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Disease Summaries

Sensitizing Agents Inducers of Occupational Asthma, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis and Eosinophilic Bronchitis

Posted: August 2005
Updated: January 2014

Joaquín Sastre, MD, PhD
Allergy Service
Fundacion Jimenez Diaz
Madrid, Spain
jsastre@fjd.es

Santiago Quirce, MD, PhD
Department of Allergy
Hospital La Paz Institute for Health Research (IdiPAZ)
Madrid, Spain
squirce@gmail.com


Description of agents causing Occupational Allergic and/or Irritant-Induced Occupational asthma (IIOA)

Agents

Abrev./
Scientific name

Occupation/
Process

References

Isocyanates

 

 

 

1,3 bis isocyanatomethyl ciclohexane

 

 

Simpson C, et al. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reaction and occupational asthma associated with 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl) cyclohexane pre-polymer. Am J Ind Med 1996; 30:48-55.

Diphenylmethane diisocyanate IIOA

MDI

Foundry, Plastics

Zammit-Tabona M, et al... Asthma caused by diphenylmethane diisocyanate in foundry workers. Clinical, bronchial provocation, and immunologic studies. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983;128:226-30.

HDI prepolymer

PHDI

Spray painting

Vandenplas O, et al. Prepolymers of hexamethylene, diisocyanate as a cause of occupational asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993; 91:850-61.

Hexamethylene diisocyanate IIOA

HDI

Spray painting

Welinder H, et al. IgG antibodies against polyisocyanates in car painters. Clin Allergy 1988;18:85-93.

Isophorone diisocyanate

IPDI

Spray painter

Clarke CW, et al. Isophorone diisocyanate induced respiratory disease (IPDI). Aust N Z J Med 1981;11:290-2.

MDI prepolymer

PMDI

Mold makers

Vandenplas O, et al.  Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reaction among workers exposed to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:338-46.

Methylisocyanate

MIC

Rubber Manufacturing

Avashia B, et al.. Effects of prolonged low exposure to methyl isocyanate. J Occup Environ Med 1996;38:625-30.

Naphthalene diisocyanate IIOA

NDI

Rubber Manufacturing

Harries MG, et al. Isocyanate asthma: respiratory symptorns due to 1,5-naphthylene di-isocyanate. Thorax 1979; 34:762-6.

Fuortes U, et al. An outbreak of naphthalene di-isocyanate-induced asthrna in a plastics factory. Arch Environ Health 1995;50:337-40.

TDI prepolymer

 

Varnishers

Vandenplas O, et al. Occupational asthma caused by a prepolymer but not the monomer of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;89:1183-8.

TDI+HDI+MDI

 

Various industries

Baur X.. Asthma caused by isocyanates. Allergologie 1986;9:487-96.

Baur X. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) induced by isocyanates. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995 ;95:1004-10.

Toluene diisocyanate IIOA

TDI

Polyurethane, Varnish, Plastics

Sastre J, et al. Need of monitoring non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness before and after Isocyanate inhalation challenge. Chest 2003; 123:1276-9.

Mapp CE. et al. Persistent asthma due to isocyanates. A follow-up study of subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate(TDI). Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 137:1326-9.

Moscato G, et al. Toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma: clinical findings and bronchial responsiveness studies in 113 exposed subjects with work-related respiratory symptoms. J Occup Med 1991;33:720-5.

Baur X. Fruhmann G.. Specific IgE antibodies in patients with isocyanate asthma. Chest 1981;80:73-6.

Anhydrides

 

 

Drexler H, et al. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1194; 65:279-83.

Hexahydrophthalic anhydride IIOA

HHPA

Chemical industry

Moller DR, et al. Detection or IgE-mediated respiratory sensitization in workers exposed to hexahydrophthalic anhydride. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1985; 75:663-72.

Himic anhydride

 

Flame retardant

Rosenman KD, et al. Occupational asthma caused by himic anhydride. Scand J Work Environ Health 1987;13:150-4.

Maleic anhydride IIOA

MA

Polyester resin production

Lee HS, et al. Occupational asthma due to maleic anhydride. Br J Ind Med 1991;48: 283-5.

Methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride

 

Curing agent

Welinder H, et al. Specific antobodies to methyltetrahydrophlhalic anhydride in exposed workers. Clin Exp Allergy 1990;20:639-45.

Drexler H, et al. Detection and clinical relevance of a type 1 allergy with occupational exposure to hexahydrophthalic anhydride and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1994; 65:279-28315:154-5.

Methylhexahy-drophthalic IIOA

MHHPA

Chemical industry

Tarvainen K, et al. Immunologic contact urticaria due to airbome methylhexahydrophthalic and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydrides. Contact Dermatitis 1995; 32:204-9.

Phthalic anhydride IIOA

PA

Plastics, Production of resins

Wernfors M, et al. Phthalic anhydride-induced occupational asthma. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1986; 79:77-82.

Nielsen J, et al.. Serum IgE and lung function in workers exposed to phthalic anhydride. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1991;63:199-204.

Phthalic anhydride+ Maleic anhydride+ Trimellitic anhydride

 

 

Barker RD, et al. Risk factors for sensitisation and respiratory symptoms among workers exposed to acid anhydrides: a cohort study. Occup Environ Med 1998;55:684-91.

Pyromellitic dianhydride

PMDA

Epoxy adhesives

Meadway L.. Asthma and atopy in workers with an epoxy B adhesive. Br J Dis Chest 1980;74:149-54.

Pyromellitic dianhydride+ Phthalic anhydride+ Maleic anhydride

 

 

Baur X. et al. A clinical and immunological study on 92 workers occupationally exposed to anhydrides. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1995 ;67:395-403.

Tetrachlorophthalic anhydride

TPCA

Plastics, Epoxy resins

Barker RD, et al. Occupational asthma caused by tetrachlorophthalic anhydride: a 12-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998; 101:717-9.

Liss GM, et al. Assessment of risk factors for IgE-mediated sensitization to tetrachlorphthalic anhydride. J Allergy Clin lmmunol 1993;92:237-47.

Trimellitic anhydride

TMA

Plastics, Epoxy resins

Zeiss RC, et al. A clinical and immunologic study of employees in a facility manufacturing trimellitic anhydride. Allergy Proc. 1992;13:193-8.

Amines

 

 

 

2-dimethylethanolamine

 

Spray painter

Vallieres M, et al. Dimethylethanolamine-induced asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977;115:867-71.

2-ethanolamine IIOA

 

Spray painter
Cutting oil

Savonius B, et al. Occupational respiratory disease caused by ethanolamines Clin Exp Allergy 1994;49:877-81.

Piipari R, et al. Diethanolamine-induced occupational, a case report. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28: 358-62.

3-dimethyl propanolamine

 

Ski manufacturing

Brubaker RE, et al. Evaluation and control of a respiratory exposure to 3-(dimethylamine) propylamine. J Occup Med 1979;21:688-90.

Sargent EV, et al. Respiratory effects of occupational exposure to an epoxy resin system. Arch Environ Health 1976;31:236-40.

4-Methylmorpholine

NNM

Fur dying

Belin L, et al. Amines: possible causative agents in the development of bronchial hyperreactivity in workers manufacturing polyurethanes from isocyanates. Br I Ind Med 1983;40:251-5

4,4-methylene-bismorpholine

 

Metalworking fluid

Walters GI, et al. Occupational asthma from sensitisation to 4,4-methylene-bismorpholine in clean metalworking fluid. Eur Respir J. 2013;42:1137-9.

Aliphatic amines

 

Chemical industry

Ng TP, et al. Asthma in chemical workers exposed to aliphatic polyamines. Occup Med (Lond) 1995;45:45-8.

Aminoethanolamine IIOA

 

Welding, Cable joining

Pepys J, Pickering CA. Asthma due to inhaled chemical fumes: Amino-ethyl ethanolamine in aluminium soldering flux. Clin Allergy 1972;2:197-204.

Ethylenediamine

 

Photography Lacquering

Nakazawa T, Matsui S. Ethylenedianúne-induced late asthmatic responses. J Asthma 1990;27:207-12.

Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)

EDTA

Healthcare

Laborde-Castérot H, et al. Occupational rhinitis and asthma due to EDTA-containing detergents or disinfectants. Am J Ind Med. 2012;55:677-82

Hexamethylentetramine

HTMA

Lacquering

Gamble JF, et al. Respiratory function and symptoms: an environmental-epidemiological study of rubber workers exposed to a phenolformaldehyde type resin. Am Ind Hyg Assoc 1976;137:499-513.

Paraphenylene diamine IIOA

PPD

Hairdressers

Helaskoski E , et al   Occupational asthma, rhinitis, and contact urticaria caused by oxidative hair dyes in hairdressers. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014;112:46-52

Piperazine IIOA

 

Chemist

Hagmar L, Welinder H. Prevalence of specific IgE antibodies against piperazine in employees of a chemical plant. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1986;81:12-6.

Welinder H, Hagmar L, et al.  IgE antibodies against piperazine and N-methyl-piperazine in asthmatic subjects. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1986;79:259-62.

Quirce S, et al. Occupational asthma due to piperazine citrate. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2006;16:138-9.

Quaternary amine IIOA

Benzalkonium

Cleaning products

Berstein JA, et al.. A combined respiratory and cutaneous hypersensitivity syndrome induced by work exposure to quaternary amines. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94:257-9.

Triethylene tetramine

C6H18N4

Laquering

Fawcett IW, et al. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents—epoxy resin systerns containing phthalic acid anhydride, trimellitic acid anhydride and triethylene tetramine. Clin Allergy 1977; 7:1-14

Savonius B, et al. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates. Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23:416-24.

Turpentine

 

Art Painter

Dudek W, et al.Occupational asthma due to turpentine in art painter--case report. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2009;22:293-5

Metals

 

 

 

Aluminum IIOA

 

Potroom

Sorgdrager B, et al. Factors affecting FEV1 in workers with potroom asthma after their removal from exposure.Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001;74:55-8.

Ammonium hexachloroplatinate

Cl6H8N2Pt

Platinum refinery

Murdoch RD, et al. IgE antibody responses to platinum group metals: a large scale refinery survey. Br J Ind Med 1986; 43:37-43.

Chloroplatinum

 

Platinum refinery

Baker DB, et al. Cross-sectional study of platinum salts sensitization among precious metals refinery workers. Am J Ind Med 1990;18:653-64.

Chromium salts (VI) IIOA

Cr

Paints, Metal plating

Park HS. et al. OccupationaI asthma caused by chromium. Clin Exp Allergy 1994;24:676-81

Novey HS, Habib M, Wells ID. 1983. Asthma and IgE antibodies induced by chromium and nickel salts. J Allergy Cliln Immunol 72:407-12.

Chromium sulphate

Cr2(SO4)3

Paints, Metal plating

Sastre J, et al. Allergenic cross-reactivity in occupational asthma caused by chrome and nickel. J Allergy Clin Immunol2001; 108: 650-1.

Cobalt IIOA

Stellite ( cobalt-based alloy)

Co

 

Shirakawa T, Morimoto K. Interplay of cigarette smoking and occupational exposure on specific immunoglobulin E antibodies to cobalt. Arch Environ Health 1997; 52:124-8

Pisati G. Zedda S. Outcome of occupational asthma due to cobalt hypersensitivity. Sci Total Environ 1994 ; 150:167-71

Hannu T, et al. Occupational asthma due to welding fumes from stellite. J Occup Environ Med 2007; 49:473-4.

Cobalt sulphate

SO4Co

Polishers

Gheysens B, et al. Cobalt-induced bronchial asthma in diamond polishers. Chest 1985; 88: 740-4.

Shirakawa T, et al. Hard metal asthma: cross immunological and respiratory reactivity between cobalt and nickel? Thorax 1990; 45:267-71.

Hexachloroplatinate

Cl6H2Pt

Platinum refinery

Merget R, et al. Asthma due to the complex salts of platinum-a cross-sectional survey of workers in a platinum refinery. Clin Allergy 1988;18:569-80.

Iridium chloride

Cl3Ir

 

Bergman A, et al. Contact urticaria with anaphylactic reactions caused by occupational exposure to iridium salt. Contact Dermatitis 1995; 32: 14-7.

Iron

 

Welding

Muñoz X, et al.Occupational Asthma Caused by Metal Arc Welding of Iron.Respiration 2009;78:455-9.

Nickel sulphate

SO4Ni

Metal plating

Sastre J, et al. Allergenic cross-reactivity in occupational asthma caused by chrome and nickel. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 108: 650-1.

Malo JL, et al.. Occupational asthma caused by nickel sulfate. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982;69:55-9.

Estlander T, et al. Immediate and delayed allergy to nickel with contact urticaria, rhinitis, asthma and contact dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23:306-l0.

Potassium dichromate

Cr2O7 K2

Tanning, Plating, Various occupations

Keskinen H. et al. Occupational asthma due to stainless steel welding fumes. Clin AIlergy 1980;10:151-9

Bright P, et al. Occupational asthma due to chrome and nickel electroplating. Thorax 1997;52:28-32.

Potassium hexachloroplatinate

Cl6Pt K2

Platinum refinery

Bolm-Audorff U. et al. Prevalence of respiratory allergy in a platinum refinery. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1992;64: 257-60.

Rhodium salts

 

electroplating

Merget R, et al. Occupational immediate-type asthma and rhinitis due to rhodium salts. Am J Ind Med 2010;53:42-6.

Tungsten

C W2

Grinder

Bruckner HC. Extrinsic asthma in a tungsten carbide worlcer. J Occup Med 1967; 9:5l8-9.

Vanadium IIOA

V

Vanadium plant

Irsigler GB, et al. Asthma and chemical bronchitis in vanadium plant workers. Am J Ind Med. 1999;35:366-74.

Zinc (fumes) IIOA

Zn

Welders

Malo JL, et al. Occupational asthma due to zinc. Eur Respir 1993;16:447-50.

Zinc chloride and anmonium

 

Welders

Weir DC, et al. Occupational asthma due to soft corrosive soldering fluxes containing zinc chloride and ammonium chloride. Thorax 1989; 44:220-3.

Drugs

 

 

 

Aescin

 

Pharmaceutical

Munoz X, et al.Occupational asthma related to aescin inhalation.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006.; 96:494-6.

Alendronate

 

Pharmaceutical

Pala G, et al. Occupational rhinitis to sodium alendronate. Allergy. 2008;63:1092-3.

5.aminosalycilic acid

 

Pharmaceutical

Sastre J, et al. Occupational asthma due to 5-aminosalicylic acid. Occup Environ Med. 2010;67:798-9.

Aminophylline

 

Pharmaceutical

Rosenberg M, et al. Asthmatic responses to inhaled aminophylline: a report of two cases. Ann Allergy 1984;52: 97-8.

Ampicillin

 

Pharmaceutical

Davies RJ, et al. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents: arnpicillin, benzyl penicillin, 6 amino penicillanic acid and related substances. Clin Allergy 1974;4:227-47.

Amprolium

 

Pharmaceutical

Greene SA, Freedman S. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents: Amprolium hydrochloride. Clin Allergy1976; 6:105-8.

Cefadroxil

 

Pharmaceutical

Sastre J, et al.. Occupational asthma induced by cephalosporins. Eur Respir J; 1993;13:1189-91.

Cephalosporine C

 

Pharmaceutical

Stenton SC, et al. Occupational asthma due to ceftazidime. Eur Respir J 1995; 8:1421-3.

Coutts IL, et al. Asthma in workers manufacturing cephalosporins. Br Med (Clin Res Ed) 1981;283:950.

Pala G, et al. Occupational asthma and rhinitis induced by a cephalosporin intermediate product: description of a case. Allergy. 2009;64:1390-1.

Chlorhexidine IIOA

 

Healthcare

Waclawski ER, et al. Occupational asthma in nurses caused by chlorhexidine and alcohol aerosols. BMJ 1989;298:929-30.

Chloroquine hydroxychloroquine

 

Pharmaceutical

Meier H, et al. Occupationally-induced contact dermatitis and bronchial asthma in a unusual delayed reaction to hydroxychloroquine. Hautarzt 1999; 50:665-9.

Cimetidine

 

Pharmaceutical

Coutts IL, et al. Respirator y symptoms related to work in a factory manufacturing cimetidine tablets. Br Med (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 288:1418.

Ciprofloxacin

 

Pharmaceutical

Broding HC, et al. Occupational asthma in a ciprofloxacin production. Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Umweltrned 1996;31:l56-8.

Colistin

 

Pharmaceutical

Gómez-Ollés S, et al. Occupational asthma due to colistin in a pharmaceutical worker.Chest 2010;137:1200-2

Enflourane

 

Healthcare

Schwettmann RS, Casterline CL. Delayed asthmatic response following occupational exposure to enfluorane. Anesthesiology 1976; 44:166-9.

Hydralazine

 

Pharmaceutical

Perrin B; et al. Occupational asthma in a phamaceutical worker exposed to hydralazine. Thorax 1990;45:980-1.

Ipecacuanha

 

Pharmaceutical

Luczynska CM, et al. Occupational allergy due to inhalation of ipecacuanha dust. Clin Allergy 1984; 14:169-75.

Isonicotinic acid

 

Pharmaceutical

Asai S, et al. Occupational asthma caused by isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) inhalation. J AlIergy Clin Immunol 1987;80:578-82.

Shimoda T. Detection of IgE antibodies specific to isonicotinic acid hydrazide and its metabolite by enzyme-Iinked immunosorbent assay and the mechanism of sensitization by inhalation or ingestion of this compound. Jpn J Allergol 1990; 39:567-76.

Methotrexate

 

Healthcare

Jones G, et al. Methotrexate-induced asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis1991; 143:179-81.

Methyldopa

 

Pharmaceutical

Harries MG, et al. Bronchial asthma due to alpha-methyldopa. Br Med J 1979;1:1461.

Mitoxantrone

 

Healthcare

Walusiak J, et al. Occupational asthma due to mitoxantrone. Allergy. 2002;57:461.

Opiate compounds

 

Pharmaceutical

Biagini RE, et al. Evaluation of cutaneous responses and lung function from exposure to opiate compounds among ethical narcotics-manufacturing workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992; 89:108-18.

Penicillamine

 

Pharmaceutical

Lagier F, et al. Occupational asthma in a pharmaceutical worker exposed to penicillamine. Thorax 1989;44:157-8.

Penicillins

 

Pharmaceutical

Davies RJ, et al. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents: arnpicillin, benzyl penicillin, 6 amino penicillanic acid and related substances. Clin Allergy 1974; 4:227-47.

Shmunes E. et al. Immunologic reactions in penicillin factory workers. Ann Allergy 1976, 36:313-23.

Stejska1 VD, et al. Side-chain-specific Iymphocyte responses in workers with occupational allergy induced by penicillins. Int Arch Allergy Appl lmmunol 1987; 82:461-4.

Phenylglycine

 

Pharmaceutical

Kammerrneyer JK, Mathews KP. Hypersensitivity to phenylglycine acid chloride. J AIlergy Clin Immunol 1973;52:73-84.

Piperacillin

 

Pharmaceutical

Moscato G, et al. Occupational asthma, rhinitis and urticaria due to piperacillin sodium in a pharmaceutical worker. Eur Respir J 1995;8:467-9.

Psyllium

 

Pharmaceutical

Healthcare

Vaswani SK, et al. Psyllium laxative-induced anaphylaxis, asthma, and rhinitis. Allergy  1996; 51:266-8.

Aleman A, et al. Asthma related to inhalation of Plantago ovata.Med Clin (Barc). 2001;116:20-2.

Salbutamol

 

Pharmaceutical

Agius RM, et al. Occupational asthma in salbutamol process workers. Occup Environ Med 1994;51:397-9.

Senna

 

Healthcare workers
Pharmaceutical

Marks GB, et al.  Asthma and allergy J associated with occupational exposure to ispaghula and senna: Products in a pharmaceutical work force. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;144: 1065-9.

Helin T, Makinen-Kiljunen S. Occupational asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis caused by senna. Allergy 1996; 51:181-4.

Sevoflurane and isoflurane

 

anaesthetic staff

Vellore AD, et al .Occupational asthma and allergy to sevoflurane and isoflurane in anaesthetic staff.
Allergy 2006;6:1485-6

Spiramycin

 

Pharmaceutical 

Malo JL, Callier A. Occupational asthma in workers of a pharmaceutical company processing spiramycin. Thorax 1988; 43: 371-7.

Tetrachloroisophthalo-nitrile IIOA

 

Fungicide

Honda I, et al. Occupational asthma induced by the fungicide tetrachloroisophthalonitri1e. Thorax 1992; 47:760-1.

Tetracycline

 

Pharmaceutical

Menon MP. Das AK. Tetracycline asthma-a case report. Clin Allergy 1977; 7:285-90.

Tributil tin oxide IIOA

 

Fungicide

Shelton D, et al.  Occupational asthma induced by a carpet fungicide-tributyl tin oxide. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992; 90: to 274-5.

Tylosin tartrate

 

Pharmaceutical

Lee HS, et al. Occupational asthma due to tylosin tartrate. Br J Ind Med 1989; 46:498-9.

Vancomycin

 

Pharmaceutical

Choi GS, et al. A case of occupational asthma caused by inhalation of vancomycin powder. Allergy 2009; 64:1391-2.

Plastics (including their monomers)

 

 

 

Alkyl aryl polyether alcohol+ polipropylene glycol

 

Welders

Stevens JJ. Asthma due to soldering flux: a polyether alcohol-polypropylene glycol mixture. Ann Allergy 1976; 36:419-22.

Alkylcyanoacrylate

 

Adhesive

Optician

Savonius B, et al. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates. Clin Exp Allergy 1993; 23:416-24.

Quirce S,et al. Occupational asthma caused by acrylates in optical laboratory technicians. J Invest Allergology Clin Immunol. 2011;21:78-9

Cyanoacrylates

 

Adhesive

Artificial figernails

Quirce S, et al .Occupational asthma caused by exposure to cyanoacrylate. Allergy 2001;56:446-9.

Jurado-Palomo J et al. Occupational asthma caused by artificial cyanoacrylate fingernails. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;102:440-1.

 

Diacrylate

 

Adhesive

Weytjens K, et al.  Occupational asthma to diacrylate. Allergy 1999; 54; 287-96.

Methylcyanoacrylate

 

Adhesive

Savonius B, et al. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates. Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23:416-24. Erratum in: Clin Exp Allergy 1993; 23: 712.)

Sauni R, et al. Occupational asthma caused by sculptured nails containing methacrylates. Am J Ind Med 2008; 51: 968-74

Methylmethacrylate

 

Adhesive

Thermal printer

Lozewicz S, et al. Occupational asthma due to methyl methacrylate and cyanoacrylates. Thorax 1985; 40:836-9.

Sánchez-Garcia S, et al.  Asthma induced by a thermal printer.N Engl J Med 2009 28;360:2375-6.

Plexiglas (dust)

 

Glass fibers

Kennes B. et al. Asthma from plexiglas powders. Clin Allergy 1981;11:49-54.

Polyethylene

 

Cable coating, Paper wrapping

Stenton SC; et al.  Occupational asthma due to a repair process for polyethylene-coated electrical cables. J Soc Occup Med 1989; 39:33-4.

Gannon PF, et al. Occupational asthma due to polyethylene shrink wrapping (paper wrapper's asthrna). Thorax 1992,47:759.

Polypropylene

 

Plastic

Malo JL, et al. Occupational asthma due to heated polypropylene. Eur Respir 1994;7:415-7.

Polyvinylchloride

 

Meat wrappers

Lee HS, et al. Occupational asthma due to unheated polyvinylchloride resin dust. Br J Ind Med 1989; 46:820-2.

Styrene

 

Plastic

Fernandez-Nieto M, et al. Airway inflammation in occupational asthma caused by styrene. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006.;117:948-50.

Hayes JP, et al. Occupational asthma due to styrene. Thorax 1991;46:396-7.

Moscato G. et al. Occupational asthma due to styrene: two case reports. Occup Med 1987; 29:957-60.

Synthetic textile fibres (rayon, nylon)

Polyester (orlon, terylene)

 

Textile

Muitari et al. Natural and synthetic fibers as causes of asthma and rhinitis. Ann Allergy 1978;41:48-50.

Dyes

 

 

 

Basic blue 99 (hair dye)

 

Hairdressing

Wigger-Alberú W, et al. Immediate-type allergy to the hair dye basic blue 99 in a hairdresser. Allergy 1996;51:64-5.

Carmine

Dactolylopius coccus. E-120

Carmine extraction
Food industry

Quirce S, et al. Occupational asthma and immunologic responses induced by inhaled carmine among employees at a factory making natural dyes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 93:44-52.

Stücker W, et al. Asthmatic reaction after occupational exposure to the food colouring material cochineal carmine. Allergo J 1996; 5:143-6.

Dyes for textile fibers IIOA

 

Textile dye

Zuskin E, et al. Respiralory function of tcxtile workers employed in dyeing cotton and wool fibers. Am J Ind Med 1 997; 31:344-52.

Park HS, et al. Clinical and immunologic evaluations of reactive dye-exposed workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991;87:639-49.

Henna black

Indigofera argentea

Hairdressing

Scibilia J, et al. Occupational asthma caused by black henna. Allergy 1997;52:231-2.

Henna red

Lausonia alba

Hairdressing

Starr JC, et al. Immediate type I asthmatic response to henna following occupational exposure in hairdressers. Ann Allergy 1982;48:98-9.

Ink for ECG

 

 

Keskinen H, et al. ECG ink as a cause of asthma. Allergy 1981; 36:275-26.

Lanasol 4G yellow

 

Dyeing

Romano C, et al. A new case of occupational asthma from reactive dyes with severe anaphylactic response to the specific challenge. Am J Ind Med 1992; 21:209-16.

Pyrazolone

 

Photography

Nakano Y, et al.. Occupational asthma caused by pyrazolone derivative used in silver halide photographic paper. Chest 2000;118:246-8.

Remazol black(dye for textile fibers)

 

Textile dye

Nilsson R, et al. Asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis in workers exposed to reactive dyes. Br J Ind Med 1993; 50:65-70.

Other chemicals

 

 

 

1,2-benzisotiazoline-3 Isothiazolinone

 

Chemical industry

Moscato G, et al. Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by 1,.2-benzisothiazolin-3-in a chemica1 worker. Occup Med (Oxf) 1997; 47:249-51.

1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate

TBTU

Biochemistry laboratories

Miralles JC, Occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma due to TBTU and HBTU sensitization. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2003; 13:133-4.

Ammonium chloride

 

Soldering

Weir DC, et al.  Occupational asthma due to soft corrosive soldering fluxes containing zinc chloride and ammonium chloride. Thorax 1989;44:220-3.

Aziridine

 

Chemical industry

Kanerva L, et al. Occupational respiratory and skin sensitisation caused by polyfunction alaziride hardener. Clin Exp Allergy 1995.; 25:432-9

Azobisformamide IIOA

 

Plastics

Malo JL et al. Occupational asthma due to azobisformamide.
Clin Allergy 1985;15:261-4.

Azodicarbonamide

 

Plastics, rubber

Normand JC, et al. Occupational asthma after exposure to azodicarbonamide: report of four cases. Br J Ind Med 1989; 46:60-2.

Slovak AJ. Occupational asthma caused by a plastics blowing agent, azodicarbonamide. Thorax 1981; 36:906-9.

Captafol IIOA

 

Pesticide

Royce S, et al. Occupational asthma in a pesticides manufacturing worker. Chest 1993;103:295-6.

Chloramine-T IIOA

 

Cleaners Healthcare

Kramps JA. et al.  Occupational asthrna due to inhalation of chloramine-T. II. Demonstration of specific IgE antibodies. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1981; 64:428-38.

Kujala VM, et al.  Occupational asthma due to chloramine-T solution. Respir Med 1995; 89:693-5.

Dijkman JH, et al. Occupational asthma due to inhalation of cloramine-T. I. C1inical observations and inhalation-provocation studies. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1981;64:422-7.

Cutting oils /metal working fluid

 

Metalic molding

Hendy MS, Beattie BE, Burge PS. 1985. Occupational asthma due to an emulsified oil mist. Br Ind Med; 42:51-4.

Tillie-Leblond I, et al. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and metalworking fluids contaminated by mycobacteria. Eur Respir J. 2011 Mar;37(3):640-7.

Robertson W, et al. Clinical investigation of an outbreak of alveolitis and asthma in a car engine manufacturing plant.Thorax 2007;62:928-9.

Diazonium

 

Photocopying
Fluoro polymers

Graham VA,  Coe ML, Davies RJ. Occupational asthma after exposure to a diazonium salt. Thorax 1981; 36:950-1

Luczynska CM, et al. Occupational asthma and specific IgE to a diazonium salt intermediate used in the polymer industry. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 85:1076-82.

Dodecanedioic acid

 

Electronic soldering

Moore VC, et al. Occupational asthma to gel flux containing dodecanedioic acid. Allergy. 2009;64:1099-100.

EPO 60

 

Mold making

Lamboum EM, et al. Occupational asthma due to EPO 60. Br J Ind Med 1992; 49:294-5.

Ethylcyanoacrylate

 

Adhesives

Quirce S, et al. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to cyanoacrylate. Allergy 2001.; 56:446-9.

Kopp SK, et al. Asthma and rhinitis due to ethylcyanoacrylate instant glue. Ann Intem Med 1985;102:613-5.

Ethylene dioxide

 

Healthcare

Verraes S. Michel O. Occuptional asthma induced by ethylene oxide. Lancet 1995; 346:1434-5.

Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)

 

Healthcare, cleaners

Laborde-Castérot H, et al. Occupational rhinitis and asthma due to EDTA-containing detergents or disinfectants. Am J Ind Med. 2012;55:677-82

Ethyleneimine

 

Plastics

Kanerva L; et al. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria caused by polyfunctional aziridine hardener. Contact Derrnatitis 1995; 33:304-9.

Eugenol

4 allyl-2-methoxy phenol; C10H12O2

Hairdresser

Quirce S, et al. Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by eugenol in a hairdresser. Allergy. 2008;63:137-8.

Fluazinam and chlorothalonil

 

Pesticides

Draper A, et al. Occupational asthma from fungicides fluazinam and chlorothalonil. Occup Environ Med 2003; 60:76-7.

Formaldehyde IIOA

 

Resins, Varnish, Healthcare

Lemiere C, et al. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde resin dust with and without reaction to forrnaldehyde gas. Eur Respir J 1995; 8: 861-5.

Burge PS, et al. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde. Thorax 1985; 40:255-60.

Gannon PF, et al. Occupational asthrna due to glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in endoscopy and x ray departments. Thorax 1995; 50:156-9.

Freon

 

Refrigeration

Malo JL, et al. Occupational asthma due to heated freon. Thorax 1984;39:628-9.

Furfuryl alcohol

 

Mold makers

Cockcroft DW, et al. Asthma caused by occupational exposure to a furan-based binder system. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1980; 66:458-63.

Glutaraldehyde IIOA

 

Healthcare

Quirce S, et al. Occupational asthma caused by glutaraldehyde in a nurse in a renal dyalysis unit. Allergy 1999;54:1121-2

Curran AD, et al.  Clinical and immunologic evaluation of workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. Allergy 1996; 51:826-32.

Hexachlorophene IIOA

 

Healthcare

Nagy L, Orosz M. Occupational asthma due to hexachlorophene. Thorax 1984; 39:630-1.

Iso-nonanyl oxybenzene sulfonate

 

Laboratory

Hendrick DJ, et al. Occupational asthma due to sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate, a newly deve1oped detergent ingredient. Thorax 1988; 43:501-2.

Stenton SC, et al. Asthmagenic properties of a newly developed detergent ingredient: sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate. Br J Ind Med 1990; 47:405-10.

Isothiazolinono

 

Chemical industry

Bourke SJ, et al. Occupational asthma in an isothiazolinone manufacturing plant. Thorax 1997; 52:746-8.

Lasamide

2,4-dichloro-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid

Pharmaceutical

Klusackova P, et al . Occupational asthma and rhinitis in workers from a lasamide production line. Scand J Work Environ Health 2007.;33:74-8.

Lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride

 

Pharmacist

Burge PS, et al. Occupational asthma due to inditrect exposure to lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium manufacturing plant. Thorax 1994.; 52:746-8.

Metabisulfite

 

Agricultural

Malo JL, et al. Occupational asthma caused by dry metabisulphite. Thorax 1995; 50:585-6.

Methyl blue

 

Healthcare

Rodenstein D, Stanescu DC. Bronchial asthma following exposure to ECG ink. 1982. Ann Allergy 1982;48:351-2.

Nihydrin

 

Laboratory

Stenton SC, et al. Asthmagenic properties of a newly developed detergent ingredient: sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate. Br J Ind Med 1990;47:405-10.

Piirila P, et al.  Rhinitis caused by ninhydrin deveIops into occupational asthma. Eur Respir J 1997;10:1918-21.

Ortho-phthalaldehyde

 

Healthcare

Fujita H, Ogawa M, Endo Y. A case of occupational bronchial asthma and contact dermatitis caused by ortho-phthalaldehyde exposure in a medical worker. J Occup Health 2006;48:413-6.

Persulphates (Na, K) IIOA

 

Hairdressing

Parra FM, et al.  Occupational asthma in a hairdresser caused by persulphate salts. Allergy 1992; 47:656-60.

Pulverized fuel

 

Power station

Davison AG, et al. Asthma caused by pulverised fuel ash. Br Med J 1986; 292:1561.

Sulphathiazoles

 

Healthcare

Rosberg M. Asthme bronchiale caused by sulphathiazole. 1946. Acta Med Scand 1946; 126:185-90.

Tetrazene

 

Detonators

Burge PS, et al. Occupational asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis due to tetrazene in a detonator manufacturer. Thorax 1984; 39:470-1.

Tooth enamel dust

 

Dentists

Ousholder GT, Chan JT. Tooth enamel dust as an asthma stimulus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1993;75:599-601.

Triglycidyl isocyanurate

 

Painters

Quirce S, et al. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by triglycidyl isocyanurate. Allergy 2004; 59:1128.

Sastre J, et al. Occupational asthma caused by triglycidyl isocyanurate. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2011;84:547-9

Arthropods

 

 

 

Storage mites
Tyrophagus longior,    T. putrescentiae, Glycyphagus destructor, G. domesticus, Acarus siro, A. farris, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum

 

Agricultural

Lutsky I, et al. Occupational asthma due to poultry mites. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1984;73:56-60.

Oertmann C, et al. Allergy by house dust mites in the poultry house. Allergologie 1995;18:327-30.

van Hage-Hamsten M, et al. Bronchial provocation studies in farrners with positive RAST to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor. Allergy 1988;43:545-51.

Blainey AD, et al. Allergic respiratory disease in grain workers. The role of storage mites. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;84:296-303.

Tetranicus urticae, Panonychus ulmi

Red Spider

Greenhouse workers

Delgado L, et al. Occupational allergy in greenhouse workers: sensitization to Teranychus urticae. Clin Exp Allergy 1997; 27:640-5.

Burches E, et al.  Occupational allergy due to spidermites: Tetranychus urticae (Koch) and Panonychus citri (Koch). Clin Exp AIlergy 1996;26: 1262-7.

Musk AW, et al. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sensitisation to flour in a British bakery. Br J Ind Med 1989; 46:636-42.

Kim YK, et al. Spider mite allergy in apple-cultivating farmers: European red mite (Panonychus ulmi) and two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) may be important allergens in the development of work-related asthma and rhinitis symptoms. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104:1285-92.

Panonychus citri

 

Orange agriculture

See : Burches et al.

Kim YK, et al. Citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) is the most common sensitizing allergen of asthma and rhinitis in citrus farmers. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:1102-9.

Amblyseius cucumeris

 

Horticulture

Giséle CM et al. Prevalence of sensitization to the predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris as a new occupational allergen in horticulture. Allergy 2002; 57: 614.

Skousgaard SG, et al. Occupational asthma caused by the predatory beneficial mites Amblyseius californicus and Amblyseius cucumeris. Occup Environ Med. 2010;67:287

Cellar spider Holocnemus pluchei

 

Agricultural

Bobolea et al. Arginine kinase from cellar spider (Holocnemus pluchei): a new asthma-causing allergen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;155:180-6.

Dyne D, et al. Occupational ailergy among workers producing arthropods for organic pest conrol purposes. Ann Agric Environ Med 1996;3:33-6.

Anisakis simplex

Anisakis simplex

Fishmonger

Armentia A, et al. Occupational asthma by Anisakis simplex. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:831-4.

Barbuzza O, et al. Protein contact dermatitis and allergic asthma caused by Anisakis simplex. Contact Dermatitis. 2009;60:239-40.

Beetles

Tenebrio monitor, Alphitobius, Diaperinus domestica

Fishing bait
Grain handlers

Siracusa A, et al. Asthma caused by live fish bait. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 93:424-30.

Schroeckenstein DC, et al. Occupational sensitivity to Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yellow mealworm). J A1Iergy Clin Immunol 1990; 86:182-8.

Friedrich H. Mealworm asthma. A contribution to the allergic occupational asthma. Allergologie 1986; 9:519-21.

Sheldon JM, Johnston JH. Hypersensitivity to beetles (coleoptera). Report of a case. J Allergy 1941;12:493-7.

Cuesta J, Asthma caused by Dermestidae (Black carpet beetle): a new allergen in house dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:147-9.

Book louse

Liposcelis bostrychophilus

Cleaners, Millworkers

Wittich FW. The nature of various mill dust allergens. Lancet 1940; 60:418-21.

Caddis fly

Trichoptera

 

Kagen SL. Inhalant allergy to arthropods: Insects, arachnids and crustaceans. In: Inhalant Allergy to Arthropods. De SL Kagen. Clinical Reviews in Allergy 1986; 8:1-125.

Miedinger D, et al. Occupational asthma to caddis flies (Phryganeiae). Occup Environ Med. 2010;67:503

Chironomid midges

Chironomus thumi

Fish feeders

Liebers V, et al.. Humoral immune response to the insect allergen Chi t 1 in aquarists and fish-food factory workers. Allergy 1993;48:236-9.

Chrysonilla sitophila

 

Carpenters

Tarlo SM, et al. Occupational asthma induced by Chrysonilia sitophila in the logging industry. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:1409-13.

Cockroach

Blatella germanica

Laboratory

Steinberg DR, et al. Cockroach sensitization in laboratory workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987;80:586-90.

Cricket

Achatea domestica

Laboratory

Harfi HA. Immediate hypersensitivity to cricket. Ann Allergy 1980;44:162-3.

Bagenstose AH, et al. Inhalant allergy due to crickets. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1980;65:71-4.

Linares T, et al. Occupational rhinitis and asthma due to crickets. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2008;100:566-9.

Dermestidae spp

 

Museum personnel

Brito FF, et al.. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in a wool worker caused by Dermestidae spp. Allergy 2002;57:1191-4.

Ech inodorus plamosus (larvae)

Echinodorus plamosus

Bait, fish-feeders

Resta O, et al. Occupational asthma from fish-feed Echinodorus plamosus larva. Med Lav 1982;73:234-6.

Eurygaster and Ephestia

 

Agriculture

Armentia A, et al. Occupational asthma due to grain pests Eurygaster and Ephestia. J Asthma 2004;41:99-107.

Fruit fly

Drosophila melanogaster

Laboratory

Spieksma F, et al. Respiratory allergy to laboratory fI11it flies (Drosophila melanogasler). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986; 77:108-13.

Gipsy moth

Limantria dispar

Entomologists

Etkind PH, et al. The gypsy moth caterpillar: a significant new occupational and public health problem. Occup Med 1982; 24:659-62.

Grain weevil

Sitophilus granarius, Sitophilus zeamais

Grain handlers

Lunn JA, Huges DT. Pulmonary hypersensitivity to the grain weevil. Br J Ind Med 1967;24:158-61.

Grasshopper

Melanoplus sanguinipes

Laboratory

Von Der Bijl VWF. Asthma als berfskankheit: Allergi gegen heuschrecken. Allergi und Asthma 1963;9:154-5.

Green bottle

Lucilia caesar

Fishing bait

Siracusa A, et al. Asthma caused by live fish bait. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 93: 424-30.

Ground bugs

Lygaeidae

Bottling

Garcia Lazaro MA, et al.  Occupational asthma caused by hypersensitivity to ground bugs. 1 Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:267-8.

Honey-bee

Apis mellifera

Food industry-honey

Ostrom NK, et al. Occupational allergy to honeybee-body dust in a honey-processing plant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986, 77:736-40.

Johnson A, Dittrick M, Chan-Yeung M. Occupational asthma caused by honey. Allergy 1999; 54:183-90.

Locust

Locusta migratoria

Laboratory workers

Soparkar GR, et al. Inhalant atopic sensitivity to grasshoppers in research laboratories. J AIlergy Clin Immunol 1993;92:61-5.

Tee RD, et al. Occupational allergy to locusts: an investigation of the sources of the allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;81:517-25.

Hernandez MD, et al. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to Locusta migratoria (LM). Clin Allergy 1980; 10:235-6.

Moths, butterflies

Galleria mellonella,

Ephestia kuehniella

Bait

Grain handlers

Siracusa A, et al. Asthma caused by live fish bait. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;93:424-30.

Cabanieu C, et al. Recherche des anticorps precipitants dans lállergie a Ephestia kuehniella. Rev Francai Allergol 1971;11:257-63

Mushroom fly

Brachycera spp.

Mushroom workers

Cimarra M, et al. Occupational asthma caused by champignon flies. Allergy 1999;54:521-5.

Sewer fly

Psychoda

alternata

Sewer workers

Gold BL, Mathews KP, Burge HA. Occupational asthma caused by sewer flies. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131:949-52.

Sheep blowfly

Lucilia cuprina

Laboratory

Kaufman GL, et al. Occupational allergy in an entomological research centre. Clinical aspects of reactions to the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina. Br J Ind Med 1989; 46:473-8.

Silkworm

Bombyx mori

Silkworkers

Harindranath N, et al. Prevalence of occupational asthma in silk filatures. Ann Allergy 1985; 55:511-5.

Water Flea

Daphnia

 

Meister W. Professional asthma owning to Daphnia -allergy. Allergie und Immunologie 1978;24:191-3.

Shellfish

 

 

 

Clams

 

Food industry

Desjardins A, et al. Occupational IgE-mediated sensitization and asthma caused by clam and shrimp. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995; 96:608-17.

Lobster

 

Food industry

Lemiere C, et al. Occupational asthma to lobster and shrimp. Allergy 1996;51:272-3.

Nacre

 

Pearl industry

Orriols R, et al. High prevalence of mollusc shell hypersensitivity pneumonitis in nacre factory workers. Eur Respir J 1977;10:780-86.

Shrimp

 

Food industry

Desjardins A, Occupational IgE-mediated sensitization and asthma caused by clam and shrimp. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995;9.:608-17.

Lemiere C, et al. Occupational asthma to lobster and shrimp. Allergy 1996; 51:272-3.

Snow crab

 

Food industry

Cartier A, et al. IgE sensitization in snow crab-processing worlcers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986; 78:344-8.

Fish

 

 

 

Salmon, tuna, sardine, trout

 

Food industry

Douglas D, et al. Occupational asthma caused by automated salmon processing. Lancet 1995; 346:737-40.

Rodriguez J, et al. Occupational asthma caused by fish inhalation. Allergy 1997; 52:866-9.

Sherson D, Hansen l, Sigsgaard T. Occupationally related respiratory symptoms in trout-processing workers. Allergy 1989; 44: 336-41.

Octopus

 

Food industry

Rosado A, et al. Occupational asthma caused by octopus particles. Allergy. 2009;64:1101-2.

Squid

 

Food industry

Wiszniewska M, et al. Occupational allergy to squid (Loligo vulgaris). Occup Med. 2013 ;63:298-300

Turbot

 

Fish farm

Pérez Carral C, et al. Occupational asthma caused by turbot allergy in 3 fish-farm workers. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2010;20:349-51.

Animal products

 

 

 

Casein

 

Tanners

Olaguibel JM, et al. Basomba A. Occupational asthma caused by inhalation of casein. Allergy 1990;45:306-8.

Rossi GL, Corsico A, Moscato G. Occupational asthma caused by milk proteins: report on a case. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 93:799-801.

Bovine serum albumin

 

Food Industry

Choi GS, et al. Occupational asthma caused by inhalation of bovine serum albumin powder. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2009;1:45-7.

Cow dander

 

Farmers

Hinze S, Bergmann K-C. Cow hair asthma: symptoms and clinical course. Allergo J 1995;4:97-101

Deer dander

 

Farmers

Veterinary

Nahm DH, Park JW, Hong CS. Occupational asthma due to deer dander. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996; 76:423-6.

Carballada F, et al. Occupational respiratory allergy to roe deer. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;97:707-10.

Egg

 

Food industry

Smith AB, et al.  Evaluation of occupational asthma from airbome egg. Ches1990; 98:398-404.

Bernstein JA, et al. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg lysozyme. Chest 1993;103:532-5.

Feathers

 

Farmers

Perfetti L, Cartier A. Malo JL. Occupational asthma in poultry-slaughterhouse workers. Allergy 1997; 52:594-5.

Frogs

 

Frog fisherman

Armentia A, aldiv-Santos J, Subiza J, et al. Occupational asthma due to frogs. Ann Allergy 1988; 60:209-10.

Goat milk

 

Food industry (cheese maker)

Sastre I, Rodríguez-Perez R, García F, Juste S, Moneo I, Caballero ML. Occupational allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchial asthma induced by goat cheese. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70:141-2

Ivory dust

 

Ivory workers

Arrnstrong RA, Neill P, Mossop RT. Asthma induced by ivory dust: a new occupational cause. Thorax 1988;43:737-8.

Laboratory animal danders: Rat, mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, gerbil, hamster, cat, dog

 

Laboratory

Krakowiak A, Szulc B. Gorski P. Occupational respiratory diseases in laboratory animal workers: initial results. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 1997;10:31-6.

Bush RK, Wood RA. Laboratory animal allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998; 102:99-112.

Hollander A, Doekes G, Heederik D. Cat and dog allergy and total IgE as risk factors of laboratory animal allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996; 98:545-54.

de las Heras M, et al. Occupational asthma caused by gerbil: purification and partial characterization of a new gerbil allergen. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;104:540-2.

Laboratory animal urine

 

Laboratory workers

Venables KM, et al. Laboratory animal allergy in a pharmaceutical company. Br J Ind Med 1988;45:660-6.

Lactoalbumin

 

Food industry

Rossi GL, Corsico A, Moscato G. Occupational asthma caused by milk proteins: report on a case. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 93:799-801.

Mink urine

 

Farmers

Jimenez Gomez I, et al. Occupational asthma caused by mink urine. Allergy 1996; 51:364-5.

Pig urine

 

Laboratory

Haries MG, Cromwell 0. Occupational asthma caused by allergy to pigs' urine. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982; 284:867.

Pigeon, dove, cockatiel, parakeet, duck, turkey: Feathers and droppings

 

Breeders

Calvert JE, et al. Pigeon fancier´s lung: A complex disease. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29:166-75.

Roe Deer

 

Animal rehabilitation center

Carballada F, et al . Occupational respiratory allergy to roe deer.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006.;97:707-10.

Shark cartilage

 

Dietetic product industry

San-Juan S, et al. Occupational asthma caused by shark cartilage dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 114:1227-8.

Plants

 

 

 

3-carene

Terpene

Carpenters

Eriksson KA, et al. Terpene exposure and respiratory effects among workers in Swedish joinery shops. Scand Work Environ Health 1997;23:114-20.

Albilfloxia

Tradescantia

Floral workers

Wuthrich B,Johansson SG. Allergy to the omamental indoor green plant Tradescantia (Albilfloxia). Allergy 1997;52:556-9.

Algae

Alage chorella

Pharmacist

Ng TP, Tan WC, Lee YK. Occupational asthma in a pharmacist induced by Chorella, a unicelular algae preparation. Respir Med 1994;88:555-7.

Amarylis

Amaryllidaceae

Horticultural

Jansen AP, et al. Occupational asthma to amaryllis. Allergy 1996; 51:847-9.

Aniseed

Pimpinella anisum

Food industry

Fraj J, et al. Occupational asthma induced by aniseed. Allergy 1996;51:337-9.

Arabidopsis thaliana

 

Laboratory worker

Yates B, et al. Occupational asthma caused by Arabidopsis thaliana: a case of laboratory plant allergy. Eur Respir J. 2008;32:1111-2

Aromatic herbs

 

Herbalist

Lemiere C, et al. Occupational asthma caused by aromatic herbs. Allergy 1996; 51:647-9.

Artichoke

Cynara scolymus

Agriculture, Food industry

Miralles JC, Occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma due to artichoke (Cynara scolymus). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003; 9:92-5.

Asparagus

Asparagus o.

Food industry

Lopez-Rubio A, et al. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to asparagus: detection of allergens by immunoblotting. Allergy 1998;53 1216-20.

Baby's breath

Gypsophila paniculata

Floral workers

Antepara I, et al. Occupational asthma related to fresh Gypsophila paniculata. Allergy 1994; 49:478-80.

Twiggs JT, et al. Occupational asthma in a florist caused by the dried plant, baby's breath. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1982; 69:474-8.

Bells of Ireland

Molucella laevis

Plant growers

Miesen WM, et al.. Occupational asthma due to IgE mediated allergy to the flower Molucella laevis (Bells of Ireland).Occup Environ Med 2003; 60:701-3.

Boletus edulis

Boletus edulis

Mushroom proccessor

Castillo C, et al. Protein identification of two allergens of Boletus edulis causing occupational asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 201315;187:1146-8

Brasil Gingseng or Voacanga africana

Pfaffia paniculata

Pharmaceutical

Subiza J, et al. Occupational asthma caused by Brazil ginseng dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991; 88:731-6.

Cabbage

Brassica oleracea

Food industry

Quirce S, et al.Occupational asthma due to the inhalation of cauliflower and cabbage vapors. Allergy 2005;60:969-70

Cacao

Theobroma cacao

Food industry

Perfetti L, et al. Occupational asthma caused by cacao. Allergy 1997; 52:778-80.

Carnation

Dianthus caryophyllus

Floral workers

Sanchez-Guerrero I, et al. Ocupational allergy caused by carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 104:181-5.

Cauliflower and broccoli  pollen

Brassica oleracea botrytis B. oleracea italica/cymosa

Agriculture

Hermanides HK, et al. Brassica oleracea pollen, a new source of occupational allergens. Allergy 2006;61:498-502.

Chamomile

 

tea-packing plant

Vandenplas O, et al. Occupational asthma caused by chamomile.Allergy 2008 ;63:1090-2.

Chicory

Chichorium intybus

Food industry

Nemery B, Demedts M.. Occupational asthma in a chicory grower. Lancet 1989;1:672-3.

Pirson F, et al. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma caused by chicory and oral allergy syndrome associated with bet v 1-related protein. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2009;19:306-10.

Colin G, Lelong J, Tillie-Leblond I, Tonnel AB.Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a chicory worker. Rev Mal Respir. 2007;24:1139-42.

Chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum

Floral workers

Blamoutier E. Un cas de sensibilisation au chrysanteme (jeuilles et fleurs) asthme et dermite du visage. Sem Hop Paris 1956; 32:2865.

Schuberl H, Prater E, Diener C. Pollinosis bei Chrysanthemenzüchtern. Z Gesamte Hyg 1990;36:162-6.

Suzuky S, et al. Chrysanthemum pollinosis in Japan. Int Arch Allergy Appll Immunol 1975; 48:800-11.

Coriander

Coriandrum sativum

Food industry

Schwartz HJ, et al. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to fennel seed. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997;78:37-40

Diplotaxis erucoides (pollen)

 

Vine growers

Garcia-Ortega P, et al. Allergy to Diplotaxis erudoides pollen: occupational sensitization and cross-reactivity with other common plants. Allergy 2001 56:679-83.

Entada gigas

Entada scandens

Floral workers

Rubin JM, Duke MB. Unusual cause of bronchial asthma. Cacoon seed used for decorative purposes. N Y State J Med 1974; 74 538-9.

Fennel

Foeniculum vulgare

Food industry

Schwartz HJ, Occupational allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to fennel seed. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997;78:37-40.

Fenugreek

Trigonella foenumgraecum

Food industry

Dugue J, Bel J, Figueredo M. Le fenugrec responsable d´un nouvel asthme professionel. Presse Medd 1993; 22:922.

Fibers: Linen, jute, stipa grass

Linen

usitatssimum,

Corchorus olitorius,

Stipa tenacissima

Fiber processors

Plaster workers

Muittari A, Veneskoski T. Natural and synthetic fibers as causes of asthma and rhinitis. Ann Allergy 1978;41:48-50

Baz G,  et al. ccupational asthma caused by esparto grass (Stipa tenacissima) fibers. Allergy 1999;54:86-7.

Ficus

Ficus benjamina

Plant keepers

Diez-Gomez ML, et al. Asthma caused by Ficus benjamina latex: Evidence of cross-reactivity with fig fruit and papain. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1998 ;80:24-30.

Axelsson IG, et al. Occupational allergy to weeping fig in plant keepers. Allergy 1987;42:161-7.

Flowers and dry flowers

 

Floral workers

Piirila I, et al.  Occupational asthma caused by decorative flowers: review and case reports. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1994, 66:131-6.

Freesia

Freesia spp.

Horticulture

Toorenbergen van AW, Dieges PH. Occupational allergy in horticulture: demonstration of immediate-type allergic reactivity of freesia and papriha plants. Int Arch Allergy Appll Immunol 1984; 75:44-7.

Garlic dust

Allium sativa

Food industry

Falleroni AE, et al. Occupational asthma secondary to inhalation of garlic dust.J Allergy Clin Immunol 1981;68:156-60.

Gluten

 

Bakers

Lachance P, et al. Occupational asthma from reactivity to an alkaline hydrolysis derivative of gluten. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988; 81:385-90.

Grass

Lolium p.

Gardeners

Subiza J, et al. Occupational asthrna caused by grass juice. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995; 96:693-5.

Green IIOA and roasted coffee

Coffea arabica

Coffee proccesors

Larese F, et al. Sensitization to green coffee beans and work-related allergic symptoms in coffee workers. Am J Ind Med 1998;34:623-7.

Zuskin E, et al. Bronchial reactivity in green coffee exposure. Br J Ind Med 1985; 42:415-20.

Jones RN, et al. Lung function consequences of exposure and hypersensitivity in workers who process green coffee beans. Am Rev Respir Dis 1982; 125:199-202.

Lemiere C, et al. Occupational asthma caused by roasted coffee: immunologic evidence that roasted coffee contains the same antigens as green coffee, but at a lower concentration. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996 ; 98:464-6.

Green bean

Phaseolus

Homemakers

Igea JM, et al. Green bean hypersensitivity: an occupational allergy in a homemaker. J Allergy Clin Immuno1 1994; 94:33-35

Lima bean

Phaseolus lunatus

 

Tonini S, et al. Occupational asthma induced by exposure to lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus). Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012;108(1):66-7

Hop

Humulus lupulus

Brewing Industry

Newmark FM. Hops allergy and terpene sensitivity: an occupational disease. Ann Allergy 1978; 41:311-312.

Ivy

Hedera helix

Florist

Hannu T, et al. Occupational asthma to ivy (Hedera helix). Allergy 2008 ;63:482-3.

Korean ginseng - Sanyak

 

Pharmaceutical

Lee JY, et al. A case of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by Sanyak and Korean ginseng dusts. Allergy 2006;61:392-3

Limonium

Limonium tataricum

Floral workers

Quirce S, et al. Occupational asthma from dried flowers of Llimonium tataricum. Allergy 1993;48:285-9.

Linseed oilcake

Linum usitatissimum

Chemist

Vandenplas O, et al.. Occupational asthma caused by linseed oilcake. Allergy. 2008;63:1250-1

Liquorice root

Glycyrrhiza glabra

Herbalist

Cartier A, Malo JL, Labreque M, Occupational asthma due to liquorice roots. Allergy 2002; 57:863.

Madagascar Jasmine

Stephanotis floribunda

Greenhouse workers

Van der Zee JS, et al.. Outbreak of occupational allergic asthma in a Stephanotis floribunda nursery. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103:950-2.

Marianne thistle

Silybum marianum

Floral workers

Wollemann G, et al. Rhinoconjuntivitis auf Mariendistelsamen (Silybum marianum). Allergologie 1987;10:505-8.

Mimosa

Acacia floribunda

Florist

Ariano R, et al..Pollen allergy to mimosa (Acacia floribunda) in a Mediterranean area: an occupational disease. Ann Allergy 1991;66:253-6.

Mushroom

Agaricus bisporus

Mushroom processors

Symington IS, Kerr JW, McLean DA. Type I allergy in mushroom soup processors. Clin Allergy 1981;11:43-7.

Narcisuss

Narcissus pseudonarcissus

Florist

Concalo S, et al. Contact dermatitis and respiratory symptoms from Narcissus pseudonarcissus. Contact Dermatitis 1987;16:115-7.

Nutmeg

Mysristicia fragans

Food industry

Sastre J, et al. Occupational asthma due to different spices. Allergy 1996; 51:117-20.

Onion

Allium spp

Food industry or Agriculture

Navarro JA, et al. Allium cepa sedes:a new occupational allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995; 96:690-3.

Opium

Papaver s.

Pharmaceutical

Moneo I, et al. Occupational asthma o causcd by Papaver somlliferum. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1993;21:145-8.

Paprika

Capsicum annum

Food industry

Sastre J, et al. Occupational asthma due to different spices. Allergy 1996; 51:117-20.

Pea

Lathyrus odoratus

Horticultural

Jansen A, et al.  Occupational asthma in horticu1ture caused by Lathyrus odoratus. J Allergy Proc 1995;16:135-9.

Pectin

 

Food industry

Cohen AJ, Forse MS, Tarlo SM.. Occupational asthma caused by pectin inhalation during the manufacture of jam. Chest 1993;103:309-11.

Raspberry

 

Food industry

Sherson D, et al. Occupational asthma due to freeze-dried raspberry. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 ;90:660-3.

Rice

 

Food industry

Kim JH, et al. Three cases of rice-induced occupational asthma.Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010;104:353-4.

Ricine

Ricinus communis

Pharmaceutical

Merget R, et al.  Seasonal occupational asthma in an agricultural products merchant-a case report. Allergy 1994;49:897-901.

Rose

Rosa rugosa.

Pharmaceutical

Greenhouse workers

Kwaselow A, et al. Rose hips: a new occupational allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 85:704-8.

Demir AU, et al. Allergy symptoms and IgE immune response to rose: an occupational and an environmental disease. Allergy 2002;57:936-9.

Saffron

Crocus sativus

Saffron proccesors

Feo F, et al.  Occupational allergy in saffron workers. Allergy 1997;52:633-41.

Sarsaparilla

Smila

Herbalist

Vandenplas O, et al. Occupational asthma caused by sarsaparilla root dust. J Allergy Clin Immuno 1996; 97:1416-8.

Sesame

Sesame indicum

Food industry

Keskinen H, et al. A case of occupational asthma. Rhinitis and urticaria due to sesame seed. Clin Exp Allergy 1991;21:623-4.

Sisal

Agave sisalana

Sisal workers

Zuskin E, et al.Respiralory function and immunological reaclions in sisal workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1994;66:37-42.

Spatheflower

Spathiphyllum wallisii,

Spathiphyllum tloribundum

Floral workers

Kanerva L, et al. Ocupational allergy caused by Spatheflower (Spathiphyllum wallisii). Allergy 1995;50: 174-8.

Cahen YD, et al.  lndoor Allergy to Spatheflower (Spathiphyllum tloribundum) Allergy 1997; 52:114-5.

Sunflower

Helianthus annua

Agricultural

Bousquet J, et al.  Occupational allergy to sunflower pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1985;75:70-4.

Vandenplas O, et al. Occupational asthma caused by sunflower seed dust. Allergy 1998; 53:907-8.

Sunflower, pollen and seeds

Helianthenum annuus

Agricultural, Laboratory

Vandenplas O, et al. Occupational asthma caused by sunflower-seed dust. Allergy 1998;53:907–8.

Tampico

Agave leaves

Brush manufactoring

Quirce S, et al. Occupational asthma due to tampico fiber from agave leaves. Allergy. 2008;63:943-5.

Tea

Camelia sinensis

Tea proccesing

Cartier A, Malo JL. Occupational asthma due to tea dust. Thorax 1990; 45:203-6.

Shirai T, Sato A, Hara Y. Epigallocatechin gallate. The major causative agent of green tea-induced asthma. Chest 1994;106:1801-5.

catechin-rich green tea

 

 

Otera H, Tada K, Sakurai T, Hashimoto K, Ikeda A. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with inhalation of catechin-rich green tea extracts. Respiration. 2011;82:388-92.

Tomato

 

Greenhouse worker

Vandenplas O, et al.Tomato-induced occupational asthma in a greenhouse worker. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:1229-31.

Tobacco dust

Nicotiana tabacum

Tobacco workers

Lander F. Gravesen S. Respiratory disorders among tobacco workers. Br J Ind Med 1988; 45:500-2.

Baur X. Occupational hypersensitivity against tobacco dust. Allergologie 1993;16:94-95.

Tulip, lily

Tulipa,

Lilium longiflorum

Floral workers

Äuer A. Contact urticaria and respiratory symptoms from tulip and lilies. Contact Dermatitis 1986;14:317–9.

Piirila P, et al. Occupational IgE-mediated asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact urticaria caused by Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) and tulip. Allergy 1999;54:273-7.

Vetch

Vicia sativa

Agriculture

Juste-Picon S, et al. Occupa-tional asthma caused by vetch (Vicia sativa). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991 88:135-136.

Yarrow and Safflower

Achillea millefolium,

Carthamus tinctorious

Florist

Compes E et al. Occupational asthma from dried flowers of Carthamus tinctorious (safflower) and Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Allergy 2006;61:1239-40.

Vegetable gums

 

 

 

Arabic or acacia gum

Acacia del senegal

Printers
Food industry

Fowler PBS. Printer´s asthma. Lancet 1952; 2:755-7.

Aleman A, Quirce S. Asma ocupacional por goma arábiga en la industria alimentaria. Rev Esp Alergol Inmunol Clin 1999;14:2-3.

Carob bean gum

Ceratonia siliqua

Food industry

Scoditti A,  et al. Asthma to carob bean flour. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1996; 77:81.

Guar gum

Cypamopsis tetragonolobus

Carpet manufacturing

Malo JL. Prevalence of occupational asthma and immunologic sensitization to guar gum among employees at a carpet-manufacturing plant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;86:562-9.

Karaya gum

Sterculea urens

Hairdresser

Wagner W. Karaya gum hypersensitivity in an enterostomal therapist. JAMA 1980; 243:432.

Natural rubber latex

Hevea brasiliensis

Health care

Latex processing

Vandenplas O, et al. Occupational asthma in symptomatic workers exposed to natural rubber latex: evaluation of diagnostic procedures. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:542-7.

Yassin MS, et al. Lalex allergy in hospital employees. Ann Allergy 1994;72:245-9.

Baur X; et al. Relevance of latex aeroallergen for healthcare workers. Allergology Intemational 1995; 20:105-11.

Grzybowski M, et al. The prevalencc of anti-latex IgE antibodies among rcgistered nurses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98:535-44.

Tragacanth gum

Astragalus gummifer

Food industry

Danoff D, et al. ”Big Mac Attack”.N Engl J Med 1978; 298:1095-6.

Flours

 

 

 

Barley

Hordeum vulgare

Bakers

Vidal C, Gonzalez-Quintela A. Food-induced and occupational asthma due to barley flour. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1995;75:121-4.

Buckwheat

Fagopyrum esculentum

Bakers

Park HS. Nahm DH. Buckwheat flour hypersensitivity: an occupational asthma in a noodle maker. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:423-7.

Fernandez R, et al. Occupational asthma and contact urticaria caused by buckwheat flour. Ann Allergy 1989; 63:149-52.

Corn

  Zea mays

Food processing

Pharmaceutical industry

Farming

Martin-Garcia C, et al. Corn-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis.Allergy 2003.;58:534-5.

Maniu CM et al. Maize: a new occupational allergen in the pharmaceutical industry. Allergy 2010;65:930-1.

Sung SY, et al. A Case of Occupational Rhinitis Induced by Maize Pollen Exposure in a Farmer: Detection of IgE-Binding Components. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2012;4:49-51

Grass pea

Lathyrus sativus

Carpenter

Anton Girones M, et al.. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma by exposure to Lathyrus sativus flour.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2005;33:326-8.

Lupin seed /flour

Lupinus albus

Bakers

Crespo J, et al. Occupational IgE mediated allergy after exposure to lupine seed flour. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108:295-7.

Campbell CP, et al. Occupational sensitization to lupin in the workplace: occupational asthma, rhinitis, and work-aggravated asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007; 119:1133-9.

Malt

 

Food processing

Miedinger D, Malo JL, Cartier A, Labrecque M. Malt can cause both occupational asthma and allergic alveolitis. Allergy. 2009;64:1228-9.

Marigold flour

Tagetes erecta

Animal feeding

Lluch-Pérez M, et al. Occupational allergy caused by marigold (Tagetes erecta) flour inhalation. Allergy. 2009;64:1100-1.

Oilseed rape

Brassiba napus

Grain handlers

Suh CH, et al. Oilseed rape allergy presented as occupational asthma in the grain industry. Clin Exp Allergy1998; 28:1159-63.

Pea

Lathyrus odoratus

Food industry

Bhagat R, Swystun VA, Cockcroft DW. Occupational asthma caused by pea flour. Chest 1995;107:1772.

Rye

Secalle cerealle

Bakers

Baur X, Degens PO, Sander 1. Baker's asthma: still among the most frequent occupational respiratory disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998; 102:984-97.

Soy: bean, flour, lectine, trysin inhibitor

Glycine max

Bakers

Quirce S, et al. Occupational asthma caused by soybean flour in bakers-differences with soybean-induced epidemic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:839-46.

Quirce S,. et al. Soy-bean trysin inhibitor is an occupational inhalant allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 109:178.

Alvarez MJ, et al. Diversity of allergens causing occupational asthma among cereal workers as demonstrated by exposure procedures. Clin Exp Allergy 1996; 26:147-53.

Baur X, et al. Inhalant allergens in modern baking industry. Immunol Allergy Pract 1989; 11:13-5.

Lavaud F, et al. Baker's asthma related to soybean lecithin exposure. Allergy 1994; 49:159-62.

Wheat

Triticum aestivum

Bakers

Baur X, Degens PO, Sander 1. Baker's asthma: still among the most frequent occupational respiratory disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:984-97.

De Zotti R, et al. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers. Occup Environ Med 1994, 51:548-52.

Houba R, Heederik D, Doekes G. Wheat sensitization and work-related symptoms in the baking industry are preventable. An epidemiologic study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 158:1499-503.

Constantin C, et al. Molecular and immunological characterization of a wheat serine proteinase inhibitor as a novel allergen in baker's asthma. J Immunol. 2008 Jun 1;180:7451-60. 

Palacin A, et al. Recombinant lipid transfer protein Tri a 14: a novel heat and proteolytic resistant tool for the diagnosis of baker's asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:1267-76.

Lehto M, et al. Thaumatin-like protein and baker's respiratory allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;104:139-46.

Woods

 

 

 

alpha-amylase inhibitor

 

Sawmill, furniture

López-Rico R, et al. Cereal alpha-amylase inhibitors cause occupational sensitization in the wood industry. Clin Exp Allergy 1998; 28:1286-91.

Abiruana

Pouteria

 

Booth BH, et al. Hypersensitivity to wood dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1976;57:352-7.

African maple

Triplochiton scleroxylon

Sawmill, furniture

S Quirce, et al. Identification of obeche wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon) allergens causing occupational asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:400-1.

Hinojosa M, et al.. Occupational asthma caused by African maple (Obeche) and Ramin: evidence of cross reactivity between these two woods. Clin Allergy 1986;16:145-53.

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 1993; 16:334-40.

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 1994;17:55-60.

African zebrawood

Microberlinia

Sawmill, furniture

Bush RK, Yunginger JW, Reed CE. Asthma due to African zebrawood (Microberlinia) dust. Am Rev Respir Dis 1978; 117: 60l-3.

Alder

Alnus alginosa

Sawmill, furniture

Ahman M, et al. IgE-mediated allergy to wood dusts probably does not explain the high prevalence of respiratory symptoms among Swedish woodwork teachers. Allergy 1995; 50:559-62.

Antiaris

Antiaris

 

Higuero, et al.  Occupational asthma caused by IgE-mediated reactivity to Antiaris wood dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:554-6.

Ash

Fraxinus excelsior

Sawmill, furniture

Fenandez-Rivas M, et al.  Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by ash (Fraxinus excelsior) wood dust. Allergy 1997;52:196-199.

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 1993; 16:334-40.

Spiewak R et al., Occupational asthma due to wood dust exposure (ash. oak, beech and pine) -a case study. Ann Agric Environ Med 1994;1:73-6.

Beech

Fagus selvatica

Sawmill, furniture

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 1993; 16:334-40.

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 1994;17:55-60.

Schlünssen V, et al. Immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust in relation to wood dust exposure levels and respiratory symptoms in the furniture industry. Scand J Work Environ Health 2011;37:159-67.

Bethabara

 

 

Yacoub MR, et al. Occupational asthma due to bethabara wood dust. Allergy 2005; 60:1544-5.

Cabreuva Wood (Brazilian cherry)

Hymenaea courbaril

Furniture

Pala G, et al. Occupational rhinitis and asthma due to cabreuva wood dust. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;104:268-9.

Cedar of Lebanon

Cedra libani

Sawmill

Greenberg, M. Respiratory symptoms following brief exposure to cedar of Lebanon (Cedra libani) dust. Clin Allergy 1972; 2:219-24.

Cedrorana

Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke

 

Eire MA, et al. Occupational rhinitis and asthma due to cedroarana (Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke) wood dust allergy. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2006;16:385-7.

Central American walnut

Juglans olanchana

Furniture

Bush RK, Clayton O. Asthma due to Central American Walnut (Juglans olanchana) dust. Clin Allergy 1983;13: 389-94.

Chengal wood

Neobalanocarpus heimii

Sawmill

Lee LT, Tan KL.Occupational asthma due to exposure to chengal wood dust.Occup Med (Lond). 2009 ;59:357-9.

Cherry

Prunus avium

Sawmill, furniture

Abendroth RR, et al. Wood dust allergy: clinical findings, diagnosis, prognosis, new trends in protection at work. Allergologie 1992;15:300-3.

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum zelanicum

Sawmill

Uragoda. 1984. Asthma and other symptoms in cinnamon workers. Br J Ind Med 41:224-7.

Cocabolla

Dalbergia retusa

Furniture

Eaton, K.K Respiratory allergy to exotic wood dust. Clin Allergy 1973;3:307-10.

Colophony, abietic acid

 

Welders

Burge PS, et al. Bronchial provocation studies in workers exposed to the fumes of electronic soldering fluxes. Clin Allergy 1980;10:l37-49.

Burge PS. et al. Occupational asthma in a factory making flux-cored solder containing colophony. Thorax 1981;36:828-34.

So SY, Lam WK, Yu D. Colophony-induced asthma in a poultry vender. Clin Allergy 1981;11: 395-399.

Eastern white cedar

Thuja occidentalis

Sawmill, furniture

Cartier A, et al. Occupational asthma caused by eastem white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) with demonstration that plicatic acid is present in this wood dust and is the causal agent. J Allergy Clin Imrnunol 1986; 77:639-45.

Malo JL et al. Prevalence of occupational asthma among workers exposed to eastem white cedar. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150: 1 1697-1701.

Falcata wood

Albizia falcataria

furniture

Tomioka K, et al. A case of occupational asthma induced by falcata wood (Albizia falcataria). J Occup Health 2006 ;48:392-5.

Fernanbouc

Caesalpinia echinata

Furniture

Hausen BM, Herrmann B. Bow-makers disease: an occupational disease in the manufacturing of bows for string instrument. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1990; 115:169-73.

Gabon Ebony

 Diospyros crassiflora

Sawmill, furniture

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 1994;17:55-60.

Imbuia (Brazilian walnut)

Phoebe porosa

Sawmill, furniture

Jeebhay MF, et al. Occupational asthma caused by imbuia wood dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97: I 1025-7.

Iroko

Cholophora excelsa

Sawmill, furniture

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 1994;17:55-60.

Jatoba wood (Brasilian cherry)

 Hymenaea courbaril

 

Quirce S, et al. Occupational asthma caused by tali and jatoba wood dusts, J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:361-3.

Kejaat

Pterocarpus angolensis

Furniture

Ordman, D. Wood dust as an inhalant allergen. Bronchial asthma caused by kejaat wood (Pterocarpus angolensis). S Atr Med 1949; 23: 973-5.

Limba

Terminalia superba

Sawmill, furniture

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 1993;16:334-40.

Mahagoni african

Khaya anthoteca

Sawmill, furniture

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 1993;16:334-40.

Mahagoni american

Swietenia mahagoni

Sawmill, furniture

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 1994;17:55-60.

Makone

Tieghemella heckeli

Sawmill, furniture

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 1994; 17:55-60.

Mukali

Aningeria robusta

Sawmill, furniture

Garces Sotillos MM, et al.  Occupational asthma and contact urticaria caused by mukali wood dust (Aningeria robusta). 1 Investig Allergol Clin Irnmunol 1995; 5:113-114.

Oak

Quercus robur

Sawmill, furniture

Abendroth RR, Kalveram CM, Kalveram KJ. Wood dust allergy: clinical findings, diagnosis, prognosis, new trends in protection at work. Allergologie 1992;15:300-303.

Malo JL et al. Occupational asthma caused by oak wood dust. Chest 1995; 108: 856-858.

Pau marfin

Balfourodendron riedelianum

Sawmill, furniture

Basomba A, et al. Occupational rhinitis and asthma caused by inhalation of Balfourodendron riedelianum (Pau Marfim) wood dust. Allergy 1991;46: 316-8.

Picea (spruce)

Picea abis

Sawmill, furniture

Kersten W. Von Wahl PG. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 1994;17:55-60.

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 1993;16:334-40.

Wittczak T, et al. Occupational asthma due to spruce wood. Occup Med (Lond). 2012;62:301-4.

Pine

Pinus sylvestris

Sawmill, furniture

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 1994;17:55-60.

Spiewak R, et al. Occupational asthma due to wood dust exposure (ash, oak, beech and pine)-a case study. Ann Agric Environ Med 1994;1:73-6.

Schlünssen V, et al. Immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust in relation to wood dust exposure levels and respiratory symptoms in the furniture industry. Scand J Work Environ Health 2011;37:159-67.

Toribio R, Cruz MJ, Morell F, Muñoz X. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to medium-density fiberboard. Arch Bronconeumol. 2012;48:29-31.

Ramin

Gonystylus bancanus

Furniture

Hinojosa M et al.. Occupational asthma caused by African maple (obeche) and ramin: evidence of cross reactivity between these two woods. Clin Allergy 1986;16:145-53.

Sequoia-California redwood

Sequoia sempervirens

Sawmill

Chan-Yeung, M., Abboud, R. Occupational asthma due to California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) dust. Am Rev Respir Dis 1976;114:1027-31.

Soapbark

Quillaja saponaria

Sawmill, furniture

Raghuprasad P, et al. Quillaja bark (soapbark)-induced asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1980;65:285-7

Spindle tree

Eunomimus europaeus

Furniture

Herold DA, et al. Occupational wood-dust sensitivity from Euonymus europaeus (spindle tree) and investigation of cross reactivity between wood and Artemisia vulgaris pollen (mugwort). Allergy 1991;46: 186-90.

Spruce

Picea breweriana

sawmill

Wittczak T, Dudek W, Walusiak-Skorupa J, Bochenska-Marciniak M, Nowakowska-Swirta E, Kuna P, Palczynski C. Occupational asthma due to spruce wood. Occup Med (Lond). 2012;62:301-4.

Tali wood

 Erythrophleum suaveolens

Furniture

Quirce S, et al. Occupational asthma caused by tali and jatoba wood dusts. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 113: 361-3.

Tall oil

Pine resin

Rubber tyres

Tarlo SM. Occupational asthma induced by tall oil in the rubber tyre industry. Clin Exp Allergy 1992; 22:99-101.

Tanganika aningre

 

Furniture

Paggiaro PL, et al. Bronchial asthma due to inhaled wood dust. Tanganyka aningre. Clin Allergy 1980;11:605-10.

Teka

Tectona grandis

Sawmill, furniture

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 1993;16:334-40.

Western red cedar, plicatic acid

Thuja plicata

Sawmill, furniture

Chan-Yeung M, Desjardins A. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and level of exposure in occupational asthma due to westem red cedar (Thuja plicata). Serial observations before and after developrnent of symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146:1606-9.

Lam S, et al. Relationship between types of asthmatic reaction. Nonspecific bronchial reactivity, and specific IgE antibodies in patients with red cedar asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1983; 72:134-9.

Cote I, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of PC20 and peak expiratory flow rate in cedar asthma. Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 85:592-8.

Microorganisms

 

 

 

Molds

 

 

 

Aspergillus fumigatus

 

Bakers, Refuse collection workers

Allmers H, Huber H, Baur X. Bronchopulmonary mould allergy of a refuse collection worker. Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Umweltmed 1997; 32:64-7.

Quirce S, et al. Respiratory allergy to Aspergillus -derived enzymes in bakers. Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;90: 970-8.

Aspergillus niger

 

Laboratory workers

Seaton A, Wales D. Clinical reactions to Aspergillus niger in a biotechnology plant: an eight year follow up. Occup Environ Med 1994;51:54-6.

Chrysonilia sitophila

 

Coffe workers

Heffler E, et al. Occupational asthma caused by Neurospora sitophila sensitization in a coffee dispenser service operator. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2009;102:168–9.

 Monzón S, et al. Occupational asthma IgE mediated due to Chrysonilia sitophila in coffee industry. Allergy. 2009;64:1686-7.

Cryptococcus albidus
Trichosporum spp.

Gyrodontium versicolor

 

Summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Miyagawa T, et al. Cryptococcus albidus-induced summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:961-6.

Yoshizawa Y, et al. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis in Japan: a nationwide epidemiologic survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103:315-20.

Debaryomyces hansenii

 

Humidifiers

Yamamoto Y, et al.. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis induced by the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii. Eur Respir J 2002; 20:1351-3.

Dictyostelium discoideum

Slime mould

Cleaners

Gottlieb SJ, et al. Occupational asthma to the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. J Occup Med 1993; 35:1231-5.

Dust with molds

 

Bakers

Musk AW, et al. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sensitisation to flour in a British bakery. Br J Ind Med 1989; 46:636-42.

Wallenstein G, et al. Occupational respiratory diseases due to moulds in millers and bakers. Z Erkrank Alm-Org 1980; 154:229-33.

Hypsizigus marumoreus

 

Mushroom worker

Takaku Y, et al. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Hypsizigus marumoreus. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2009;47:881-9.

Mucor spp

 

Cork worker

Villar A, et al. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Mucor species in a cork worker. Arch Bronconeumol. 2009;45:405-7.

Neurospora spp.

 

Carpenters

Coffee dispenser

Cote I, et al. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to neurospora in a plywood factory worker. Br J Ind Med 1991;48:279-82.

Heffler E, et al. Occupational asthma caused by Neurospora sitophila sensitization in a coffee dispenser service operator.Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;102:168-9.

Paecilomyces spp.

 

Carpenters

Wilhelmsson B,. et al.  Nasal hypersensivity in wood fumiture workers. Rhinology 1985; 23:297-302.

Penicillium citrinum

 

Mushroom worker

Yoshikawa S, et al. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by spores of Penicillium citrinum in a worker cultivating Enoki mushroom. Intern Med 2006;45:537-41.

Penicillium nalgiovensis

 

Food industry

Talleu C, et al. Allergic asthma due to sausage mould. Rev Mal Respir. 2009;26:557-9

Penicillium frequentans

 

 

Morell F, et al. Chacinero's lung - hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to dry sausage dust. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2011;37:349-56.

Plasmopara viticola

 

Agricultural

Wenzel W, et al. Occupational sensitization to Plasmopara viticola. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 93:457-63.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

 

Bakers

Belchi-Henandez I, et al. Baker's asthrna caused by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in dry powder form. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:131-4.

Baldo BA, Baker RS. lnhalant allergies to fungi: reactions to bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and identification of baker's yeast enolase as an important allergen. lnt Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1988;86:201-8.

Termophilic actinomycetes

 

Farmers

Bourke SJ, et al.  Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Current concepts.Eur Respir J Suppl 2001;32:81s-92s.

Gram (-):

Acinetobacter Iwoffi

Klebsiella oxytoca,

Pseudomonas fluorescens,

 

Humidifiers

Selman M. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a multifaceted deceiving disorder. Clin Chest Med 2004.;25:531-47

Amoebas:

Acanthamoeba castellani ;Amoeba proteus; Naegleria gruber, Mycobacteria

 

Humidifiers

van Assendelft A, et al. Humidifier-associated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1979;5:35-41.

Mycobacterium immunogenum

 

Metal removal fluids

Trout D, et al. Evaluation of hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers exposed to metal removal fluids.Appl Occup Environ Hyg 2003;18:953-60.

Mycobacterium avium

 

 

Marras TK, et al. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis reaction to Mycobacterium avium in household water.
Chest 2005;127:664-71

Mushrooms:
Lyophyllum aggregatum (Shimeji), Pleorotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji or Japanese mushroom)

 

Mushroom workers

Moore JE, et al.  Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with mushroom worker's lung: an update on the clinical significance of the importation of exotic mushroom varieties. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;136:98-102

Tsushima K, et al. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by spores of Lyophyllum aggregatum. Chest. 2001;120:1085-93.

Sastre J, et al. Respiratory and immunological reactions among Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) workers. Clin Allergy 1990; 20:13-9.

Vereda A, et al. Occupational asthma due to spores of Pleurotus ostreatus. Allergy 2007;62:211-2.

Enzymes

 

 

 

Alcalase from Bacillus subtilis

 

Detergent industry

Johnsen CR, et al. Allergy risk in an enzyme producing plant: A retrospective follow up study. Occup Environ Med 1997; 54: 671-5.

Franz T, et al. Clinical, immunologic, and physiologic observations in factory workers exposed to B. subtilis enzyme dust. Allergy 1971;47:170-80.

Bromeline

 

Pharmaceutical

Gailhofer G, et al. Allergic asthma caused by Bromelin. Dermatosen 1987;35:174-6.

Cellulase from Aspergillus niger

 

Bakers
Wood industry

Losada et al. Occupational asthma caused by cellulase. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986;77:635-9.

Sander I, et al. Allergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in the baking industry: Identification of beta-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger as a new allergen (Asp n 14). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:256-64.

Tarvainen K, et al. Allergy from cellulase and xylanase enzymes. Clin Exp Allergy 1991;21:609-15.

Kim HY, et al. Occupational asthma and IgE sensitization to cellulase in a textile industry worker. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;82:174-8.

Empynase

 

Health care workers

Bahn JW, et al .Sensitization to Empynase (pronase B) in exposed hospital personnel and identification of the empynase allergen.
Clin Exp Allergy 2006; 36:352-8.

Esperase

 

Detergent industry

Zachariae H, et al. Detergent enzymes and occupational safety. Observations on sensitization during esperase production. Allergy 1981; 36:513-6.

Johnsen CR, et al. Allergy risk in an enzyme producing plant: a retrospective follow up study. Occup Environ Med 1997; 54:671-5.

Glucoamylase

 

Bakers

Quirce S, et al, Glucoamylase: Another fungal enzyme associated with baker's asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;89:197-202.

Sander I, et al. Allergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in the baking industry: identification of beta-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger as a new allergen (Asp n 14). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:256-64.

Glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger

 

Bakers

Baur X. Isolated enzymes of bacterial, plant and mould origin as potent inhalent and potential ingestiye antigens. Allergologie 1981;4:87-9.

Hemicellulase

 

Bakers

Baur X, et al. Inhalant allergens in moderm baking industry. Immunol Allergy Pract 1989;11:13-5.

Lactase

 

Pharmaceutical

Muir DC, et al. Occupational sensitization to lactase. Am J Ind Med 1997;31:570-1.

Lypase

 

Detergent industry

Brant A, et al. Occupational asthma caused by cellulase and lipase in the detergent industry. Occup Environ Med 2004;61:793-5.

Lysozyme

 

Food industry Pharmaceutical

Bemstein JA, et al. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg Iysozyme. Chest 1993 ;103:532-5.

Anibarro Bausela B, Fontela JL. Occupational asthma in a cheese worker. Allergy 1996;51:960-1.

Park HS. Nahm DH. Buckwheat fiour hypersensitivity: an occupational asthma in a noodle maker. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:423-7.

Pancreatin from pig

 

Food industry

Aiken T, et al. Occupational asthma due to porcine pancreatic amylase. Occup Environ Med 1997;54:762-4.

Wiessmann KJ, Baur X. Occupational asthma following long-term inhalation of pancreatic extracts. Eur J Respir Dis 1985;66:13-20.

Papain

 

Pharmaceutical

Baur X, et al. Clinical symptoms and results of skin test, RAST and bronchial provocation test in thirty-three papain workers: Evidence for strong immunogenic potency and clinically relevant proteolytic effects of airbome papain.Clin Allergy 1982;12:9-17.

Merget R, Bergmann E. Schiirling B. Severe occupational asthma from papain. Allergo J 1995; 4:365-9.

Pepsin

 

Food industry (cheese)

Anibarro Bausela B, Fontela JL. Occupational asthma in a cheese worker. Allergy 1996; 51:960-1.

Drexler H, Beyer B. Occupational asthma due to pepsin powder in a women checking meat for Trichinae. Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Umweltmed 1997;32:145-7.

L. Belleri, et al. Occupational exposure to pectinase. Allergy 2002;57: 755.

Peptidase from serratia

 

Pharmaceutical, Food industry

Park HS. Nahm DH. New occupational allergen in a phannaceutical industry: serratial peptidase and Iysozyme chloride. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997; 78:225-9.

Phytase from Aspergillus niger

 

Animal formula feed

Straburger K, et al. Sensitization due to the enzymes phytase and xylanase. 1998. In: Hallier E, Bünger J, editors. 38. Jahrestagung Dtsch Ges Arbeits Umweltmedizin, Fulda, pp: 525-7.

Doekes G, et al. Occupational IgE sensitisation to phytase, a phosphatase derived from Aspergillus niger. Occup Environ Med 1999;56:454-9.

van Heemst RC, et al.  Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by occupational exposure to phytase.Eur Respir J. 2009;33:1507-9.

Proteases

 

Detergent industry

Franz T, et al. Clinical, immunologic, and physiologic observations in factory workers exposed to B. subtilis enzyme dust. Allergy 1971;47:170-80.

ß-xylanase from Asp niger

 

Laboratory

Baur X, et al. Baker's asthrna due to enzyme xylanase-a new occupational allergen. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28: 1591-3.

Sander I, et al. Allergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in the baking industry: Identification of ß-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger as a new allergen (Asp n 14). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:256-64.

Tarvainen K, et al. Allergy from cellulase and xylanase enzymes. Clin Exp Allergy 1991;21:609-15.

Suparen

Rennet of Endothica parasitica

Cheese makers

Niinimaki A, Saari S. Dermatological and allergic hazards of cheesemakers. Scand J Work Environ Hea1th 1978;4:262-3.

Trypsin from cow and pig

 

Plastic, Pharmaceutical

Colten HR, et al. Immediate hypersensitivity to hog trypsin resulting from industrial exposure. N Eng J Med 1975;292:1050-3.

Johnsen CR, et al. Allergy risk in an enzyme producing plant: a retrospective follow up study. Occup Environ Med 1997; 54:671-5.

α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae

 

Bakers

Baur X, et al. Isolation and denomination of an important allergen in baking additives: a-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae (Asp o 1). Clin Exp Allergy 1994; 24:465-70.

Quirce S, et al. Respiratory allergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in baker's asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;90: 970-8.

Losada et al. Occupational asthma caused by a-amylase inhalation: Clinical and immunological findings and bronchial response patterns. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992; 89:118-25.

Vanhanen M, et al. Enzyme exposure and enzyme sensitisation in the baking industry. Occup Environ Med 1996;53:670-6.

AGENTS RELATED TO IRRITANT INDUCED OA

Abrev./
Scientific name

Occupation/
Process

References

Acetic acid

C2H4O2

Accidents, Dark-room environment,

Kern DG.Outbreak of the reactive airways dysfunction syndrome after a spill of glacial acetic acid. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1991;144:1058-64.

Ammonia

NH3

Cleaners

Zock JP, et al. Update on asthma and cleaners. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Apr;10(2):114-20

Bromine and hydrobromic acid

Br2

Hot tub

Burns MJ, Linden CH. Another hot tub hazard: toxicity secondary to bromine and hydrobromic acid exposure.Chest 1997;111:816–819.

Chlorine/Bleach

Cl-

Accidents, Cleaners

Lemičre C, et al. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome due to chlorine: sequential bronchial biopsies and functional assessment. Eur Respir J. 1997;10:241-4. Sastre J,et al. Airway response to chlorine inhalation (bleach) among cleaning workers with and without bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Am J Ind Med 2011 ;54:293-9

Degreasing sprays

 

Cleaners, Industry

Quirce S, Gala G, Perez-Camo I, Sanchez-Fernandez C, Pacheco A, Losada E. Irritant-induced asthma: clinical and functional aspects. J Asthma. 2000;37(3):267-74.

Dust/fumes

 

Accidents, Rescue personnel

Brackbill RM, Hadler JL, DiGrande L, Ekenga CC, Farfel MR, Friedman S, et al. Asthma and posttraumatic stress symptoms 5 to 6 years following exposure to the World Trade Center terrorist attack. JAMA. 2009 Aug 5;302(5):502-16.

Endotoxins

 

Farming , Swine and dairy production

Omland O, et al. New-onset asthma and the effect of environment and occupation among farming and nonfarming rural subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:761-5.

Freons /( thermal degradation products)

 

Refrigerator repair

Piirila P, Espo T, Pfaffli P, Riihimaki V, Wolff H, Nordman H. Prolonged respiratory symptoms caused by thermal degradation products of freons. Scand J Work Environ Health 2003;29:71–77.

Fluorides

F-

Aluminium smelting, Welding

Metabilsulphites

Na/K2S2O5

Fish-processing, radiographers

Steiner M, et al. Sodium metabisulphite induced airways disease in the fishing and fish-processing industry. Occup Med (Lond). 2008 Dec;58(8):545-50.

Nitrogen oxides

O2N

Welding

Olin AC, Andersson E, Andersson M, Granung G, Hagberg S, Toren K. Prevalence of asthma and exhaled nitric oxide are increased in bleachery workers exposed to ozone. Eur Respir J. 2004 Jan;23(1):87-92. PubMed PMID: 14738237.

Ozone

O3

Pull mill

Henneberger PK, et al The incidence of respiratory symptoms and diseases among pulp mill workers with peak exposures to ozone and other irritant gases. Chest. 2005 ;128:3028-37

Perchloroethylene

C2Cl4

Dry cleaning

Boulet LP. Increases in airway responsiveness following acute exposure to respiratory irritants. Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome or occupational asthma? Chest 1988;94:476–481.

Pesticides

 

Farming

Hernandez AF, Parron T, Alarcon R. Pesticides and asthma. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Apr;11(2):90-6.

SO2

 

Aluminium smelting

Andersson E, et al. Incidence of asthma among workers exposed to sulphur dioxide and other irritant gases. Eur Respir J. 2006 Apr;27(4):720-5.

Abramson MJ, Benke GP, Cui J, de Klerk NH, Del Monaco A, Dennekamp M, et al. Is potroom asthma due more to sulphur dioxide than fluoride? An inception cohort study in the Australian aluminium industry. Occup Environ Med. 2010 Oct;67(10):679-85

Sulphuric acid

H2SO4

Industry

Boulet LP. Increases in airway responsiveness following acute exposure to respiratory irritants. Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome or occupational asthma? Chest 1988;94:476–481.

OCCUPATIONAL EOSINOPHILIC BRONCHITIS

Abrev./
Scientific name

Occupation/
Process

References

Acrylate

 

Industry

Lemiere C, et al. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma: an unknown occupational airway disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:852-3.

Ammonium persulfate

 

hairdresser

Pala G, et al.  The use of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in investigation of work-related cough in a hairdresser. Am J Ind Med 2011;54:565-8.

Bunashimeji or Japanese mushroom

Hypsizigus marmoreus

Mushroom worker

Tanaka H, et al. Workplace-related chronic cough on a mushroom farm. Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji) Chest 2002;122:1080-5

Chloramine T

 

Heath care worker

Krakowiak AM, et al. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma due to chloramine exposure. Occup Med 2005;55:396-8

Formaldehyde

 

 

Yacoub MR, et al. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis. Allerg y 2005;60:1542-4.

Latex

Hevea brasiliensis

Health care worker

Quirce S, et al. Chronic cough due to latex-induced eosinophilic bronchitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;108:143.

Lysozyme

 

Baker

Quirce S. Eosinophilic bronchitis in the workplace.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol2004;4:87-91.

Stainless steel (welding)

 

Industry

Yacoub MR, et al. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis. Allergy 2005;60:1542-4.

Storage mites

 

Baker

Pala G,  et al. Professional eosinophilic bronchitis: considerations and new diagnostic methods in a clinical case. G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2010;32:145-8.

Tetrahydro phthalic anhydride.

 

Industry

Kobayashi O. A case of eosinophilic bronchitis due to epoxy resin system hardener, methle endo methylene tetrahydro phthalic anhydride. Arerugi 1994;43:660-2.

Toluene diisocyanate

TDI

Industry

Di Stefano F, et al. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour. Thorax 2007;62:368-70.

Wheat flour

 

Baker

Di Stefano F, et al. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour.Thorax 2007;62:368-70.

Fungal alpha-amylase

 

Baker

Barranco P, et al. Nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis in a baker caused by fungal alpha-amylase and wheat flour. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2008;18:494-5

Styrene

 

Painter

Fernández-Nieto M, et al.  Changes in sputum eicosanoids and inflammatory markers after inhalation challenges with occupational agents. Chest. 2009;136:1308-15