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November Medical Journal Review
十一月医学杂志回顾
WAO Now: What's New in the World of WAO
今日WAO:WAO领域新进展
And In Other News . . . .
其他新闻

November World Medical Journal Review

Prof. Richard F. Lockey, MD, WAO Web Editor-in-Chief, reviewed premier November medical journal articles for practicing allergists. Read his top 3 picks below and for the other nine reviews, click here.
Richard F. Lockey教授,医学博士,WAO网站主编,他为在业的变态反应科医生回顾了十一月医学杂志的一些重要文章。下面是由他精选的前3篇摘要,其它9篇摘要请点击此处

1. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF ASTHMA IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS BY DRS CHARLES REED & GAIL SHAPIRO
Dr. Reed lists six predictors of persistence and severity of adult asthma to include continued exposure to allergens, including occupational agents, older age onset, aspirin sensitivity, socioeconomic status, smoking and coexisting disease (COPD, bronchiectasis, etc.). For children, both Drs. Reed and Shapiro include a family history of atopy, early sensitization, and airway hyper-responsiveness. Dr. Shapiro also includes early onset; low lung function; female sex; smoking, passive smoking and smoking during pregnancy; and maternal asthma. Dr. Reed, for children, covers more frequent and severe asthma, onset during school age, increased serum IgE, increased URIs, lack of contact with other children, parenting problems and childhood psychological problems. Dr. Shapiro concludes, regardless of the prognosis of childhood wheezing, that parents of children with both low and high risk for persistent disease can be comforted and reassured if they follow an action plan for daily maintenance treatment and for acute exacerbations of asthma. Editor’s comment: Two outstanding articles discuss the vexing problem of who will and who will not have persistent childhood and adult asthma. Reed CE, J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118: 543; the late Dr. Shapiro GG: 562.
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1.
CHARLES REED 和GAIL SHAPIRO两人关于儿童和成人哮喘患者自然病史的研究
Reed医生罗列了六个可以预测成人哮喘患者持续性和严重性的因素,包括过敏原的连续暴露,包括职业性过敏原,发病年龄晚,阿司匹林敏感,社会经济状况,吸烟以及共患的其他疾病(COPD,支气管扩张症等)。对于儿童,Reed和Shapiro两位医生总结的因素中都包括特应性疾病的家族史,早年致敏以及气道高反应性。Shapiro医生还总结了其它一些因素,包括发病年龄早;肺功能降低;女性;妊娠期吸烟和被动吸烟; 母亲患有哮喘。Reed医生总结的儿童易出现频繁和严重哮喘的危险因素包括学龄期开始发病,血清IgE升高,反复上呼吸道感染,和其它儿童接触较少,养育问题及孩童时期的心理问题。Shapiro结论指出,不论儿童喘息的预后怎样,也不论是低危还是高危的持续性哮喘的儿童患者,只要他们按照能够一个有效的计划进行每日维持治疗和哮喘急性发作期的治疗,他们的父母尽可以放下负担,并对疾病的恢复充满信心。编者按:这两篇著名的文章讨论的内容是关于一个非常棘手的问题,即哪些儿童和成人哮喘患者的发病呈持续性,哪些则将不会是持续性的。Reed CE, J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118: 543; the late Dr. Shapiro GG: 562.

2. THE EFFECTS OF A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY DIRECTED AGAINST TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α IN ASTHMA
Infliximab (I) (Remicade), a recombinant human-murine chimeric monoclonal antibody that specifically and potently binds and neutralizes the soluble TNF-α homotrimer and its membrane-bound precursor, was used in a DBPC, parallel-group study in 38 patients with moderate asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids who were symptomatic during a run-in-phase. Lung function, symptoms and inhaled β2-agonist usage were monitored. There was no change in morning PEF, however, it was associated with a decrease in mean diurnal variation in PEF at wk 8 (p = 0.02). Likewise there was a decrease in exacerbations in the treatment group (p = 0.01) and an increased probability of freedom from exacerbation with time (p = 0.03). I decreases levels of TNF-α and other cytokines in sputum supernatants. No serious adverse events occurred. Editor’s comment: I looks like a promising therapy for moderate asthma. Erin EM, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 174: 753.
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2. 直接针对肿瘤坏死因子α的单克隆抗体在哮喘中的作用
Infliximab (I) (Remicade)是一种人鼠融合的单克隆抗体,它能特异性与可溶性TNF-α同源三聚体及其膜结合前体紧密结合产生中和作用。本研究采用双盲安慰剂对照、平行组的方法对这个单克隆抗体疗效进行观察,共有38例采用吸入皮质激素治疗,并在试验的导入期仍有症状的中度哮喘患者参加了研究。监测患者的肺功能、症状和吸入β2-激动剂的使用量。结果发现,两组间的清晨PEF没有差异,但在第八周时,治疗组的PEF每日变异率的平均值低于对照组(p=0.02)。治疗组中的哮喘恶化情况同样也低于对照组(p=0.01),患者病情恶化后在一定时间内缓解的可能性也较对照组高(p=0.03)。Infliximab还能降低痰上清液中的TNF-α及其它一些细胞因子的水平。试验中未发生严重不良事件。编者按:nfliximab看来有希望用于中度哮喘的治疗。Erin EM, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 174: 753.

3. URINE LEUKOTRIENE E4 LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED PULMONARY FUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH PERSISTENT AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION
This study was designed to assess the relationship between daily variability in urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) levels and daily lung function in 50 children with moderate to severe asthma primarily taking an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and long-acting β-agonist (LABA). Urinary LTE4, monitoring of FEV1, and albuterol use were measured. Daily variability in LTE4 levels is associated with clinically significant decreases in pulmonary function. In children who demonstrate a response associated with an increase in urinary LTE4 levels, leukotriene receptor antagonists protect against daily FEV1 decreases, which may be greatest in those with persistent airway obstruction despite the use of combined ICS and LABA therapy. Editor’s comment: Asthma is a complex disease and what is good for the goose may not be good for the gander. Rabinovitch N, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118: 635.
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3. 患有持续性气道阻塞的儿童中尿白三烯E4水平和肺功能的下降有关
这项研究主要为了评价尿液中白三烯E4(LTE4)的每日变异率水平与每日肺功能的关系,共有50例以吸入皮质激素(ICS)和长效β激动剂(LABA)为主要治疗手段的中重度哮喘儿童参加了研究。测定尿液中的LTE4,监测FEV1,及沙丁胺醇的使用情况。结果:LTE4的每日变异率水平和肺功能的下降具有临床意义的相关性。在尿液LTE4水平升高的儿童中,白三烯受体拮抗剂对于每日FEV1的下降能起到保护作用,而且尽管患者已经采用了ICS加LABA联合治疗,这种作用在持续性气道阻塞患者中的表现更为显著。
编者按:哮喘是一个复杂的疾病,治疗上应注意个体化,不能依葫芦画瓢。Rabinovitch N, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118: 635.

4. THE COMPLEMENT INHIBITOR ECULIZUMAB IN PAROXYSMAL NOCTURNAL HEMOGLOBINURIA (PNH)
Patients (87) underwent randomization to receive either placebo (P) or eculizumab (E, a humanized monoclonal antibody against terminal complement protein C5 that inhibits terminal complement activation) intravenously. Subjects were given 600 mg weekly for four weeks, followed one week later by a 900-mg dose and then 900 mg every other week through week 26. Stabilization of hemoglobin levels in the absence of transfusions was achieved in 49% of treated vs. P (P<0.001). During the study, no packed red cells were administered to the treatment group vs. 10 to the P group (P<0.001). E reduced intravascular hemolysis vs. P (P<0.001). There was a statistical improvement in quality of life in the treated group (P<0.001). There were no serious adverse events considered to be treatment-related. Editor’s comment: E is an effective therapy for PNH. Hillmen P, et al. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 1233.
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4. 补体抑制剂ECULIZUMAB治疗阵发性睡眠性血红蛋白尿(PNH)
 87例患者随机接受安慰剂(P)或eculizumab(E,一种针对末端补体蛋白C5的人源化单克隆抗体,从而抑制末端补体活化)静脉给药治疗。受试者在前四周内每周eculizumab的治疗剂量为600 mg,接着在第五周剂量为900 mg,以后每隔一周给予900 mg,直至第26周。结果:与安慰剂组相比,eculizumab组中,在不经输血情况下血红蛋白水平即达到稳定的患者占49%(P<0.001)。在研究期间,eculizumab组未给予浓缩人红细胞治疗,而安慰剂组使用了10个单位(P<0.001)。E组血管内溶血的发生情况也低于P组(P<0.001)。eculizumab治疗能显著改善患者的生活质量(P<0.001)。研究未出现与治疗相关的任何严重不良事件。编者按:eculizumab是一种治疗阵发性睡眠性血红蛋白尿的有效药物。Hillmen P, et al. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 1233.

5. CONCLUSIONS FROM THREE SEPARATE PAPERS FROM THE EUROPEAN HEALTH SURVEY
The first study determined cat allergen levels in approximately 3,000 mattresses during home visits in 22 communities. It showed that people who do not own cats may be exposed to high levels of cat allergen in their homes, particularly if they live in communities with high cat ownership. The second article determined that there are large qualitative and quantitative differences in house dust mite allergen levels partially explained by geographic and housing characteristics. They recommend that mite allergen levels could be reduced by replacing mattresses and increasing ventilation of the bedroom, particularly in the winter. The third article, perhaps the most interesting, determined that selective avoidance of cats subsequent to the onset of asthma and allergy was observed for childhood cat-keeping and adult cat acquisition, implying that part of the protective effects of childhood cats on asthma and allergy can be attributed to selective avoidance. Editor’s comment: Allergen avoidance is complex in spite of the best intentions of the physician and patient. Heinrich J, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118: 674; Zock J, et al: 682; Svanes C, et al: 691.

Cat allergen level: Its determinants and relationship to specific IgE to cat across European centers
Distribution and determinants of house dust mite allergens in Europe: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey II
Do asthma and allergy influence subsequent pet keeping? An analysis of childhood and adulthood

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5. 总结三篇独立的欧洲健康调查报告的结论
第一项研究调查了22个社区,测定了受访家庭中大约3,000张床垫中的猫过敏原水平。结果发现,即使受访者没有养猫也可能在他们的家中暴露于高水平的猫过敏原,特别是当他们生活的社区中养猫者较多时。 第二篇文章发现不同家庭的室内尘螨过敏原水平存在较大的质和量的差别,地理及房屋特点方面的因素是可能的原因之一。他们建议通过更换床垫、增加卧室通风来降低尘螨过敏原的水平,尤其在冬季时更需要加强室内的通风。第三篇文章,可能是其中最有意思的一篇,作者观察发现在儿童时期家中养猫和成人期收养猫的患者在发生哮喘和过敏性疾病后,会选择性的避免接触猫,因此他认为儿童时期养猫对哮喘和过敏性疾病具有部分的保护作用,而这种作用其实就是在以后能够注意选择性的避免接触。编者按:避免接触过敏原对于医生和患者而言,都是最重要的目标,但实际上这是一个很复杂的问题。 Heinrich J, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118: 674; Zock J, et al: 682; Svanes C, et al: 691.

欧洲各个研究中心调查的猫过敏原水平:其决定因素及其与猫特异性IgE的关系
欧洲室内尘螨过敏原的分布及其决定因素:欧洲社区呼吸健康调查Ⅱ
哮喘和过敏是否会影响患者以后豢养宠物?儿童和成人中的分析结果

6. PHARMACOLOGIC AND ANTI-IgE TREATMENT OF ALLERGIC RHINITIS ARIA UPDATE (IN COLLABORATION WITH GA2LEN)
This document updates the ARIA sections on the pharmacologic and anti-IgE treatment of allergic rhinitis literature published between January 2000 and December 2004. Oral H1-antihistamines, intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal H1-antihistamines, intranasal chromones, and anti-IgE mab achieved level evidence A, for seasonal and perennial rhinitis in children and adults. Anti-leukotrienes achieved an A level for seasonal rhinitis but not for perennial rhinitis for both groups. For “persistent rhinitis,” all treatments for both groups were either A or B except for the intranasal chromones which could not be rated. Editor’s comment: Physicians have a variety of different, proven treatments for seasonal and perennial rhinitis. Bousquet J, et al. Allergy 2006; 61: 1086.
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6. 过敏性鼻炎的药物治疗和抗IgE治疗的ARIA更新(与GA2LEN协作
这篇文章更新了在2000年1月至2004年12月出版的关于ARIA过敏性鼻炎的药物学和抗IgE治疗的文献资料。在儿童和成人的季节性和常年性鼻炎的治疗中,口服H1抗组胺药物、鼻内皮质激素、鼻内H1抗组胺药物和抗IgE单克隆抗体被评为A级。而抗白三烯药物仅在儿童和成人的季节性过敏性鼻炎治疗中被评为A级。对持续性鼻炎,除了鼻内色酮类药物尚未定级以外,其它的所有药物均被评为A级或者B级。编者按:医生可以有多种被证实有效的治疗方法来治疗季节性和常年性鼻炎。Bousquet J, et al. Allergy 2006; 61: 1086.

7. A 10 YEAR ASTHMA PROGRAMME IN FINLAND: MAJOR CHANGE FOR THE BETTER
A National Asthma Program was undertaken in Finland from 1994-2004 to improve asthma care and prevent increased costs. Although the incidence of asthma is increasing, the number of hospital days fell by 54%, mortality decreased, and absolute numbers for disability pensions, allowances for days off work, and need for rehabilitation all decreased 30 to 50%. Most impressive was that there was an annual reduction in cost per patient of 50%. The authors conclude that diseases such as asthma require a multi-disciplinary action program with a broad commitment by the health care system and society. Editor’s comment: Optimal care and compliance led to decreased morbidity and mortality from asthma. Haahtela T, et al. Thorax 2006; 61: 663.
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7. 芬兰的10年哮喘计划:主要进展
为了改善哮喘的保健,避免哮喘相关费用的增长,芬兰于1994-2004年开展了一项国家级的哮喘计划。尽管哮喘的发病率还在增加,但住院天数下降了54%,死亡率也下降了,残废抚恤金的绝对金额、休假的补贴款以及康复所需金额均降低了30至50%。给人印象最深刻的是,每个患者的年所需费用逐年下降50%。作者结论指出,像哮喘这样的疾病需要一个多学科的联合行动计划,同时也需要卫生保健系统和全社会的参与。编者按:最佳的医疗保健和患者的依从性能降低哮喘的发病率和死亡率  。Haahtela T, et al. Thorax 2006; 61: 663.

8. PERSISTENCE, ADHERENCE, AND EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION THERAPY AMONG ADULT PATIENTS WITH ASTHMA
These authors compared persistence, adherence and effectiveness between patients with asthma, 16 to 44 yrs, using either a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) in one inhaler or the individual use of two different inhalers with similar medications. It is a retrospective 1-to-1 matched cohort of newly treated asthmatics selected from a database between 1999 and 2002. Using a variety of statistical models, persistence of use of medication fell to 10% and 5% after 12 months for combination and concurrent user, respectively. Combination users were found to be 17% less likely to stop their treatment, filled on average 0.9 more prescriptions per year, and were found to be 17% less likely to have a moderate to severe asthma exacerbation. Editor’s comment: When an ICS and LABA are used in one inhaler vs. two separate inhalers, compliance and outcomes improve. Marceau C, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118: 574.
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8. 成人哮喘患者采用联合治疗的持续性、依从性和有效性
作者比较了年龄16至44岁的哮喘患者联合使用吸入皮质激素(ICS)和长效β2激动剂(LABA)治疗的持续性、依从性和有效性,其中一组是两种药物合在一个装置中,另外一组是同样两种药物分别在两个装置中。试验设计方法是采用回顾性1对1的配对队列研究,选择的患者是来自1999年至2002年期间开始哮喘治疗的患者数据库。使用了多种统计模式进行分析发现,经过12个月以后,单一装置药物治疗组与两个装置但同时使用药物治疗组的患者,坚持使用药物的比例分别降至10%和5%。相对与同时使用药物组的患者而言,联合治疗组患者终止治疗的可能性低17%,每年按照处方治疗的比例平均在0.9以上,且出现中重度哮喘发作的几率也要低17%。编者按:ICS和LABA合在一个装置中使用要比分开使用的依从性和疗效更好。Marceau C, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118: 574.

9. IMMUNOTHERAPY WITH A RAGWEED-TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 9 AGONIST VACCINE FOR ALLERGIC RHINITIS
These authors conducted a randomized DBPC trial of a vaccine consisting of Amb a 1, conjugated to a phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotide immunostimulatory sequence of DNA (AIC) in 25 ragweed allergic subjects. They received six weekly injections of AIC vs. placebo before the ragweed season. The vaccine did not reduce the albumin level in nasal-lavage fluid but had positive effects on peak season rhinitis scores (P=.0006), peak-season daily nasal symptoms scores (P=0.02), and midseason overall quality-of-life (P=0.05). It also induced a transient increase in Amb a 1-specific IgG antibody and suppressed the seasonal increase in Amb a 1-specific IgE antibody. Some clinical benefits and seasonal specific IgE antibody responses were observed in the subsequent ragweed season. Editor’s comment: More studies are needed but AIC may be useful to treat allergic rhinitis. Creticos PS, et al. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 1445.
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9. 过敏性鼻炎采用豚草toll样受体9拮抗剂疫苗进行免疫治疗的效果
这些作者设计了一个随机双盲安慰剂对照的临床试验,观察在25例豚草过敏的患者中,用Amb a 1和硫代脱氧寡核苷酸免疫调节序列DNA共轭结合(AIC)疫苗的治疗效果。在花粉季节前,他们分别接受了6周的AIC或者安慰剂的注射治疗。结果发现,这种疫苗不能降低鼻腔灌洗液中的白蛋白水平,但对花粉高峰季节的鼻炎积分(P=.0006),高峰季节的日间鼻腔症状积分(P=0.02),以及花粉季节的整体生活质量(P=0.05)均有改善作用。此外,AIC治疗后了出现抗Amb a 1特异性IgG的抗体暂时性升高,同时也抑制了抗Amb a 1特异性IgE的抗体的季节性升高。而且,其中某些临床效果以及季节性特异性IgE抗体水平的变化在第二个的豚草季节同样还可以观察到。编者按:尽管AIC治疗过敏性鼻炎也许是有效的,但还需要进行更多的相关研究 。Creticos PS, et al. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 1445.

10. KILLED MYCOBACTERIUM VACCAE SUSPENSION IN CHILDREN WITH MODERATE-TO-SEVERE ATOPIC DERMATITIS: A RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL
This multi-centered study determined the effects of intradermal injection of killed M. vaccae (0.1 or 1 mg) on patients, aged 5-16, with moderate to severe AD. The primary end point was change in severity at 12 weeks using a six area, six sign, atopic dermatitis score. Secondary end points included changes in disease extent, patient’s global assessment and children’s dermatologic QOL index. In 166 randomized patients, M. vaccae was no more effective than placebo in ameliorating the severity of AD. Editor’s comment: Decreased exposure to mycobacterial infection does not seem to be a reason for the increased incidence of atopic dermatitis. Berth-Jones J, et al. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 2006; 36: 1115.
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10. 一项随机、双盲、安慰剂对照临床试验灭活母牛分支杆菌悬浮液在中重度特应性皮炎患儿中的治疗作用
这项多中心研究的目的是为了判断皮内注射灭活母牛分支杆菌(0.1或1 mg)治疗年龄5-16岁的中重度特应性皮炎患者的效果。研究的主要终点是采用一个6分区、6级症状的特应性皮炎积分表判断治疗第12周的病情严重程度的改变情况。 次要终点包括疾病累及范围的变化程度,患者的整体评估和儿童的皮肤病生活质量指数。结果发现,在接受随机治疗的166例儿童中,母牛分支杆菌并不比安慰剂能更有效的改善特应性皮炎的严重程度。编者按:看来减少对分支杆菌感染的暴露并不是特应性皮炎发病率增加的原因之一。Berth-Jones J, et al. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 2006; 36: 1115.

11. PROBIOTICS IN THE PREVENTION OF ANTIBIOTIC-ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA (AAD) IN CHILDREN: A META-ANALYSIS OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS
Six randomized, placebo-controlled trials (766 children) were included in this meta-analysis to determine whether or not treatment with probiotics vs. placebo reduced the risk of AAD. The results show that such treatment reduced the risk of AAD from 28.5% to 11.9% (RR, 0.44, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77, random effect model). Reduction of risk was associated with the use of Lactobacillus GG, S. boulardii or B.lactis & Str. thermophilus. The authors conclude that for every seven patients that would develop AAD while on antibiotics, one fewer would occur if they also received probiotics. Editor’s comment: Give cultured yogurt or probiotics. They decrease AAD in children. Szajewska H, et al. J Pediatr 2006; 149: 367.
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11. 随机对照研究的一项荟萃分析益生菌在儿童中预防抗生素相关腹泻(ANTIBIOTIC-ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA ,AAD)的作用
这篇荟萃分析纳入了6个随机、安慰剂对照临床试验(766例儿童),目的是判断相对于安慰剂,用益生菌治疗后能否降低AAD的危险性。结果发现,这种治疗能将AAD的危险性从28.5%降低至11.9%(相对危险度,0.44,置信区间0.25-0.77,随机效应模型)。这种危险性的降低是与乳酸杆菌,酵母菌或乳酸双歧杆菌和嗜热乳酸链球菌的使用有关。作者结论指出,如果接受了益生菌治疗,那么每七例抗生素治疗后发生AAD的患者中,就有一例可以避免。编者按:给予人工培养的酸奶酪或益生菌,它们可以降低儿童AAD的发生率。Szajewska H, et al. J Pediatr 2006; 149: 367.

12. PSYCHIATRIC ADVERSE EFFECTS OF CORTICOSTEROIDS
Two large meta-analyses found that severe reactions occurred from systemic corticosteroids in nearly 6% of patients and mild to moderate reactions in about 28%. Side effects include mood, cognition, sleep and behavior problems (frank delirium or even psychosis). The most common are euphoria and hypomania. Dosage seems to be most related to the incidence of adverse effects. In severe cases, where these drugs cannot be reduced, antipsychotics or mood stabilizers may be required. Editor’s comment: An excellent review of a problem that allergists/immunologists face all the time. Warrington TP, Bostwick JM. Mayo Clin Proc 2006; 81: 1361.
译文
12. 皮质激素的精神病学方面的不良反应
两个大型的荟萃分析结果发现,使用全身性皮质激素治疗的患者中,有近6%的患者发生了严重反应,大约有28%的患者出现了轻中度反应。这些不良反应包括情绪、认知、睡眠和行为方面的异常(明显的精神错乱甚至精神病)。其中最常见不良反应是欣快感和轻度躁狂。和这些不良反应的发生率最相关的因素是给药剂量。对于那些药物无法减量的重症患者来说,有时必须加用抗精神病药物或心境稳定药物进行干预。编者按:这篇综述对变态反应学家/免疫学家时刻面对的这个难题进行了很好的总结。Warrington TP, Bostwick JM. Mayo Clin Proc 2006; 81: 1361.


WAO Now: What's New in the World of WAO

今日WAO:WAO领域新进展

WAO Secretariat Staff Change
WAO秘书处人事变更

Stanley Mandarich, WAO’s Executive Director, will be leaving the organization this month to return to Toronto, Ontario, Canada, where he will assume the position of Executive Director of the Canadian Anesthesiologists’ Society. We wish Stan well and thank him for serving WAO so ably since 2004.
WAO执行理事,Stanley Mandarich,将于本月离任,返回加拿大安大略省的多伦多市,并将担任加拿大麻醉学会执行理事一职。Stan先生自2004年加入WAO以来一直努力为大家工作,在此,我们向他表示感谢,并祝愿他身体健康。

We are delighted to welcome Charu Malik, PhD, as our new Executive Director of WAO from mid-January 2007. Charu, a native of India, brings considerable experience in association management; her international knowledge will be a great asset to the organization.
2007年1月中旬,我们非常愉快的迎接新任WAO执行理事,Charu Malik博士的到来。来自印度的Charu具有丰富的组织学会的管理经验,他个人拥有的国际性的职业知识也将成为WAO的巨大财富。


WAO Long-Term Research Fellowship

WAO长期研究学员资格

Congratulations to Dr. Andrea Vereda-Ortiz, who has been awarded the first WAO Long-Term Research Fellowship, to commence in 2007. Dr. Vereda will undertake a fellowship with Dr. Hugh Sampson at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, to study "Comparative characterization of legume reactivity between patients of Spain and the United States." WAO received a number of excellent applications, and we thank all those who applied for their interest in this program.
祝贺Andrea Vereda-Ortiz医生被授予自2007年开始设立第一期WAO长期研究学员资格。Vereda医生将跟随纽约Mount Sinai医院的Hugh Sampson从事“比较西班牙和美国人对豆类反应性的特征方面”的研究。期间WAO收到了很多优秀的申请材料,在此我们感谢所有对这个项目感兴趣的申请人员。


WAO Short-Term research fellowship
WAO短期研究学员资格

Dr. Eleonara Dehlink has completed her WAO Short-Term Research Fellowship at the laboratory of Dr. Edda Fiebiger, Boston’s Children’s Hospital. The fellowship funding was used to help Dr. Dehlink learn new techniques for her research project “Is Fc-epsilon-RI an antigen uptake/presentation receptor in the intestinal mucosa involved in the initiation of allergic immune responses in the gastro-intestinal tract? an in vitro approach". To read a report on Dr. Dehlink’s work, click here.
在波士顿儿童医院Edda Fiebiger医生的实验室,Eleonara Dehlink医生完成了他的WAO短期研究学员的学习任务。这个项目的奖学金资助Dehlink医生学习新的技术,来完成他的研究计划“通过体外方法,研究在肠道粘膜中的FcεRⅠ在启动胃肠道中变态反应免疫应答中是否具有抗原摄取/呈递受体的作用”。阅读Dehlink医生的工作报告,请点击此处。 


WAO Educational Needs Survey
WAO教育需求调查

The World Allergy Organization’s educational programs are designed to assist Member Societies by providing educational materials that bring together the expertise and experience of allergists worldwide. We are currently surveying our members, and would value the comments of the readers of WAO News and Notes about their own educational needs and preferences. Please click here to complete the short, on-line survey.
世界变态反应组织教育计划的宗旨是通过提供各种教育材料来帮助各个成员学会,同时还向他们提供世界水平的变态反应专家经验和专业技术。现在我们正在向我们的会员进行调查,我们会尊重WAO新闻和记录各位读者的意见,了解他们的教育需求和不同的选择。请点击此处完成这个简短的在线调查。

Future World Allergy Congresses
未来的世界变态反应大会

For all future WAO Congresses, the WAO Congress Council has recently recommended that WAO solicit proposals from specific world regions on a rotational basis. This will ensure a fair, worldwide representation over the years. The WAO Board of Directors met recently and determined that Europe would be the preferred site of our 2013 Congress. The final decision on a location within Europe will be made at the WAO House of Delegates meeting during the 2007 WAC in Bangkok.
WAO大会的组委会最近建议,今后所有的WAO大会将采取轮流主办的原则,根据世界的不同区域提出申请。这将保证每年在举办地方面的公平性,以及在世界范围内的代表性。最近WAO理事会会议决定2013年大会将优先在欧洲举办。最终将在曼谷举办的2007年度世界变态反应大会期间的WAO代表大会上决定在欧洲的哪个地方举办。

Future locations:
2-6 December 2007 - Bangkok, Thailand (http://www.congrex.com/wac2007/ )
2009 - Buenos Aires, Argentina
2011 - Cancun, Mexico
今后的会议地点:
2007年12月2-6日-泰国曼谷(http://www.congrex.com/wac2007/
2009年-阿根廷,布宜诺斯艾利斯
2011年-墨西哥,坎昆

World Allergy Forum Held at the 2007 ACAAI Annual Scientific Meeting:
2007年度ACAAI学术年会中举办的世界变态反应论坛:


World Allergy Congress 2007 Symposium
"Global Issues in Allergy: Answers for a Worldwide Problem"
Allergic Emergencies
2007年世界变态反应大会的专题讨论会
“变态反应的全球性问题:世界难题的解决方案“
变态反应急症

Our international faculty was chaired by Michael A. Kaliner and provided a worldwide update on allergic emergencies. The first speaker, Bob Q. Lanier (Fort Worth, TX, USA), presented an update on acute and severe asthma, and the presentation by Ruby Pawankar (Tokyo, Japan) focused on anaphylaxis. The symposium was concluded by Michael A. Kaliner (Wheaton, MD, USA), who discussed angioedema.
这次国际性巡讲由Michael A. Kaliner主持的, 内容是介绍变态反应急症方面的世界最新进展。第一位讲者,Bob Q. Lanier(美国,得克萨斯州,沃思堡),介绍的是急性和重症哮喘的新进展,Ruby Pawankar(日本,东京)介绍了严重过敏反应。最后由Michael A. Kaliner(美国,马里兰州,惠顿)讨论了血管性水肿,并进行了最后的总结。

Click here to view abstracts and presentation slides.
请点击此处,阅读摘要和讲课幻灯。


Sign up for On-Line Journal Subscription –
在线杂志订阅申请-

WAO and Hogrefe & Huber Publishers are offering a limited number of free on-line subscriptions to Allergy & Clinical Immunology International - Journal of the World Allergy Organization for members in developing countries. If you are interested in receiving a complimentary, on-line subscription, please send an e-mail to info@worldallergy.org, noting "Free Journal Subscription" in the subject line, with the following details:

First name
Last name
Postal address
City, State/Province and postal code
Country
E-mail address
Name of Member Society

WAO和Hogrefe & Huber出版公司现为发展中国家的会员提供有限数量的《Allergy & Clinical Immunology International - Journal of the World Allergy Organization》免费在线订阅服务。如果您希望得到这份杂志的免费赠阅的电子版,请给我们发送e-mail至info@worldallergy.org,注意在信件的主题栏写“Free Journal Subscription”,并详细注明以下资料:

名字
姓氏
邮政地址
市,州/省和邮政编码
国家
E-mail地址
成员学会的名称


And In Other News

其他新闻

Allergy Book Reviews
变态反应书评

Ultrastructure of Mast Cells and Basophils
Ann M Dvorak
ISBN-10:3-8055-7864-4
ISBN-13:978-3-8055-7864-6
肥大细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞的超微结构
Ann M Dvorak
ISBN-10:3-8055-7864-4
ISBN-13:978-3-8055-7864-6

List price: $135.50 USD
Available from: Karger
定价:135.50美元
订购网址:Karger

Reviewer:
Ross Boadle
Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research and Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, NSW, Australia
书评作者:
Ross Boadle
澳大利亚新南威尔士州,Westmead,临床病理学和医学研究院,和Westmead Millennium研究所

Description:
This monograph reviews the work undertaken in the laboratories of the author and her collaborators between 1991 and 2001. It follows upon an earlier (1991) monograph and begins by reinforcing the ultrastructural definitions that allow differentiation of the (closely related) mast cell and basophil, in mouse, guinea pig and human.
说明:
这篇专著是作者及其同事在1991至2001年所做的实验室工作的总结。随着超微结构的精确度的逐步提高,人们能够鉴别出小鼠、豚鼠和人类中的肥大细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞两者的区别(两者密切相关),1991年开始出版这方面的专著,现在这本书是前一本专著的续集。

Purpose:
The well ordered text explores the ultrastructural localization of cytokines, proteases, histamine, Charcot-Leyden crystal protein and other factors in the organelles of mast cells and basophils. The scope of this text then broadens to include the role of vesiculo-vacuolar organelles and their role in the trans endothelial secretory pathway.
目的:
本书非常有条理的叙述了肥大细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞的细胞器中各种细胞因子、蛋白酶、组胺、夏科—雷登氏结晶蛋白以及其它因子的超微结构的分布情况。并且通过这些方面的介绍,进而扩大讨论的范围,例如涉及到囊-泡小体及其在透内皮细胞分泌途径中的作用等。

Audience:
While this book will prove to be of broad based interest to medical professionals, its most significant value should be to those researching the basic science of immunology and allergy and the interaction of mast cells in tissue based systems. 读者:
相信各位医学专业人士对本书都是十分感兴趣的,其中对于从事免疫学和变态反应学基础科学以及组织系统中肥大细胞相互作用等研究领域的学者来说,本书是最有价值的一本书。

Features:
There is a balanced blend of both well established electron microscopy methodology (including immuno-gold labeling), together with enzyme affinity gold techniques and ultrastructural in situ hybridization. Techniques are adequately described and effectively referenced. The 185 illustrations are of consistently good quality.
特色:
在这本书中综合介绍了各种技术,例如电镜技术(包括免疫金标记),免疫亲和金技术以及超微结构原位杂交技术等,但整篇著作并非杂乱无章,而是做到了结构统一。各种技术都得到详尽的介绍,并具有充分的参考依据。书中的185幅插图都具有很高的质量。

Assessment:
For these specialized individuals, the book will find its way into personal libraries. This text should also reside on the shelves of the libraries of those institutions where basic ultrastructural cell research is undertaken.
评价:
本书值得研究这方面的专业人士阅读和收藏。而且在从事基础超微结构细胞研究的研究机构图书馆中,也应该能够找到这本书。


Asthma in the Workplace, 3rd Edition

David I. Bernstein, et al.
ISBN 0824729773
职业性哮喘,第三版
David I. Bernstein等
ISBN 0824729773

List price: $249.95
Available from: CRC Press
定价:249.95美元
订购网址:CRC Press

Reviewer:
Mark Glaum
University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA
书评作者:
Mark Glaum
美国佛罗里达州,坦帕市,南佛罗里达大学医学院

Description:
This is the third edition of a reference text that reviews the key components of work related asthma. The book is organized into four main sections, including: General Considerations, Assessment and Management, Specific Agents Causing Occupational Asthma with a Latency Period, and Specific Disease Entities and Variants.
说明:
本书是职业性相关哮喘这本重要参考书的第三版。该书主要分为四个部分,包括:概述,评价和管理,引起具有潜伏期的职业性哮喘的各种物质,介绍各种具体疾病及其区别。

Purpose:
The purpose is to provide the clinician with a detailed reference covering all relevant aspects of occupational asthma, especially those relating to disease mechanisms, causative agents, clinical diagnosis and treatment.
目的:
本书的目的是为临床医生提供关于职业性哮喘方面的全方位的参考资料,特别是关于发病机制,致病物质,以及临床诊断和治疗方面。

Audience:
Discussion is targeted to clinicians and clinical researchers who have an interest in occupational lung disease. Specialists most likely to utilize this resource include pulmonologists, allergists, clinical immunologists, and any physician with an interest in work‑related illnesses. Fellows in training will find this book to be an excellent reference text for the evaluation of occupational airway complaints.
读者:
本书主要是面向对职业性肺部疾病感兴趣的临床医生和临床研究者。最可能需要了解这些资料的专家包括肺脏病学家,变态反应学家,临床免疫学家以及对职业性疾病感兴趣的所有医生。另外,接受培训的低年资医生也会发现本书是学习职业性气道疾病方面的优秀的参考书。

Features:
Each chapter is logically organized, well‑written and concludes with an extensive bibliography. Over 100 tables and figures are clearly presented serving to illustrate relevant points. An excellent appendix is included that lists known causative agents in occupational asthma along with key references. A complete index concludes the text.
特色:
该书的每一章都写的条理清晰,结构合理,并列出了很多参考书目。同时为了使读者更容易理解书中的某些内容,本书共配有百余幅清晰的图表。书后的附录中列出了已知的职业性哮喘的各种致病物质及相关的重要参考文献。最后还附有一个关于本书内容的完整索引。

Assessment/Comparison:
This book provides a comprehensive review of clinically relevant topics in occupational asthma written by nationally and internationally recognized experts in the field. This text is an outstanding reference resource for the clinician, clinical scientist or clinical fellow with an interest in work‑related asthma.
评价/比较:
本书是职业性哮喘领域多位国内和国际知名专家在各个临床相关课题方面的全面深入的总结,是对职业性哮喘感兴趣的临床医生,临床科学家或低年资临床医生的优秀参考书。

Find more allergy book reviews on the WAO Website here.
WAO网站上其它的变态反应学书评见此处

The World Allergy Organization's mission is to build a global alliance of allergy societies to advance excellence in clinical care, research, education and training. Visit us on the Web at http://www.worldallergy.org/
世界变态反应组织的使命是建立一个全球性的变态反应学会联盟,不断推动临床、科研、教学与培训工作的进步。欢迎您浏览我们的网站: http://www.worldallergy.org/

World Allergy Organization (WAO)
Secretariat
555 E. Wells Street, Suite 1100
Milwaukee, WI 53202-3823
Email: info@worldallergy.org
世界变态反应组织(WAO)秘书处
555 E. Wells Street, Suite 1100
Milwaukee, WI 53202-3823
电子信箱:info@worldallergy.org


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您因如下原因收到此次通讯:您是世界变态反应协会会员,或者您曾向世界变态反应协会订阅过电子月刊,或者您以前曾与世界变态反应协会进行过有关联系。如果您不希望继续收到来自世界变态反应协会的信息,请以删除为主题回复此邮件。


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