September World Medical Journal Review
Prof. Richard F. Lockey, MD, WAO Web Editor-in-Chief, reviewed premier September medical journal articles for practicing allergists. Read his top 3 picks below and for the other 7 reviews, click here.
1. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN G (IgG) RESULTING FROM Fc SIALYLATION
IgG is both pro- and anti-inflammatory via engagement of its Fc fragment (Fc) with distinct Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). Some Fc-FcγR interactions generate pro-inflammatory effects of immune complexes and cytotoxic antibodies, however, in contrast, therapeutic IVIG and its Fc fragments are anti-inflammatory. These authors demonstrate that IgG acquires anti-inflammatory properties upon Fc sialylation, which is reduced upon the induction of an antigen-specific immune response. This differential sialylation may provide a switch from innate anti-inflammatory activity in the steady state to generating adaptive pro-inflammatory effects upon antigenic challenge. This study suggests that another type of difference between antibody molecules, determined by sequences of attached oligosaccharides, may be crucial for antibody function. Editor’s comment: The sugar moieties attached to the Fc fragment of IgG alter its activity. This knowledge may be useful in designing therapies for IVIG. This is exciting and innovative research and must reading for all allergists/immunologists. Kaneko Y, et al. Science 2006; 313: 670. Editorial by Burton DR, Dwek RA, p. 627.
2. MAST CELLS (MC's) CAN ENHANCE RESISTANCE TO SNAKE AND HONEYBEE VENOMS
It has been proposed that activation of MC's by snake or insect venoms can contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. However, the authors demonstrate that MC's can significantly reduce snake-venom-induced pathology in mice, at least in part by releasing carboxypeptidase A and possibly other proteases, which degrade venom components. MC's also significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by honeybee venom. Editor’s comment: MC's mediators can be beneficial or detrimental to the host. Metz M, et al. Science 2006; 313: 526.
3. EFFECTS OF A LEUKOTRIENE RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST (LTRA) ON EXHALED LEUKOTRIENE E4 (LTE4) AND PROSTANOIDS IN CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA
This open-label study with oral montelukast (5 mg once d for 4 wk) in 17 atopic children with asthma and 16 atopic children without asthma was designed to study the effects of LTRA on exhaled LTE4 and prostanoids in children with asthma vs controls. Pretreatment exhaled LTE4 (P < .0001) and 8-isoprostane (P < .0001) values were higher in asthmatics than those without asthma. Montelukast reduced exhaled LTE4 by 33% (P < .001) in patients with asthma and the reduction was correlated with pretreatment LTE4 values (r = -0.90; P = .0001). Montelukast had no effect on exhaled LTE4 in atopic children without asthma or on exhaled 8-isoprostane and PGE2 in either group. Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were reduced by 27% after montelukast in the asthma group. Editor’s comment: Is this a method to identify patients who are most responsive to LTRAs? Perhaps! Montuschi P, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118: 347.
To read the additional reviews, click here.
WAO Now: What's New in the World of WAO
WAO-JSA International Session
The World Allergy Organization and the Japanese Society of Allergology will present a joint session titled 'New trends in treatment of allergic disease' during the Japanese Society of Allergology’s 56th Annual Meeting.
Thursday, 2 November 2006
9:00 a.m. ‑ 11:30 a.m.
Tokyo International Forum
Chairpersons: Michael A. Kaliner and Takemasa Nakagawa
- "New Trends in the Treatment of Asthma, Rhinitis and Sinusitis"
- "Unmet needs and lack of response in the treatment of allergy and asthma: From noncompliance to pharmacogenetics"
- "From ARIA guidelines to InterAirways"
KAAACI-WAO Joint Congress 2006 & the 9th WPAS
The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and World Allergy Organization Joint Congress 2006 and the 9th West Pacific Allergy Symposium will take place in Seoul, Korea, 3-5 November 2006, at the Grand Hilton Seoul.
WAO is excited to partner with KAAACI and WPAS and pleased that many members of the WAO Board of Directors will participate as invited speakers at the congress. The scientific program highlights some of the most significant developments in clinical and basic research in allergy and clinical immunology, and Seoul will be an exciting new venue for up and coming scientists to share these cutting-edge technologies and ideas.
WAO Board Presentations:
- "Real life classification of allergic rhinitis"
G. Walter Canonica
- "Allergic rhinitis: A disease remodeling the upper airways?"
Paul B. Van Cauwenberge
- "Ocular allergy: Implications for the clinical immunologists"
Connie H. Katelaris
- "Global management of rhinitis, sinusitis and asthma: What's new?"
Michael A. Kaliner
- "Positioning of anti-IgE antibody in asthma"
Bob Q. Lanier
- "The impact of allergic rhinits on bronchial asthma"
- "Functional assessment of pathogenic IgG subclasses in chronic autoimmune urticaria"
Allen P. Kaplan
- "New aspects of antihistamines in allergic skin disease"
F. Estelle R. Simons
- "Inhibition of RSV-induced inflammation using siRNA technique"
Richard F. Lockey
- "Pharmacogenetics of inhaled corticosteroid"
Lanny J. Rosenwasser
- "WHO-GARD: The global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases"
- "Hot topics in allergic diseases"
Click here for more information.
World Allergy Forum
The management of allergic emergencies is a major concern for allergists worldwide. Asthma, anaphylaxis and angioedema will all be reviewed during the upcoming World Allergy Forum Symposium scheduled for Sunday, 12 November 2006 – 8:30 a.m. – 10:00 a.m., at the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), Annual Scientific Meeting in the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Ballroom AB in Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Michael A. Kaliner, President, WAO will moderate this program of renowned international speakers.
World Allergy Congress 2007 Symposium
2-6 December 2006
'Global Issues in Allergy: Answers for a Worldwide Problem'
Acute and Severe Asthma
Bob Q. Lanier, North Texas Institute for Clinical Trials
Fort Worth, Texas, USA
Anaphylaxis: Causes and Treatments
Ruby Pawankar, Nippon Medical School
Michael A. Kaliner, Institute for Asthma and Allergy
Wheaton, Maryland, USA
New WAO Conversation
Hear Dr. Sally Wenzel share her knowledge on what makes a severe asthmatic different and how to adjust your thinking to manage these refractory patients.
Sign up for On-Line Journal Subscription –
WAO and Hogrefe & Huber Publishers are offering a limited number of free on-line subscriptions to Allergy & Clinical Immunology International - Journal of the World Allergy Organization for members in developing countries. If you are interested in receiving a complimentary, on-line subscription, please send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org, noting "Free Journal Subscription" in the subject line, with the following details:
City, State/Province and postal code
Name of Member Society
And In Other News
Allergy Book Reviews
Mast cells in allergic diseases. Chemical Immunology and Allergy. Vol. 87
Editors: Saito, H.; Okayama, Y.
Karger Basel 2005
List Price: $178.25 USD
Available from: Karger
Ron Walls MD, PhD
University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Mast cells were originally described by Paul Ehrlich in the 19th Century, and their role in the immediate allergic response is well-known. Their importance in the allergic reaction was reflected in a debate scheduled for a major meeting in Allergy some years back on whether mast cells or T cells were the most important cells in the allergic reaction! Less well recognized is their importance in other aspects of immunological reactions including innate immunity, angiogenesis and tissue remodelling. Mast cells are derived from haematopoietic progenitors in the bone marrow but spend their lives as tissue-dwelling effector cells.
This book is designed to bring together the latest work on mast cells from their development through to their physiological functions. The contributors are active workers in the area and bring the most current information to their contributions. The information is detailed but presented in a readable and engaging form.
This volume would be of most value to those who are working actively in the field of research or tertiary clinical practice or who are involved in teaching immunology and biology and want an up-to-date source of information about these interesting cells outside of their immediate area of interest
There are comprehensive accounts of the regulation of mast cell development and activation. This is followed by a detailed description of mast cell factors and receptors and their roles in allergic and immunologic conditions. Their localization in airway smooth muscle bundles characterizes asthma. Their roles in airway smooth muscle hyperplasia and in airway remodeling in asthma and their involvement in allergic rhinitis are well covered. The model of “mast cell knock-in” mice and its contribution to understanding of late phase reactions and chronic allergic inflammation is well covered. The species differences in these cells are emphasized, and the point is made that one cannot extrapolate from mouse to human mast cells. This is one factor that has made the study of these cells so difficult.
The subject matter is presented lucidly, even to a non-specialist, and although a multi-author book, the quality of the presentations is uniformly very high. This is an authoritative account of our current knowledge of this fascinating cell, not only in immediate hypersensitivity reactions, but also in other aspects of the immune response. The book can be warmly recommended to researchers, teachers and clinicians who need ready access to an up-to-date, high level of scientific material, and to students about to embark on a postgraduate study of immunology or allergy. It is an important addition to the personal library of serious students and should be available for reference in libraries and in clinical and research departments.
Immune System Disorders Sourcebook (Second Edition)
Edited by: Joyce Brennfleck Shannon
List Price: $78.00 USD
Available from: Omnigraphics
Roger W. Fox, MD
University of South Florida Health Sciences Center, Tampa, FL, USA
The text is a compendium of brief reviews in each of the 86 chapters on basic consumer health information about many of the disorders of the immune system. These include immune system function and response, diagnosis of immune disorders, information about inherited immune diseases, acquired immune diseases and autoimmune diseases. The book covers a wide range of immune-related disorders, such as primary immunodeficiencies, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and Graves disease. Treatments and coping skills for individuals with immune disorders are discussed. A valuable directory of organizations in Chapter 86 provides information and help for patients with immune disorders and their families.
This text serves as a quick overview resource of a wide range of immunological disorders for patients and healthcare providers
This sourcebook on the immune system disorders should find a home in many of the public and medical libraries as an important resource for individuals and specific support groups. Physicians’ offices could provide this text to patients and their families for general knowledge on immune problems and as a resource to find on-line information about various disorders.
The book has a directory of organizations with immune disorders information, complete with address, phone and FAX numbers and websites.
This book is an excellent resource text for libraries and healthcare providers’ offices, plus support groups and patient advocates would find this book very helpful for medical information and for identifying national organizations with a focus on a specific immune disorder.
Find more allergy book reviews on the WAO Website here.