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October Medical Journal Review
十月医学杂志回顾
WAO Now: What's New in the World of WAO
今日WAO:WAO领域新进展
And In Other News . . . .
其他新闻

October World Medical Journal Review

Mark C. Glaum, M.D., Ph.D., WAO Guest Editor, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics, University of South Florida College of Medicine, reviewed premier October medical journal articles for practicing allergists. Read his top 3 picks below and for the other 7 reviews, click here.
南佛罗里达大学医学院药学和儿科学副教授,Mark C. Glaum
医学/理学双博士是WAO客座主编,他为在业的变态反应科医生回顾了十月医学杂志的一些重要文章。下面是由他精选的前3篇摘要,其它7篇摘要请点击此处

1. ALENDRONATE IS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN ALFACALCIDOL IN PREVENTING GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED BONE LOSS
Subjects (n=201) who were starting glucocorticoids at a daily dose equivalent to 7.5 mg of prednisone secondary to rheumatic disease were enrolled in double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for an 18-month period. Subjects were randomized to receive alendronate (10 mg) plus placebo or alfacalcidol (1 mg) plus placebo daily. Measurement of bone mineral density and incidence of morphometric vertebral deformities were primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. In subjects receiving alendronate, lumbar spine bone mineral density scores increased by 2.1% while lumbar spine bone mineral density scores decreased by 1.9% in the alfacalcidiol group. Editor’s comment: Alendronate effectively inhibits bone loss due to sustained glucocorticoid use. De Nijs RNJ, Jacobs JWG, Lems WF, et al. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:675-84
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1.
阿伦膦酸盐比阿法骨化醇能更有效的预防糖皮质激素诱发的骨丢失
这是一个为期18个月的双盲,安慰剂对照临床研究,选择了201例因风湿病开始用糖皮质激素治疗的患者,每日剂量相当于7.5 mg强的松。受试者随机接受每日阿伦膦酸盐(10 mg)加安慰剂治疗或阿法骨化醇加安慰剂治疗。分别将测定骨矿物质密度和椎骨出现形态学异常的发生率作为研究的主要和次要观察指标。结果发现,服用阿伦膦酸盐的受试者中,腰椎骨矿物质密度积分增加2.1%,而阿法骨化醇组中,腰椎骨矿物质密度积分降低1.9%。编者按:阿伦膦酸盐能有效抑制因长期使用糖皮质激素造成的骨丢失。De Nijs RNJ, Jacobs JWG, Lems WF, et al. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:675-84

2. MAST CELLS REGULATE T CELL TOLERANCE
Mast cells are known to propagate allergic inflammation in response to allergen challenge. Observations that successful skin grafts in mice become infiltrated with T regulatory cells (Treg) and mast cells led to the hypothesis that Treg - mast cell interactions may mediate graft tolerance. To evaluate this, investigators attempted to induce therapeutic tolerance in genetically engineered, mast cell-deficient mice by skin graft transplantation. All transplant attempts in mast cell deficient mice were quickly rejected. Reconstitution of mast cell populations in deficient mice restored the host’s ability to accept grafts for prolonged periods of time. Editor’s comment: Mast cells may possess immunomodulatory functions that go well beyond their established role in allergy. Please see excellent accompanying editorial. Lu L, Lind EF, Gondek DC, et al. Nature 2006;442:997-1002, Waldmann H, 987-8
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2. 肥大细胞调节T细胞耐受
肥大细胞在过敏原激发引起的过敏性炎症反应过程中起着放大作用。人们观察发现,在小鼠中皮肤移植成功后会出现T调节细胞(Treg)和肥大细胞的浸润,由此提出假说认为Treg和肥大细胞的相互作用可能介导了移植耐受。为了验证这种假说,研究者试图在基因工程制造的肥大细胞缺陷小鼠中进行皮肤移植术,希望能产生移植耐受。结果发现在肥大细胞缺陷小鼠中所有移植手术很快都产生排异反应。但当缺陷小鼠中重新建立肥大细胞系后,小鼠又重新获得了长期的耐受移植物的这种特性。编者按:除了已知的在变态反应中的作用以外,肥大细胞可能还具有免疫调节的功能,请参阅文章所附的精彩的主编评论。Lu L, Lind EF, Gondek DC, et al. Nature 2006;442:997-1002, Waldmann H, 987-8

3. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF AZITHROMYCIN IN COPD
Macrolide antibiotics may possess anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased apoptosis and impaired phagocytosis in the airways. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 9 subjects with COPD and 10 healthy controls. Alveolar macrophages were purified, then ability to phagocytose apoptotic epithelial cells or neutrophils was measured by flow cytometry in the presence or absence of aziththromycin (500 ng/ml-1). Phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages was reduced in subjects with COPD as compared to healthy controls. Incubation of alveolar macrophages from COPD subjects in azithromycin improved phagocytosis of epithelial cells and neutrophils to levels near those of healthy controls. Editor’s comment: Low dose azithromycin may serve as an adjunct therapy in COPD by promoting increased alveolar macrophage phagocytosis. Hodge S, Hodge G, Brozyna H, et al. Eur Resp J 2006; 28:486-95
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3. 阿奇霉素在COPD中的抗炎作用
大环内酯类抗生素可能具有抗炎作用。慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)气道中存在着细胞凋亡加剧和吞噬作用受损。作者
收集了9例COPD患者和10例健康对照者支气管肺泡灌洗(BAL)中的肺泡巨噬细胞,并进行纯化。然后在加入阿奇霉素(500 ng/ml-1)或不加阿奇霉素的条件下,通过流式细胞仪测定巨噬细胞吞噬凋亡上皮细胞或中性粒细胞的吞噬能力。结果发现,和健康对照相比,COPD患者的肺泡巨噬细胞的吞噬能力较低。但COPD患者的肺泡巨噬细胞在加入阿奇霉素孵育以后,吞噬上皮细胞和中性粒细胞的能力得到增加,达到接近健康对照的水平。编者按:小剂量阿奇霉素可能通过提高肺泡巨噬细胞的吞噬功能,从而在COPD中起着辅助治疗作用。Hodge S, Hodge G, Brozyna H, et al. Eur Resp J 2006; 28:486-95

4. WAIT AND SEE PRESCTIPTION LIMITS ANTIBIOTIC USE IN ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA
Two-hundred and eighty-three pediatric patients diagnosed with acute otitis media in an emergency department were randomized to receive a "wait and see prescription" (only to be filled if symptoms were unchanged or worse in 48 hours) or a standard prescription for antibiotics. Structured phone interviews were conducted 4 to 6, 11 to 14, and 30 to 40 days after enrollment to determine outcomes. Parents of subjects who received a wait and see prescription were more likely not to fill the antibiotic prescription than parents who received a standard prescription (62% vs. 13% p < 0.001). There was no difference between groups in regard to frequency of subsequent fever, otalgia or unscheduled visits for medical care. Editor’s comment: Watchful waiting reduces antibiotic usage in acute otitis media. Spiro DM, Tay K, Arnold DH, et al. JAMA 2006; 296:1235-41
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4. 急性中耳炎采用观望处方法能限制抗生素的使用
283例在急诊室诊断为急性中耳炎的儿科患者随机接受抗生素治疗的“观望处方法”(仅在48小时内病情无改善或加重的给予处方)或标准处方。 然后按计划在入组后的4-6天、11-14天和30-40天进行电话随访,记录病情变化。与接受标准处方患儿的家长相比,接受“观望处方法”的患儿家长可能更倾向于不采用抗生素治疗(62%比13%,p<0.001)。两组间在以后出现发热、耳痛或非按计划就诊的发生率等方面均没有差异。编者按:急性中耳炎采用观望处方法能减少抗生素的使用。Spiro DM, Tay K, Arnold DH, et al. JAMA 2006; 296:1235-41

5. PROLONGED BREASTFEEDING ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RISK OF ATOPIC DERMATITIS
Two-hundred healthy newborns were enrolled in a prospective 20-year follow-up study to determine if prolonged breastfeeding (greater than 6 months) conferred additional protection against the development of atopy. Mothers of subjects were encouraged to exclusively breastfeed for as long as possible. Subjects were examined and skin prick tested at ages 5, 11 and 20 years. Exclusive breastfeeding for nine months or more was associated with higher incidence of atopic dermatitis (p = 0.002) at age 5. Editor’s comment: Breastfeeding for the first six months of life is currently recommended; prolonged breastfeeding greater than nine months may promote development of atopic dermatitis. Pesonen M, Kallio MJT, Ranki A, Siimes MA. Clin Exp Allergy 2006; 36:1011-18
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5. 延长母乳喂养会增加特应性皮炎的危险性
为了判断延长母乳喂养(大于6个月)是否对预防特应性的发生具有额外的保护作用,200例健康新生儿参加了这项为期20年的前瞻性随访研究。研究者鼓励参加受试的婴儿母亲尽可能的延长单一母乳喂养的时间。并在受试者5岁、11岁和20岁时进行体检和皮肤点刺试验。发现在5岁时,单一母乳喂养达9个月或更长时间者,其特应性皮炎的发病率也相应的升高(p=0.002)。编者按:目前推荐在出生后的前6个月进行母乳喂养;延长母乳喂养超过9个月可能促进特应性皮炎的发生。 Pesonen M, Kallio MJT, Ranki A, Siimes MA. Clin Exp Allergy 2006; 36:1011-18

6. SELF-REPLICATING DNA VACCINE ENCODING Phl p5 PREVENTS ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION
Immunization with DNA-based allergen vaccines has yielded promising results as a potentially novel modality of immunotherapy. Limitations to this approach include reduced immunologic responses in humans and relatively high concentrations of DNA vaccine required to induce immunity. Investigators examined the effectiveness of using a self-replicating (replicon) DNA vaccine to induce protection against allergenic sensitization in a mouse model. Mice were immunized intradermally with replicon Phl p5 DNA or conventional DNA vaccines followed by sensitization and intranasal challenge with Phl p5. Titers of IgG1, IgG2a and IgE were measured from sera, while eosinophil counts and cytokine levels were measured from BAL fluid. Lung sections were analyzed for presence of inflammatory infiltrates, increased mucus production and epithelial damage. Replicon DNA vaccination with Phl p5 resulted in reduced expression of specific IgE, Th1-biased cytokine expression, fewer eosinophils and reduced markers of airway inflammation at a dose 100-fold less than a comparable conventional DNA vaccine. Editor’s comment: Self-replicating DNA vaccines may pave the way for usage of DNA allergen vaccines in humans. Gabler M, Scheiblhofer S, Kern K, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118:734-41
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6. 编码Phl p5的自主复制DNA疫苗能预防变应性致敏
一种潜在的新的免疫治疗方式,即采用基于DNA的过敏原疫苗进行免疫治疗,目前的研究结果还是很有前途的。但这种方法也存在一些缺点,例如在人类中引起免疫应答的效果较弱,因此需要相对高浓度的DNA疫苗来诱导免疫反应。研究者观察了在小鼠模型中自主复制(复制子)DNA疫苗对变应性致敏的保护作用。首先给小鼠皮内注射复制子Phl p5 DNA疫苗或传统的DNA疫苗进行免疫,然后用Phl p5进行致敏和鼻内激发试验。测定血清中的IgG2a和IgE水平,支气管肺泡灌洗液中的嗜酸性粒细胞计数和细胞因子水平。通过肺部切片观察是否存在炎性浸润、黏液分泌增加以及上皮破坏等异常表现。与传统的DNA疫苗相比,含有Phl p5的复制子DNA疫苗即使在低100倍的剂量时仍能降低特异性IgE和Th1型细胞因子的表达,减少嗜酸性粒细胞的数量,降低气道炎症标志物的表达水平。编者按:自主复制DNA疫苗可能为今后在人类中使用DNA过敏原疫苗治疗铺平了道路。Gabler M, Scheiblhofer S, Kern K, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118:734-41

7. EVIDENCE FOR SUPERANTIGENS IN CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS
Superantigens have been implicated as a cause of chronic rhinosinusitis through the oligoclonal expansion of T cell populations with subsequent mucosal inflammation. Eighteen subjects with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis scheduled for surgery were prospectively recruited. Nasal polyp tissue and blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry for the distribution of 24 specific T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ domains typically associated with a superantigen response. Each of the 18 subjects demonstrated expansion of nasal polyp lymphocytes expressing TCRs with specific Vβ domains. The average number of Vβ clones was greater in nasal polyps as compared to peripheral blood lymphocytes implicating the nasal mucosa as an antigen source. Editor’s comment: Staphylococcal toxins may be central to the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. Conley DB, Tripathi A, Seiberling KA, et al. Am J Rhinol 2006; 20:451-5
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7. 慢性鼻鼻窦炎中存在超抗原的证据
超抗原可以引起T细胞群的寡克隆扩增,随之导致粘膜炎症,因此超抗原的存在可能是慢性鼻鼻窦炎的一个病因。研究观察了18例计划进行手术治疗的,合并鼻息肉病的慢性鼻鼻窦炎患者。通过流式细胞仪测定鼻息肉组织和血标本中与超抗原应答有关的24种典型的特异性T细胞受体(TCR)Vβ域。这18例受试者的鼻息肉淋巴细胞中均存在具有特异性Vβ域的TCRs表达。且鼻息肉中的平均Vβ克隆数要大于外周血淋巴细胞中的克隆数,表明这种抗原可能源自鼻粘膜。编者按: 葡萄球菌毒素在合并鼻息肉病的慢性鼻鼻窦炎的发展中可能具有重要的作用。Conley DB, Tripathi A, Seiberling KA, et al. Am J Rhinol 2006; 20:451-5

8. AIRWAY RETICULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE THICKENING IN ASTHMA IS DISTINCT FROM THAT SEEN IN FIBROSIS
Airway reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening in asthma is thought to be a consequence of subepithelial fibrosis that is characterized by an irreversible accumulation of interstitial collagen. Abnormal thickening of the RBM in asthma can be seen as early as age 4 and may be maximally thickened by ages 6-16 in severely asthmatic children, although this may be partially reversible. Asthmatic adults (n =10), children (aged 6-10 yrs (n = 10)), and infants (aged 0.3-2 yrs (n = 10)) as well as age-matched non-asthmatic controls were recruited. All subjects underwent bronchoscopy and endobronchial biopsy. Specimens were examined by electron microscopy. Histologic examination of the thickened RBM in asthmatics revealed a normal ratio of fibrils to matrix and the fibrils did not resemble those of interstitial collagen. These features were comparable to age-matched controls. Editor’s comment: Airway remodeling in asthma may result from a different process than that seen in fibrotic lung disease. Saglani S, Molyneux C, Gong H, et.al. Eur Resp J 2006; 28:505-12
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8.  哮喘中气道网状基底膜的增厚不同于纤维化
哮喘患者气道网状基底膜(RBM)增厚通常认为是上皮下的纤维化造成的,特征性的表现为间质胶原不可逆性的堆积。尽管这种RBM的异常增厚具有部分可逆性,但最早可在4岁哮喘患者中观察到这种变化,重症哮喘儿童的RBM厚度在6-16岁达到最大值。研究者选择了成人哮喘患者(n=10),儿童患者(年龄6-10岁(n=10))和婴儿患者(年龄0.3-2岁(m=10))进行观察,并与各年龄组相匹配的非哮喘者做对照。所有受试者都做了支气管镜检查并取活检,标本在电子显微镜下进行镜检。哮喘患者增厚的RBM的组织学改变如下:原纤维和基质呈正常比例,而且这种原纤维不同于间质胶原。这些特征与年龄匹配对照者中的表现是一致的。编者按:哮喘气道重塑与肺纤维化疾病中的气道改变可能是两种不同类型。 Saglani S, Molyneux C, Gong H, et.al. Eur Resp J 2006; 28:505-12

9. REVIEW OF VIRAL INFECTIONS, CHEMOKINE EXPRESSION AND ASTHMA
This article reviews the current literature supporting the role for chemokines in promoting airway inflammation during viral upper respiratory tract infections. Excessive airway inflammation driven by viral-induced chemokine expression is thought to contribute to asthma exacerbations in certain individuals. Commonly implicated viruses and associated chemokine profiles are discussed. Editor’s comment: Inflammation driven by viral infection often flares asthma. Schaller M, Hogaboam CM, Lukacs N, Kunkel SL. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:295-302
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9. 关于病毒感染、趋化因子表达和哮喘的综述
这篇文章复习了有关验证趋化因子在上呼吸道病毒感染期间促进气道炎症作用方面的最新文献。在某些个体中,病毒诱导趋化因子表达引起的过度气道炎症反应被认为是哮喘恶化的一个因素。文章讨论了常见病毒及相关趋化因子的一些特性。编者按:病毒感染引起的炎症通常会加重哮喘。Schaller M, Hogaboam CM, Lukacs N, Kunkel SL. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:295-302

10. REVIEW OF ASPIRIN-INDUCED ASTHMA
This is a clearly written, concise review of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. History of the disease, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and desensitization protocols are discussed. Editor’s comment: Aspirin sensitivity should be considered in the evaluation of asthmatic patients because desensitization provides an effective means of disease control. Culp JA, Borish L, Mozena JD. J Respir Dis 2006:27(7):282-90. No abstract is available
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10. 阿司匹林性哮喘的综述
这是一篇关于阿司匹林恶化型呼吸道疾病的综述,文章条理清晰,简明扼要。内容包括本病的历史,流行病学,发病机制和脱敏治疗方案等。编者按:在评估哮喘患者时应考虑到阿司匹林的敏感性,因为脱敏治疗是控制这类疾病的一个非常有效的手段。Culp JA, Borish L, Mozena JD. J Respir Dis 2006:27(7):282-90. 本文未提供摘要。


WAO Now: What's New in the World of WAO

今日WAO:WAO领域新进展

Reminder: Applications for US GLORIA for 2007 are still being accepted from regional, state and local societies.
注意:现在各地区、州和地方协会还可以申请2007年度的美国GLORIA。

WAO Board Visits the Asia-Pacific Region
WAO委员会访问亚太地区

Japanese Society of Allergology Fall Meeting, Tokoyo, Japan
Michael Kaliner, WAO President, G. Walter Canonica, WAO President-Elect, and WAO Board Member Lanny Rosenwasser participated in the Japanese Society of Allergology (JSA) Fall Meeting, 2-4 November 2006. They held discussions with the leadership of JSA about future collaborations and also took the opportunity to meet with local sponsors for the World Allergy Congress 2007 in Bangkok, Thailand. The hospitality of JSA was most welcoming and for that WAO would like to express sincere thanks.
日本变态反应学会秋季会议,日本,东京
WAO主席Michael Kaliner,WAO当选主席G. Walter Canonica和WAO委员Lanny Rosenwasser参加了2006年1月2-4日举办的日本变态反应学会(JSA)秋季会议。他们和日本变态反应学会的负责人员讨论了今后的合作问题,并借此机会会见了2007年度泰国曼谷世界变态反应大会的当地主办者。这次访问受到了JSA非常热情的接待,在此我们表示衷心的感谢。

Joint WAO and KAAACI symposium, Seoul, Korea
WAO’s Board of Directors met in Seoul, Korea, 3 November 2006. The meeting was organized to coincide with the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology (KAAACI) and WAO Joint Congress 2006 and the 9th West Pacific Allergy Symposium (WPAS) in Seoul, 3-5 November 2006. Members from WAO’s Board of Directors participated in an excellent scientific program that showcased ongoing research in Korea and its neighboring countries from the Asia-Pacific Region. Special lectures were presented by WAO President, Michael Kaliner, who spoke on Global Management of Rhinitis, Sinusitis and Asthma, and by WAO Board Member Jean Bousquet, who introduced the World Health Organization’s Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases program, of which WAO is a founding member. Keynote lectures presented by Korean experts included Viral Infection and Asthma, presented by Joon Sung Le. You-Young Kim’s special lecture discussed the Practical Implementation of an Easy Asthma Management Program. The Congress presented an opportunity to provide information to local allergists about plans for the World Allergy Congress in Bangkok. WAO would like to extend warm thanks to KAAACI and the West Pacific Allergy Organization for their hospitality and collaboration.
WAO和KAAACI联席会议,韩国,首尔
2006年11月3日,WAO执委会在韩国首尔召开了会议。本次会议与在2006年11月3-5日首尔举办另外两个学术会议同时召开,即2006年度韩国哮喘变态反应和临床免疫学会(KAAACI)和WAO联合大会以及第九届西太平洋变态反应专题会议(WPAS)。在由WAO执委会成员参加的这个盛大的学术会议上,亚太地区包括韩国及其相邻一些国家介绍了正在进行的最新研究。WAO专家也在会上做了精彩的报告,例如WAO主席Michael Kaliner的题目是“鼻炎鼻窦炎和哮喘的全球管理”,WAO委员Jean Bousquet介绍了“世界卫生组织的全球抗击慢性呼吸疾病联盟计划”,WAO也是这个项目的创始成员。会上韩国专家重点讲述的内容包括Joon Sung Le的“病毒感染和哮喘” 。Joon Sung Le则专门讨论了关于简易哮喘管理计划的实际落实情况。同时会上还向各地的变态反应学家介绍了关于将在曼谷举办的世界变态反应大会的一些情况。WAO非常感谢KAAACI和西太平洋变态反应组织给予的热情接待和通力合作。

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Allergy Book Reviews
变态反应书评

Immunogenomics and Human Disease
Editor: Andras Falus
免疫基因组学和人类疾病
主编:Andras Falus

ISBN #: ISBN: 0-470-03324-X
ISBN #: ISBN: 0-470-03324-X

List price: $180.00 USD
Available from: Wiley
定价:180.00美元
订购网址:Wiley

Reviewer: Gary Hellermann, PhD
University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA
书评作者:Gary Hellermann 理学博士
美国佛罗里达州,Tampa,南佛罗里达大学医学院

Description:
This is a collection of 23 articles by an international group of authors focusing on the use of bioinformatics in studying human disease. The content includes discussions and examples of the use of new technology for studying the pathology of immune diseases such as asthma, lupus and arthritis, and the role of the immune system in cancer biology.
说明:
本书是由23篇文章组成的合集,这些文章分别是由多位采用生物信息学研究人类疾病的国际专家撰写的。内容包括探讨并举例说明如何使用新技术研究免疫疾病的病理学,例如哮喘、狼疮和关节炎等,另外还包括免疫系统在肿瘤生物学中的作用。

Purpose:
The editor refers to the specific area of bioinformatics as immunogenomics, the application of new laboratory methods and computing technology to the study of variations in the human genome as they relate to diseases involving the immune system. The use of individual human DNA sequence information for disease research, designing new drugs and therapies and individually tailoring treatments is of the highest importance in this century. The breadth and depth of the subject presents a daunting task to any editor hoping to produce a useful work, but this collection has succeeded in covering the field in sufficient detail and variety to match that hope.
目的:
本书中涉及到的生物信息学的特殊领域是免疫基因组学,即应用新的实验室手段和计算机技术来研究人类基因组中与免疫系统疾病相关的各种变异。今后采用个体化的人类DNA序列信息来研究疾病,设计新药和新疗法以及个体化的治疗将是本世纪最重要的进展。由于这个领域的知识非常深奥且涉及面很广,因此编写这方面的书籍对于很多人来说都是一个很艰巨的任务,但本书确实是一个成功的典范,做到了内容深入性和广泛性的统一。

Audience:
Although primarily aimed at researchers, others such as clinicians, students and those engaged in drug discovery will also profit from reading this collection of articles. Dr Falus is professor and chairman of the Department of Genetics, Cell and Immunobiology at Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary. He is a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and is the author of over 250 scientific papers.
读者:
本书主要面向科研人员,但其他人员,包括临床医生、学生和从事药物研发的工作者也能从本书中受益。Falus博士是匈牙利布达佩斯Semmelweis大学的遗传、细胞和免疫学系的主任,教授。他是匈牙利科学院院士,发表学术文章250多篇。

Features:
We are still in the midst of the genomic revolution arising from the sequencing of the human genome and the understanding of this wealth of data at the level of proteins and pathways is the next great challenge. Immunogenomics, the analysis of genomic variations in relation to specific immune system responses, is the focus of this collection of articles by internationally known experts in immunology and bioinformatics. As one of the book's authors put it, "The genome tells us what could happen, the transcriptome tells us what might happen and the proteome tells us what does happen." Obtaining the gene sequence is only the first stage in a complex, multi-step process that is brought out here through detailed description, example and illustration.
特色:
基因组学的整个发展过程是从最初的人类基因组测序到最后从蛋白质水平认识这些数据的价值,从目前来看,如今的基因组学研究尚处于一个中级阶段,以后的发展还将面临巨大挑战。这是一部由国际知名免疫学家和生物信息学家撰写的合集,主要讨论的内容是免疫基因组学,即分析与特定免疫系统反应有关的基因组学变异。正如本书中一位作者所言,“基因组告诉我们能够发生什么,转录组告诉我们将会发生什么,而蛋白质组告诉我们肯定发生了什么。”本书通过详细的描述、举例和插图告诉我们,对于一个复杂的、多阶段发展过程而言,知道基因序列仅仅是了解这一过程的第一步。

Assessment:
The book is not only an up-to-date review, but includes practical information on identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms, using arrays for genomic analysis, photoaffinity labeling, human monocytes and dendritic cells as model systems, identifying diagnostic markers, and much more. Its usefulness also stems from the individual authors' attempts to define the terms, concepts and methods employed in bioinformatics. A standardization of the language used in this complex area should greatly facilitate communication. From the general to the specific, this book provides a comprehensive cross-section of current knowledge on the rapidly changing field of genomics as it applies to the immune system.
评价:
本书不仅是一本最新的综述,而且还包括很多实用的内容,例如以人类单核细胞和树突状细胞为模式系统,采用基因组学分析阵列、光亲和标记技术鉴别单核苷酸多态性,鉴别具有诊断价值的标志物等等。另外,本书的每位作者都试图给生物信息学中用到的名词、概念和方法做一个定义,这也是该书的实用之处。在这个复杂的领域中,使用标准化的语言将极大的促进该领域间的相互交流。本书从基础到专业,广泛深入的介绍了基因组学这个飞速发展领域的最新知识,及其在免疫系统中的应用。


The Immune Response: Basic and Clinical Principles
By: Tak W. Mak and Mary E. Saunders
免疫应答;基础和临床原理
作者:Tak W. Mak 和 Mary E. Saunders

ISBN-13: 978-0-12-088451-3
ISBN-10: 0-12-088451-8
ISBN-13: 978-0-12-088451-3
ISBN-10: 0-12-088451-8

List price: $139.95 USD
Available from: Elsevier
定价:129.95美元
订购网址:Elsevier

Reviewer:  Sam Mehr, MBBS, BMedSci
The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW, Australia
书评作者:Sam Mehr,内外全科医学士,医学学士
澳大利亚 新南威尔士州,Westmead,Westmead儿童医院

Description:
The majority of individuals studying or working in the field of Immunology would be familiar with the texts of Roitt, Abbas and Janeway. Outside of these texts, there are few other textbooks that are able to provide a comprehensive overview of Basic and Clinical Immunology. This textbook is an important contribution, providing the reader with a clear, complete and concise overview of the immune system in both health and disease.
说明:
正在学习或从事免疫学工作的大多数人应该都很熟悉Roitt,Abbas和Janeway等人编写的书籍。除此以外,很少有其它教科书能提供如此广泛的关于基础和临床免疫学方面的知识。本书是一本非常重要的著作,为读者清晰、完整、简要的概述了正常和病态的免疫系统知识。

Purpose:
The book is divided into two parts, Basic Immunology (Part I) and Clinical Immunology (Part II). The purpose is to introduce the reader to the basic concepts of immunology before delving into more advanced immunological topics. The establishment of these concepts enables the reader to understand how derangements of these basic mechanisms can then lead to clinical disease.
目的:
本书分为基础免疫学(第一部分)和临床免疫学(第二部分)两部分。目的是为了让读者在接触更复杂的各个免疫学课题前能先了解免疫学的基本概念。在掌握了这些概念以后,读者就会理解为什么这些基本的机制发生改变后会导致各种临床疾病。

Audience:
The target audience is wide, and includes undergraduates, graduates and seasoned clinical and laboratory Immunologists.
读者:
本书的读者面比较广泛,包括未毕业的、毕业后的以及经验丰富的临床和实验室免疫学家。

Features:
The authors have written all the chapters and have had chapters reviewed by sub-specialists in the field. Each chapter starts with a table of contents outlining the material to be covered. Historical notes are often provided at the start of each chapter, enabling the reader to comprehend how various immunological concepts came into being and how these have changed with time. The text is clear and succinct and this combined with the excellent illustrations and tables make this an easy read. The authors direct the reader to other suggested reading material at the end of each chapter for those who require an even more meticulous level of detail.
特色:
本书所有章节都是作者亲自撰写的,并由该领域的低年专家对各章进行检查。书中在叙述每一章前都列出该章所讨论内容的目录。同时每章在开始时通常先介绍一些相关的历史知识,这样能帮助读者了解如今的各种免疫学概念的演变发展史。本书条理清晰内容简洁,附有漂亮的插图和表格,使得读者很容易接受。最后,为了满足部分读者还想详细了解某些细节问题,作者在每一章的结尾部分列出了建议进一步阅读的参考资料。

Assessment:
This is a valuable book for any veteran immunologist or student of immunology.  The authors’ ability to make difficult concepts easy to understand through clear explanations and illustrations is its major attraction.
评价:
不论是经验丰富的免疫学家还是免疫学的学生,本书都是很有价值的。本书最吸引人之处在于,作者能够通过清晰的解释和插图将复杂的概念简单明了告诉给读者。


Find more allergy book reviews on the WAO Website here.
WAO网站上其它的变态反应学书评见此处

The World Allergy Organization's mission is to build a global alliance of allergy societies to advance excellence in clinical care, research, education and training. Visit us on the Web at http://www.worldallergy.org/
世界变态反应组织的使命是建立一个全球性的变态反应学会联盟,不断推动临床、科研、教学与培训工作的进步。欢迎您浏览我们的网站: http://www.worldallergy.org/

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