入。基线期和IL-5吸入6小时后进行肺功能测定。第0,第6和第24小时采集血液样本,24小时支气管及骨髓切片,同时做支气管肺泡灌洗。白细胞介素5大大降低哮喘患者骨髓CD3+嗜酸祖细胞数量,增加健康人支气管粘膜嗜酸粒细胞数量。IL-5吸入对FEV1.0或气道反应性没有影响。编辑点评:肺中的IL-5水平和骨髓中的嗜酸祖细胞信号轴关系提示,炎症介质在局部和全身的影响的比较还有很多工作要做。Menzies-Gow AN et al. Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:1023


3. A GABAergic system in airway epithelium is essential for mucus overproduction in asthma.
Type II lung epithelial cells express the gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor (GABAAR) and this study shows that activation of GABAAR in OVA-sensitized/-challenged mice caused depolarization of these cells. Similar results were obtained using bronchial epithelial cells from human asthmatics. Cells from the asthmatic mice as well as humans show an increase in GABAARs upon allergen challenge that correlates with an increase in goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus production. Inhibition of GABAAR reduces goblet cells and mucus in mice. IL-13 is also upregulated in OVA-treated mice and human cells and represents a critical factor in allergic enhancement of GABAAR activity. Editor’s comment: This study is the first report of the existence of a GABAergic signaling pathway involved in mucus overproduction in asthma and may provide a new therapeutic target. Xiang Y-Y et al. Nature Medicine (Letters) 2007; 13:862.

3.
在气道上皮细胞的能系统对哮喘的粘液过度分泌很重要

这项研究表示,II型肺上皮细胞表达伽玛氨基丁酸的亚型A感受器官(GABAAR),在卵白蛋白致敏后用卵白蛋白激发的小鼠的GABAAR活化作用可导致这些细胞的去极化。用哮喘患者的支气管上皮细胞得到近似结果。 从哮喘的人和小鼠细胞GABAARs含量增高,且与过敏原激发后杯形细胞增生和黏液相关。抑制GABAAR可减少小鼠的杯形细胞和黏液分泌。在卵白蛋白处理小鼠和人类细胞IL-13含量增加,并且表示在GABAAR活动在过敏过程中是一个重要因素。 编辑点评论:这项研究是γ-氨基丁酸信号通路参与哮喘的黏液过度产生的首个报告,也许可以提供一个新的治疗目标。Xiang Y-Y et al. Nature Medicine (Letters) 2007; 13:862.

 

4. Mast cells (MCs) promote atherosclerosis by releasing proinflammatory cytokines.
MCs are found in atherosclerotic lesions, and it is thought that they cause inflammation by secreting cytokines that can attract other immune cells and alter endothelial or smooth muscle cell activity and proteases involved in vascular remodeling. MCs isolated from arterial lesions show significant amounts of IFN-gamma and IL-6 which can activate caspases and proteases and stimulate cell proliferation. This report looked at Ldlr-/- mice that lack the receptor for LDL which increases in the blood and causes atherosclerosis in mice fed a high fat ‘Western’ diet. The plaques that develop contain MCs. The authors created a double knockout mouse combining the Ldlr-/- mutation with a defective kit gene which prevents maturation of mast cells and found that the plaques were much smaller and had no MCs. Editor’s comment: The reduction in atherogenesis in mice deficient in mast cell production suggests an important link between mast cells, chronic arterial inflammation and plaque formation. Sun J, et al. Nature Medicine (Letters) 2007; 13:719.

4
肥大细胞(MCS)通过释放前炎症细胞因子加重动脉粥样硬化
动脉粥样硬化病灶中有MCS存在,通过释放前炎症细胞因子,趋化其他免疫细胞,改变内皮细胞或平滑肌细胞活动和参与血管重建的蛋白酶。动脉粥样硬化病灶处MCS含有大将γ-干扰素和IL-6,这些细胞因子可活化caspases和蛋白酶,刺激细胞增生。这个研究观察了高脂“西方饮食”饲养的缺乏LDL受体的Ldlr-/-小鼠,小鼠出现高LDL血症,并导致动脉粥样硬化。。基因敲除小鼠。粥样斑块中可发现MCS。作者创造了双基因敲除小鼠(Ldlr-/-kit基因),防止肥大细胞的成熟,发现斑块较小,而且没有肥大细胞浸润。编者评点:肥大细胞生成缺陷的小鼠动脉粥样硬化减轻,提示肥大细胞、慢性动脉炎症和斑块形成之间的重要联系。The reduction in atherogenesis in mice deficient in mast cell production suggests an important link between mast cells, chronic arterial inflammation and plaque formation. Sun J, et al. Nature Medicine (Letters) 2007; 13:719

5. Lower airways inflammation in allergic rhinitics: a comparison with asthmatics and normal controls.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is thought to predispose to asthma. The purpose of this paper is to compare lung inflammation in AR subjects with that in asthmatics and healthy controls. This is the first report to compare lower airways for a wide range of variables among these three groups. Lower airway bronchial biopsies were done and examined by histochemical staining and reverse transcriptase-PCR. Biopsies from AR subjects demonstrate increased numbers of eosinophils and mast cells plus increased expression of TNF-alpha relative to controls, but less so than asthmatics. There are no differences among the three groups in numbers of neutrophils, macrophages and CD4+ lymphocytes. IL1-beta and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 are increased in AR subjects relative to asthmatics and controls. IFN-gamma levels in AR were lower than controls but not as low as in biopsies from asthmatics. Editor’s comment: The inflammatory state of the lung in persons suffering from allergic rhinitis appears to be midway between that of healthy individuals and asthmatics. Brown JL et al. Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:688.
5. 
过敏性鼻炎的下呼吸道炎症:哮喘患者和正常对照的比较
过敏性鼻炎患者容易发生过敏性哮喘。本研究的目的是比较过敏性鼻炎患者、哮喘患者和正常对照的肺部炎症。这是比较这三组患者下气道炎症多参数的首个研究。进行下气道支气管活检,标本进行组织化学染色并进行反转录PCR研究。从过敏性鼻炎患者的标本嗜酸粒细胞和肥大细胞数量增加,TNF-α表达增高。中性粒细胞,巨噬细胞和CD4细胞数量在三组间无明显差异。与支正常对照和哮喘患者相比,过敏性鼻炎患者IL-1β和血管内皮细胞粘附分子-1较高。过敏性鼻炎患者的IFN-γ水平比对照组低,但比哮喘组高。编者点评:过敏性鼻炎患者的肺部炎症看起来居于健康人和哮喘患者之间Brown JL et al. Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:688

6. Human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) express an active and inducible biosynthetic pathway for leukotrienes B4 and C4.
Leukotrienes are potent mediators of bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion and attraction of eosinophils and neutrophils. It is thought that the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway that generates leukotrienes is restricted to leukocytes such as mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils and monocytes, but evidence is presented in this paper showing primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) also possess a functioning 5-LO pathway. Expression of 5-LO mRNA and protein is demonstrated in HBECs and could be blocked by dexamethasone, while an antibody to 5-LO activating protein prevented production of leukotrienes B4 and C4. Editor’s comment: This finding that HBECs produce LTC4 and LTB4 suggests that they may play a substantial role in the bronchoconstriction and inflammation observed in asthma. Jame AJ, et al. Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:880.
6
人支气管上皮细胞(HBECs)可表达活跃的可诱导的白三烯B4C4生物合成旁路
白三烯是支气管痉挛、粘液分泌亢进和嗜酸粒细胞和中性粒细胞趋化的强有力的细胞介质。以前认为,5-脂氧化酶(5-LO旁路仅存在于白细胞例如肥大细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞、嗜碱性粒细胞、中性粒细胞和单核细胞中,但本研究提示,人支气管上皮细胞(HBECs)也可表达5-LO旁路。5-LO mRNA和蛋白在人支气管上皮细胞中的表达可被地塞米松抑制,而5-LO活化蛋白抗体可抑制白三烯B4C4的产生编者点评:这一研究表明人支气管上皮细胞表达LTC4 and LTB4,。 Jame AJ, et al. Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:880.

7. Montelukast as add-on therapy to β-agonists and late airway response.
The early response of the asthmatic airway to allergens involves primarily bronchoconstriction and responds well to beta-agonist therapy, while the late-phase inflammation is treated effectively with corticosteroids. Leukotriene inhibitors such as montelukast can reduce both early and late allergic responses, but the effects of a single oral dose on late effects after allergen challenge have not been documented. A group of 35 atopic adults with mild asthma were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of single-dose montelukast on the allergic reaction to dust mite. After dust mite challenge, subjects received salbutamol once and then were randomized into placebo or montelukast groups. Spirometry was done at baseline and hourly thereafter up to 8 hours post-challenge. Nitric oxide levels in exhaled breath were also measured. Results show that single-dose montelukast after allergen exposure significantly reduces the late allergic response with improved FEV1 and lower NO levels. Editor’s comment: The lack of anti-inflammatory effect of add-on montelukast in this study needs further investigation. Rosewich M et al. Eur Resp J 2007; 30:56.

7. 孟鲁司特辅助疗法β受体激动剂晚期气道反应
过敏原导致哮喘患者支气管的早期反应主要是支气管痉挛,对β受体激动剂反应很好。而晚期炎症可用皮质激素有效地治疗。白三烯受体拮抗剂例如孟鲁司特在,既可减轻过敏原激发早期过敏反应,又可减轻晚期过敏反应,但是单剂口服给药对过敏原激发试验后的晚期气道反应的影响尚未见报道。 轻度哮喘的35个过敏哮喘成人患者参加了这个随机,双盲,安慰剂对照的研究,观察患者单剂口服孟鲁司特对尘螨过敏原所致过敏反应的作用。 在尘螨激发试验后,所有患者均吸入沙丁氨醇,然后被随机分组为安慰剂或孟鲁司特组。基线期进行肺功能测试,并在激发试验后8个小时内每小时重复一次。 测量呼出气体的一氧化氮水平。 结果显示: 单剂孟鲁司特可减少过敏原暴露后晚期过敏反应,FEV1高,呼出气体中一氧化氮含量降低。 编辑点评:在这项研究中,缺乏抗发炎作用的孟鲁司特的辅助治疗作用需要进一步研究。Rosewich M et al. Eur Resp J 2007; 30:56.

8. Food Anaphylaxis
Severe reaction to food allergens is one of the commonest causes of anaphylaxis worldwide, especially in children. Most people suffering food-mediated anaphylaxis know the allergen they are sensitive to yet in many cases they are unaware that it was contained in the food they consumed. Education in how to avoid problem allergens is required. This is a state-of-the-art review that describes the clinical features of anaphylaxis, the modifying factors such as asthma, how to distinguish food-induced anaphylaxis from food poisoning and other conditions, the occurrence of biphasic reactions, the problem of lack of reliable diagnostic tests and the best methods for treatment of food-induced anaphylaxis. Editor’s comment: Food allergy is the major cause of emergency room visits for anaphylaxis and rapid differential diagnosis is a critical step in the treatment. Wang J and Sampson A, Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:651.

8. 食物过敏性休克
食物过敏原导致的严重反应是过敏性休克最常见的原因之一,特别是对于儿童而言。 多数食物过敏患者知道他们对哪种食物过敏,然而在许多情况下,他们不能察觉到隐匿于他们进食的食物中的过敏原。需要教育患者怎样避免过敏原。 本文是描述严重过敏反应的一篇综述,内容包括过敏症临床特点,哮喘等修饰因子,如何鉴别食物过敏与食物中毒或其他情况,双相的反应发生,缺乏可靠诊断检测方法的问题,食物过敏的治疗的最佳的方法。编辑点评:食物过敏是急诊室就医的主要过敏性疾病之一,快速的鉴别诊断是治疗的一个关键措施。Wang J and Sampson A, Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:651

9. Alterations of food antigen-specific serum immunoglobulins G and E antibodies in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia.
In this study, IgG and IgE levels together with symptom scores are compared in IBS patients and those with functional dyspepsia (FD) to healthy controls with respect to a panel of 14 common food allergens. Higher food antigen-specific IgG titers were found in IBS and FD subjects than controls, but IgE levels were not significantly different. Those persons with more severe IBS, however, did not show correspondingly higher IgGs than people with mild IBS. The exact cause of the increased IgG in IBS patients has not been identified. Increased mucosal permeability to antigens is one possible explanation, and avoidance of the offending food helps reduce IBS symptoms. Editor’s comment: The authors do not speculate on the potential clinical usefulness of measuring food-specific IgGs as a diagnostic for IBS or FD, but this area should be studied further. Zuo XL et al. Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:823 (Editorial: Whorwell PJ, 37:805)

9
肠易激综合症和功能性消化不良患者的食物抗原特异性血清免疫球蛋白G和在病人的E抗体的改变
在这项研究中,IBS患者和功能消化不良(FD)与健康对照三组之间比较14常见的食物过敏原特异性IgGIgE水平,同时进行症状评分。在IBS组和FD组食物过敏原特异性IgG抗体滴度高于健康对照组,但IgE水平无显著性差异。IgG水平在症状严重的IBS患者并不高于轻度IBS组。IBS患者增加的IgG种类并未被得到辨认。消化道粘膜对过敏原通透性增加可能解释这一结果,而避免这些激发食物可帮助减轻IBS症状。 编辑点评:作者并不认为在检测食物特异性IgG可作为IBSFD的一个的潜在的临床有用的诊断手段,但应进一步在这个领域开展研究。 Zuo XL et al. Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:823 (Editorial: Whorwell PJ, 37:805)

10. Eosinophils (Es): singularly destructive effector cells or purveyors of immunoregulation?
Es with their peroxidase and eosinophil cationic protein are thought of primarily as the classic attackers of helminths and as promoters of inflammation in diseases such as asthma. More recent studies, however, show another side to this cell—that of immunosuppressor and regulator of immune homeostasis. This comprehensive review covers the latest evidence for an essential role of eosinophils in tissue remodeling and repair and immunoregulation. In fact they can even be immunosuppressive by promoting regulatory T cells through expression of IL-10, thymocyte development, lymphocyte chemotaxis, and production of Th1 cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-12. Editor’s comment: The lesson here is that new data on the immune system need to be quickly assimilated and evaluated and that shifts in thinking about the roles of various cells in innate and adaptive immunity may need to be made to keep pace with an evolving model. Jacobsen EA et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119:1313.

10. 嗜酸性细胞(ES) :免疫调节的少见的破坏性效应细胞还是供应者?
含有过氧化物酶和嗜酸阳离子蛋白的嗜酸粒细胞被认为是蠕虫的经典攻击者和在哮喘这些疾病中的炎症促进者。然而最近研究显示,这种细胞的另一面——免疫抑制和免疫稳态的调节者。 这个全面综述包括的最新的证据标明,嗜酸粒细胞组织改造和修复免疫调节中起到重要作用。实际上,嗜酸粒细胞甚至可以通过促进调节性T细胞(通过表达IL-10)、促进胸腺细胞发育、增加淋巴细胞趋化性、促进IFN-γ和IL-12Th1细胞因子产生,从而发挥免疫抑制的作用。 编者点评:这里得到的教训是:免疫系统的新的数据需要迅速被同化和评估,在考虑各种各样的细胞在固有免疫和获得性免疫中的作用时,应作相应改变,以跟得上演变的模型。J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119:1313.

11. Macrolides, quinolones and amoxicillin/clavulanate for chronic bronchitis: a meta-analysis.
About half of chronic bronchitis (CB) exacerbations are due to bacterial infection with mortality of 3-6%, so there is a definite need for establishing the best treatment regimen. Antibiotics are proven effective in preventing bacterial exacerbation of CB, but there is no clear consensus about the best choice of antibiotic to use. The emergence of drug-resistant bacterial strains has rendered the first-line agents, amoxicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or doxycycline ineffective in more and more patients. Fewer failures have occurred when quinolones, amoxicillin/clavulanate (A/C) or azithromycin were used. In this meta-analysis, randomized, controlled trials in which macrolides are compared with quinolones, A/C with quinolones or A/C with macrolides were evaluated. Trials in which the three drugs are compared to a different drug or placebo are excluded. All patients enrolled in the trials are at least 18 years old, and drugs were not given prior to the trial nor were any other antibacterial drugs given. There is no difference in outcome between patients treated with quinolones compared to macrolides or amoxicillin/clavulanate compared to quinolones or macrolides, but there is somewhat better microbiological success with quinolones compared to macrolides. Editor’s comment: The results need to be weighed carefully in terms of the statistical strength of the studies, patient stratification and type of antibiotic used. Siempos II et al. Eur Resp J 2007;29:1127.

11. 治疗慢性支气管炎的大环内酯、诺酮和阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾:一个荟萃分析
大约一半慢性支气管炎(CB)恶化归结于与细菌感染,这些感染导致的死亡率为3-6%,因此绝对有必要设立最佳治疗方案。抗生素是被证明可有效预防慢性支气管炎的细菌感染恶化,但是如何使用抗生素的最佳方案并没有达成共识。耐药的细菌菌株的产生,使得在越来越多的患者使用一线药物如阿莫西林、甲氧氨嘧啶/磺胺甲基异噁或强力霉素治疗无效。诺酮、阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾或两者合用(A/C)、阿奇霉素治疗失败率较低。在这个荟萃分析中,大环内酯与诺酮,A/C诺酮,A/C与大环内酯进行了随机,对照研究和评价。诺酮与大环内酯相比,阿莫西林/克拉维酸钾与诺酮或大环内酯比较,患者的治疗效果无显著性差异;但诺酮和大环内酯两组比较,前者治疗成功率稍高。编辑点评: 结果需要根据统计学结果的强度、病人分层和抗生素类别来小心地斟酌评价。Siempos II et al. Eur Resp J 2007;29:1127.

12. Host resistance to lung infection mediated by major vault protein in epithelial cells.
Resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection requires expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) on airway epithelial cells. This innate immune response is defective in cystic fibrosis patients, most of whom develop P. aeruginosa infections that eventually prove fatal. The CFTRs are associated with lipid rafts on epithelial cells and this report studied the proteins associated with rafts from infected compared to uninfected cells. They found abundant recruitment of the major vault protein (MVP) into rafts from infected wild type epithelial cells but not those in which the CFTR is defective. MVP is strongly expressed in both lung and intestinal epithelium as well as in dendritic cells and macrophages. MVP-knockout mice show an increased lung burden of P. aeruginosa compared to wild type. Editor’s comment: We sometimes forget that the epithelium provides a powerful defense against bacterial invasion, and this study substantiates this important innate immune response. Kowalski MP et al. Science 2007; 317:130.

12. 宿主上皮细胞对主要穹顶蛋白导的肺传染的抵抗力囊性纤维化患者对绿脓杆菌感染的抵抗需要患者气道上皮细胞的横跨膜传导调节因子(CFTR)表达。 囊性纤维化患者的这一固有免疫反应是有缺陷的。大多数囊性纤维化患者合并绿脓菌传染,并可能最终导致死亡。CFTRs与上皮细胞的油脂转运相关,本文感染与未感染的上皮细胞的CFTRs蛋白进行比较研究。 他们发现了主要穹顶蛋白(MVP)从被感染的野生型上皮细胞大量聚集,而CFTR缺陷的上皮则没这种现象。MVP在肺和小肠上皮细胞、树状细胞和巨噬细胞有大量表达。与上皮细胞比较,野生型MVP敲除小鼠的肺中,绿脓杆菌负荷量较高。编辑点评: 我们有时忘记上皮提供对细菌入侵的强有力的防御,并且这项研究证实了这一重要的固有免疫反应。Kowalski MP et al. Science 2007; 317:130



bangkok logoWAO Now: What's New in the World of WAO

World Allergy Congress (WAC) 2007 – Bangkok, Thailand

Social Events  
In addition to an excellent scientific program, we are pleased to offer outstanding social events at WAC 2007.  Join us in experiencing some of the local culture, ethos and natural environment of Thailand.

2 December 2007
Welcome Reception* at the Queen Sirikit National Convention Center

3 December 2007
Award/Gala Dinner at the Royal Thai Navy Hall

5 December 2007
All-Congress Event* at the Rose Garden and Country Resort 

*Included in the registration rate, all other social events and tours must be purchased separately.
WAO
今日 WAO新进展

世界过敏会议(WAC) 2007-曼谷,泰国

 

社会活动 

WAC2007年会年不仅是一次优秀的科学会议,我们还非常高兴地提供如下社会活动。请加入我们,体验泰国的地方文化、民族和自然环境。

 

2007122

欢迎招待会* Queen Sirikit National Convention Center

 

2007123

/庆祝晚宴:Royal Thai Navy Hall

 

2007125

所有的会议活动*Rose Garden and Country Resort 

 

*:费用已在注册费中包括,其他社交活动和游览须另行收费。

WAO Short-Term Research Fellowship Award
Congratulations to Dr. Matteo Bonini, from Rome, Italy who has been awarded a WAO Short Term Research Fellowship to study with Prof. Stephen Durham at Imperial College, London.

The aim of the fellowship is to attend a European Centre of Excellence to acquire the basic methodology for epidemiological and clinical studies of allergic diseases in elite athletes and non competitive exercisers.  This knowledge will then be applied in the framework of the GA²LEN Project with the final aim of establishing a harmonised protocol for diagnosis of allergy in exercisers as well as for outcome measures to be used in clinical trials worldwide.

WAO
短期研究奖

祝贺来自意大利罗马的Matteo Bonini博士被授予了WAO短期研究奖,他将师从伦敦皇家学院的斯蒂芬达翰姆教授进行研究。

 

本奖学金的目标是将参与最佳欧洲中心,在优秀运动员和非竞争运动的运动员人群中建立过敏疾病的流行病学和临床研究的基本方法学。这知识将应用于GA2LEN项目框架中,最终目标是建立运动员过敏性疾病诊断的研究草案,并且全世界范围内可应用于临床试验结果的测量。

New Educational Postings on the WAO Website

Ask the Expert – Exclusive Benefit to WAO Members
Ask the Expert is a new online tool available exclusively to WAO Members. Directed by Professors Cassim Motala and Ruby Pawankar, this online service provides the opportunity to pose educational, scientific and medical questions about allergy, asthma, and clinical immunology to one of the many WAO volunteer experts located throughout the world. We invite all WAO Members to become a part of this online service. To Ask the Expert, click here.

WAO网站上的新的教育投稿

 

问专家-WAO成员的专属好处

问专家是一个有用的网上新工具,只针对WAO成员,由Cassim MotalaRuby Pawankar教授指导。这项在线服务为您提供机会,向世界各地的WAO专家志愿者提出关于过敏、哮喘和临床免疫学的教育、科学和医疗问题。 我们邀请所有WAO成员成为这项在线服务的一部分。要问专家,点击这里



Call for Applications

Long-Term Research Fellowship
The World Allergy Organization (WAO) offers one Long-Term Research Fellowship, to commence in 2008. The Fellowship will support a junior allergist following an approved research program at a WAO proposed host center for up to two years. WAO will contribute a monthly stipend of $1,700 US and once-yearly travel expenses between the home country and the host center.

Priority will be given to junior clinicians within five years of award of the most recent professional degree, who are specializing in allergy and who are affiliated with an academic department or clinical institute. Applicants must be active members of a WAO member society.

The Long-Term Fellowship will be applied to a project which meets one of the WAO Research Priorities:

  • Genetic factors involved in the development of allergic disease and response to  treatment
  • Allergen characterization and standardization
  • Clinical and basic studies in allergy and asthma

Application forms including a list of host centers may be downloaded here.

Applications must be received by WAO Secretariat no later than 30 September 2007

召集申请
长期研究奖学金
2008
年起,世界变态反应组织(WAO)提供一个长期的研究奖学金,该奖学金将支持一位年轻的变态反应医生在WAO指定的客座研究中心进行为期两年的科研研究。WAO将提供$1700/月费用和每年一次探亲旅行资助。

这一机会就优先给予年轻的变态反应专业的医生(距获得最高学术学位五年以内),且在学术和临床研究学院工作,且是WAO成员学会的成员。

长期研究基金就有限授予具备下列条件之一者:

n          在变态反应疾病发生和治疗的基因研究者

n          过敏原研究和标准化研究者

n          从事变态反应和哮喘临床和基础研究者

客座研究中心名单和申请表格下载请点击此处

申请必须于2007930日前寄到WAO秘书处

Upcoming WAO Educational Programs  gloria

 

 



September GLORIA™ Placement
Italian Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology Annual Meeting
27-29 September 2007
Palermo, Italy
International GLORIA Faculty:
Lanny Rosenwasser
Presentations:
Module 7: Angioedema
Module 8: Anaphylaxis

International GLORIA is supported through unrestricted educational grants from:

即将到来的WAO教育计划

 

9GLORIA™安排

意大利过敏和临床免疫学学的会年会

2007927-29

巴勒莫,意大利

国际GLORIA教员:

Lanny Rosenwasser

介绍:

模块7 Angioedema

模块8 过敏症

 

国际GLORIA得到如下公司的无限制教育基金支持:

dey

 

dyax & genzyme

nutricia shs international

 

seminars and conferencesSeptember Seminars & Conferences Placement
Annual Regional Meeting Chilean Society of Allergy and Immunology
28-29 September 2007
Concepción, Chile
WAO Invited Lecturer:
Fernan Caballero

9月研讨会和会议安排
智利过敏和免疫学会议年会
2007928-29
Concepci
ón,智利
WAO
邀请的讲演者:
Fernan Caballero

Upcoming Worldwide Allergy Meetings


13th International Congress of Immunology
August 21-25, 2007
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Web site: http://www.immunorio2007.org.br/


And In Other News

Allergy Book Review

Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases—a Molecular and Genetic Approach, 2nd Ed.
Edited By: Hans D. Ochs, C. I. Edvard Smith and Jennifer Puck
ISBN-13: 978-0-19-514774-2



List price: £ 96.00 (about $195.00)
Available From:  Oxford University Press, 2007

Reviewer:
Gary Hellermann, PhD
University of South Florida
Division of Allergy and Immunology

Description:
With more than 120 immunodeficiency disease (IDD) genes currently known and basic research continuing to add to this number, medical practitioners are faced with increasing difficulty in keeping up with the current status of IDD diagnosis and treatment. The first edition of this book, the first comprehensive survey of IDD, appeared in 1999 and was highly acclaimed for usefulness. This second edition presents an expanded group of IDDs and syndromes with a greater depth of knowledge and technology.

Genetic flaws affecting the immune response have been grouped into transcription factors, the T cell receptor and its signaling pathway, chemokines and chemokine receptors responsible for homing of lymphocytes to specific tissues, co-receptor molecules and several others. Increasing knowledge about the signaling pathways, accessory molecules and cells involved in T and B cell interactions provides us with more precise understanding of the molecular nature of IDDs. This knowledge permits the development of more specific and effective drugs and is helping to achieve the goal of customized therapy tailored to individual patients.

Purpose:
Despite the great advances in delineating IDDs at the molecular level, our ability to repair these defects is still limited. Early diagnosis helps persons with IDD but effective intervention will require continued energetic research efforts and this collection of 48 reviews provides the best current knowledge in the field.

Features:
The content is organized into three sections. An overview summarizes current understanding of T and B cell development, signaling pathways, cell trafficking and the genetic principles and technology involved. Part II encompasses the main body of the book and describes specific syndromes from the well-characterized common variable, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, DiGeorge and Wiskott-Aldrich to the rarer forms such as Omenn’s and CD 45 deficiency. Each review includes history and background of the disease, a detailed description of the molecular nature of the gene defect, examples of cases from the literature, strategies for accurate diagnosis, laboratory methods, current treatment regimens and evaluation of new therapies. There are also many figures, diagrams and illustrations as well as a comprehensive reference list.

The final section of the book involves assessment and treatment and attempts to show the best strategies for evaluating the immune system and getting the information necessary to make an accurate diagnosis and prognosis. The importance of the family history, key features in the physical exam, appropriate lab tests and effective approaches to specific immunodeficiency disorders are included in this section. The advantages and disadvantages of genetic testing and the future of gene therapy in correcting immunodeficiencies are also discussed. Conventional therapies, as well as bone marrow transplantation, are covered.

Assessment and Audience: 
A comprehensive overview of primary IDD, its molecular basis, diagnosis and treatment is a massive undertaking and this book succeeds in providing that information in a usable form for the practicing physician, the laboratory researcher, and the student seeking an understanding of the pathology of IDD. This 2007 edition should meet the needs of immunologists for some time.

Find more allergy book reviews on the WAO Website here.

 

过敏书评

原发性免疫缺陷疾病――分子和基因研究进展,第2

编辑: Hans D. Ochs C.I. Edvard SmithJennifer Puck

ISBN-13 978-0-19-514774-2

标价: £ 96.00 (大约$195.00)

可从  牛津大学出版社,2007 购买

评论者:

Gary Hellermann PhD

南佛罗里达大学

过敏和免疫学分部


描述:

目前已知有超过120个免疫缺陷疾病(IDD)基因,而基础研究正继续增加到这个数字。开业医生在IDD诊断和治疗方面,面对越来越多的困难。 这本书1999年初版,进行了 IDD第一个全面的调查,因其实用性被高度评价。这次再版全面描述用最新知识和技术来研究的IDDs和综合症组群。

 

影响免疫反应的基因缺陷被分为转录因素、T细胞受体及其信号通路、负责特殊组织淋巴细胞归巢的chemokineschemokine受体,共受体分子和几个其他因素。关于信号旁路、辅助分子、T细胞和B细胞和细胞的相互作用越来越多的知识,使我们对IDDs的分子本质得以更加深入的理解。  这些新知识使得我们有可能进一步开发更加特异性、更加有效的药物,帮助每一位患者定制合适的疗法。


目的:

尽管本书从分子水平对IDDs进行了描述,治疗这些免疫缺陷疾病的手段仍然有限。 早期诊断可帮助IDD患者,但有效干预需要进一步持续的研究工作,本书的48篇综述汇集了本领域的最新知识。

 

特点:

本书内容被分为入三个部分。 第一部分为概要,总结了目前对T细胞和B细胞发育,信号通路,细胞运输和基因原则和技术的最新知识。 第二部分为本书的主体,描述了已经研究比较清楚的X染色体连锁的联合免疫缺陷、DiGeorgeWiskott-Aldrich综合征,也包括一些罕见疾病例如Omenn综合征和CD 45缺乏。每篇综述都对疾病的历史和背景,基因缺陷的分子特征进行了详细描述,也包括文献报道的病例,精确诊断的策略,实验室方法、当前治疗方法疗法和新疗法评估。 还有许多图例和表格,也列出了全面的参考目录。

 

书的最后的部分包括评估和治疗,试图提供评估免疫系统的最佳策略,提供必要知识以准确诊断和预测预后。 也讨论了具体免疫缺陷疾病的家族史,体格检查要点,适当的实验室试验和有效的治疗。还讨论了遗传学检查的优点和缺点,以及改变基因缺陷的基因治疗的前景,常规疗法以及骨髓移植也被涵盖。

 

评估和受众:

全面地描述原发IDD、它的分子基础、诊断和治疗是一项艰巨的任务,本书成功地为临床医生、实验室研究员以及希望了解IDD发病的学生提供有用的信息。 这个2007年版本应在一段时间内可以满足免疫学者的需要。

 

关于WAO网站上的更多过敏书评,请点击这里

 

WAO Web Site Editors:
WAO
网站编辑:
Editor-in-Chief: Richard F. Lockey, USA
Regional Assistant Editors: Juan Carlos Ivancevich, Argentina; Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos, Greece; Hirohisa Saito, Japan; Cassim Motala, South Africa; Emil J. Bardana, Jr., USA
Editors at Large: Connie H. Katelaris, Australia; Bob Q. Lanier, USA; Cassim Motala, South Africa; Ruby Pawankar, Japan
Translators: Juan Carlos Ivancevich (Spanish), Dirceu Sole, Carlos Nunes (Portuguese), Yehia El Gamal (Arabic), Hirohisa Saito (Japanese), Yin Jia, Gu Jian Qing, Wen Li Ping, Guan Kai (Chinese), Krysztof Kowal (Polish), Georgy Gudima (Russian)

WAO Web Site Mission Statement
The World Allergy Organization (WAO) Web Site supports the WAO mission. WAO is a global resource and advocate in the field of allergy, asthma and clinical immunology, advancing excellence in clinical care, education, research and training through a world-wide alliance of allergy and clinical immunology societies. 

The WAO website is an up-to-date compendium of information about allergy, asthma and immunology for all physicians, including specialists, other health care professionals and patients.  It also provides a network for global contacts in the field. 

The following information is found on the WAO website:

1.       A monthly WAO News and Notes E-Letter, translated into seven languages, providing up-to-date reviews of the scientific literature in the specialty from approximately 15 major journals, as well as meeting announcements, postings of educational resources, and reviews of new books.

2.       Up-to-date reviews of allergy, asthma and immunologic diseases, slide presentations for lectures on these subjects, interactive case studies, an “Ask the Expert” column for physicians who have a clinical question, Conversation interviews with world experts, and web-based seminars in basic immunology and allergic diseases.

3.       Links to major web-based allergy, asthma, and immunology resources.

4.       Information about WAO, WAO Member Societies, and the biennial WAO World Allergy Congresses.

WAO网站任务声明

世界过敏组织(WAO)网站支持WAO使命。 WAO是全球性资源中心,过敏、哮喘和临床免疫学领域的提倡者,通过全世界过敏和临床免疫学会联盟推进过敏性疾病的最佳临床治疗、教育、研究和培训。

 

WAO网站面向包括专家、其他医疗保健专家在内的所有医师和患者,提供关于过敏、哮喘和免疫学的最新信息。也在这一领域提供一个全球性联系网络

 

WAO网站上可找到如下信息:

1. 每月一次更新的WAO新闻和纪要,被翻译成七种语言,从大约15本主要专业杂志中摘取的文献摘要,公布会议教育资源、新书评论

2. 过敏、哮喘和免疫学疾病的最新复习,专题研究幻灯片,交互式病例讨论,“问专家”专栏提供一个讨论临床问题的机会、世界级专家的采访纪录,基础免疫学和过敏疾病的网上研讨会

3. 链接到过敏、哮喘和免疫学的主要资源网站

4. 关于WAOWAO成员学会的信息和每两年一次的WAO世界过敏会议信息

The World Allergy Organization's mission is to build a global alliance of allergy societies to advance excellence in clinical care, research, education and training. Visit us on the Web at www.worldallergy.org

World Allergy Organization (WAO)
Secretariat
555 E. Wells Street, Suite 1100
Milwaukee, WI 53202-3823

Email: info@worldallergy.org

You have received this message because you are a member of a WAO Member Society, you have subscribed for the monthly e-letter or had previous contact with the World Allergy Organization. If you would prefer not to receive further messages from WAO, please reply to this message with REMOVE in the subject line.

世界变态反应组织的使命是建立一个全球性的变态反应学会联盟,不断推动临床、科研、教学与培训工作的进步。欢迎您浏览我们的网站: http://www.worldallergy.org/

World Allergy Organization (WAO)
Secretariat
世界变态反应组织(WAO)秘书处
555 E. Wells Street, Suite 1100
Milwaukee, WI 53202-3823
Email: info@worldallergy.org
电子信箱info@worldallergy.org

因如下原因收到此次通讯:您是世界变态反应协会会员,或者您曾向世界变态反应协会订阅过电子月刊,或者您以前曾与世界变态反应协会进行过有关联系。如果您不希望继续收到来自世界变态反应协会的信息,请以删除为主题回复此邮件。

Made possible through an unrestricted educational grant from Novartis.

Translator: Liping Wen MD Peking Medical College Hospital   译者:北京协和医院变态反应科 文利平