Contact WAO | e-News Sign Up | Site Map | Home  
World Allergy Organization
WAO's mission: To be a global resource and advocate in the field of allergy, advancing excellence in clinical care through education, research and training as a world-wide alliance of allergy and clinical immunology societies.

Disease Summaries

Sensitizing Agents Inducers of Occupational Asthma, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis and Eosinophilic Bronchitis

Posted: August 2005
Updated: August 2007

Joaquín Sastre, MD, PhD
Fundación Jiménez Díaz
Servicio de Alergia
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
Spain

Santiago Quirce, MD, PhD
Hospital Universitario La Paz
Servicio de Alergia
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
Spain


Agents

Abrev./
Scientific name

Occupation/Process

References

Isocyanates

 

 

 

1,3 bis isocyanatomethyl ciclohexane

 

 

Simpson C, Garabrant D, Torrey S, Robins T, Franzblau A.. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reaction and occupational asthma associated with 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl) cyclohexane pre-polymer. Am J Ind Med 1996; 30:48-55.

Diphenylmethane diisocyanate

MDI

Foundry, Plastics

Zammit-Tabona M, Sherkin M, Kijek K. Chan H, Chan-Yeung M. 1983. Asthma caused by diphenylmethane diisocyanate in foundry workers. Clinical. bronchial provocation, and immunologic studies. Am Rev Respir Dis 128:226-230.

HDI prepolymer

PHDI

Spray painting

Vandenplas O, Cartier A, Lesage J, Cloutier Y, Perreault G, Grammer I L, Shaughnessy MA, Malo JL. 1993. Prepolymers of hexamethylene, diisocyanate as a cause of occupational asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91:850-861.

Hexamethylene diisocyanate

HDI

Spray painting

Welinder H, Nielsen J, Bensryd J, Skerfving S. 1988. IgG antibodies against polyisocyanates in car painters. Clin Allergy 18:85-93.

Isophorone diisocyanate

 

IPDI

Spray painter

Clarke CW, Aldons PM.  . Isophorone diisocyanate induced respiratory disease (IPDI). Aust N Z J Med 11:290-292.

MDI prepolymer

PMDI

Mold makers

Vandenp1as O, Malo JL, Dugas M, Cartier A, Desjardins A, Levesque I J, Shaughnessy MA, Grammer LC. 1993. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like reaction among workers exposed to diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). Am Rev Respir Dis 147:338-346.

Methylisocyanate

MIC

Rubber Manufacturing

Avashia B, Battigelli MC, Morgan WK, Reger RB. 1996. Effects of prolonged low exposure to methyl isocyanate. J Occup Environ Med 38:625-630.

Naphthalene diisocyanate

NDI

Rubber Manufacturing

Harries MG, Burge PS, Samson M, Taylor AJ, Pepys J. 1979. Isocyanate asthma: respiratory symptorns due to 1,5-naphthylene di-isocyanate. Thorax 34:762-766.

Fuortes U, Kiken S, Makowsky M. 1995. An outbreak of naphthalene di-isocyanate-induced asthrna in a plastics factory. Arch Environ Health 50:337-340.

TDI prepolymer

 

Varnishers

Vandenplas O, Cartier A, Lesage J, Perrault G, Grammer LC, Malo JL. 1992. Occupational asthma caused by a prepolymer but not the monomer of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). J Allergy Clin Immunol 89:1183-1188.

TDI+HDI+MDI

 

Various industries

Baur X. 1986. Asthma caused by isocyanates. Allergologie 9:487 –496.

Baur X. 1995. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (extrinsic allergic alveolitis) induced by isocyanates. J Allergy Clin Immunol 95:1004-1010.

Toluene diisocyanate

TDI

Polyurethane, Varnish, Plastics

Sastre J, Fernandez-Nieto M, Novalbos A, De las Heras M, Cuesta J, Quirce S Need of monitoring non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness before and after Isocyanate inhalation challenge. 2002. Chest 2003; 123:1276-1279.

Mapp CE. Corona PC, De Marzo N. Fabbri L. 1988. Persistent asthma due to isocyanates. A follow-up study of subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate(TDI). Am Rev Respir Dis 137:1326-1329.

Moscato G, Dellabianca A, Vinci G, Candura SM, Bossi MC. 1991. Toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma: clinical findings and bronchial responsiveness studies in 113 exposed subjects with work-related respiratory symptoms. J Occup Med 33:720-725.

Baur X. Fruhmann G. 1981. Specific IgE antibodies in patients with isocyanate asthma. Chest 80:73-76.

Anhydrides

 

 

Drexler H, Weber A, Letzel S, Kraus G, Schaller KH, Lehnert G. 1994. Detection and clinical relevance of a type 1 allergy with occupational exposure to hexahydrophthalic anhydride and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65:279-28315:154-155.

Hexahydrophthalic anhydride

HHPA

Chemical industry

Moller DR, Gallagher JS. Bemstein DI. Wilcox TG. Burroughs HE. Bemstein IL. 1985. Detection or IgE-mediated respiratory sensitization in workers exposed to hexahydrophthalic anhydride. J Allergy Clin Immunol 75:663-672.

Himic anhydride

 

Flame retardant

Rosenman KD, Bernstein DI, O'Leary K, Gal1agher JS, D'Souza L, Bernstein IL. 1987. Occupational asthma caused by himic anhydride. Scand J Work Environ Hea1th 13:150-154.

Maleic anhydride

MA

Polyester resin production

Lee HS, Wang YT, Cheong TH, Tan KT, Chee BE, Narendran K. 1991. Occupational asthma due to maleic anhydride. Br J Ind Med 48: 283-285.

Methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride

 

Curing agent

Welinder H, Nielsen J, Gustavsson C. Bensryd I, Skerfving S. 1990. Specific antobodies to methyltetrahydrophlhalic anhydride in exposed workers. Clin Exp Allergy 20:639-645.

Drexler H, Weber A, Letzel S, Kraus G, Schaller KH, Lehnert G. 1994. Detection and clinical relevance of a type 1 allergy with occupational exposure to hexahydrophthalic anhydride and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65:279-28315:154-155.

Methylhexahy-drophthalic

MHHPA

Chemical industry

Tarvainen K, Jolanki R, Estlander T, Tupasela O, Pfaffli P, Kanerva L. 1995. Immunologic contact urticaria due to airbome methylhexahydrophthalic and methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydrides. Contact Dermatitis 32:204-209.

Phthalic anhydride

PA

Plastics, Production of resins

Wernfors M, Nielsen J, Schutz A, Skerfving S. 1986. Phthalic anhydride-induced occupational asthma. Int Arch Allergy Appll Immunol 79:77-82. Nielsen J, Bensryd I, Almquist H, Dahlqvist M, Welinder H, Alexandersson R, Skerfving S. 1991. Serum IgE and lung function in workers exposed to phtha1ic anhydride. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 63:199-204.

Phthalic anhydride+ Maleic anhydride+ Trimellitic anhydride

 

 

Barker RD, van Tongeren MJA, Harris JM, Gardiner K, Venables KM, Newman Taylor AJ. 1998. Risk factors for sensitisation and respiratory symptoms among workers exposed to acid anhydrides: a cohort study. Occup Environ Med 55:684-691.

Pyromellitic dianhydride

PMDA

Epoxy adhesives

Meadway 1. 1980. Asthma and atopy in workers with an epoxy B adhesive. Br J Dis Chest 74:149-154.

Pyromellitic dianhydride+ Phthalic anhydride+ Maleic anhydride

 

 

Baur X. Czuppon AB, Rauluk I, Zimmermann FB, Schmitt B, Egen-Korthaus M, Tenkhoff N, Degens PO. 1995. A clinical and immunological study on 92 workers occupationally exposed to anhydrides. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 67:395-403.

Tetrachlorophthalic anhydride

TPCA

Plastics, Epoxy resins

Barker RD, Harris JM, Welch JA, Venables KM, Newman Taylor AJ. 1998. Occupational asthma caused by tetrachlorophthalic anhydride: a 12-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin ImmunoI101:717-719.

Liss GM, Bemstein D, Genesove L, Roos JO, Lim J. 1993. Assessment of risk factors for IgE-mediated sensitization to tetrachlorphthalic anhydride. J Allergy Clin lmmunol 92:237-247.

 

Triglycidyl isocyanurate

 

Painter (powder)

Quirce S, Fernandez-Nieto M, Gorgolas M, Renedo G, Carnes J, Sastre J. 2004. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by triglycidyl isocyanurate. Allergy; 59:1128.

Piirilä P, Estlander T, Keskinen H, Jolanki R, Laakkonen A, Pfäffli P, Tupasela O, Tuppurainen M, Nordman H. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC). Clin Exp Allergy; 27:510-4.

Trimellitic anhydride

TMA

Plastics, Epoxy resins

Zeiss RC, Mitchel1 JH, van Peenen PF, Kavich D, Col1ins MJ, Grammer L, Shaughnessey M, Levitz D. Henderson J, Patterson R. 1992. A clinical and immunologic study of employees in a facility manufacturing trimel1itic anhydride. Al1ergy Proc. 13:193-198.

Amines

 

 

 

2-dimethylethanolamine

 

Spray painter

Vallieres M, Cockcroft DW, Taylor DM, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE. 1977. Dimethylethanolamine-induced asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 115:867-871.

2-ethanolamine

 

Spray painter
Cutting oil

Savonius B, Keskinen H, Tuppurainen M, Kanerva L. 1994. Occupationa1 respiratory disease caused by ethanolamines Clin Exp Allergy 49:877-881.

Piipari R, Tuppurainen M, Toumi T, et al. 1998, Diethanolamine-induced occupational, a case report. Clin Exp Allergy 28; 358-362.

3-dimethyl propanolamine

 

 

Ski manufacturing

Brubaker RE, Muranlco HJ, Smith DB, Beclc GJ, Scovel G. 1979. Evaluation and control of a respiratory exposure to 3-(dimethylamine) propylamine. J Occup Med 21:688-690.

Sargent EV, Brubaker RE, Mitchel1 CA. 1976. Respiratory effects of occupationa1 exposure to an epoxy resin system. Arch Environ Health 31:236-240.

4-Methylmorpholine

NNM

Fur dying

Belin L, Wass U, Audunsson G, Mathiasson L. 1983. Amines: possible causative agents in the development of bronchial hyperreactivity in workers manufacturing polyurethanes from isocyanates. Br I Ind Med 40:251-25.

Aliphatic amines

 

Chemical industry

Ng TP, Lee HS, Malik MA. Chee CB, Cheong TH, Wang YT. 1995. Asthma in chemical workers exposed to aliphatic polyamines. Occup Med (Lond) 45:45-48.

Aminoethanolamine

 

Welding, Cable joining

Pepys J, Pickering CA. 1972. Asthma due to inhaled chemical fumes: Amino-ethyl ethanolamine in aluminium soldering flux. Clin Allergy 2:197-204.

Ethylenediamine

 

Photography
Lacquering

Nakazawa T, Matsui S. 1990. Ethylenedianúne-induced late asthmatic responses. J Asthma 27:207-212.

Hexamethylentetramine

HTMA

Lacquering

Gamble JF, McMichael AJ, Williams T, Battigelli M. 1976. Respiratory function and symptoms: an environmental-epidemiological study of rubber workers exposed to a phenolformaldehyde type resin. Am Ind Hyg Assoc 137:499-513.

Piperazine

 

Chemist

Hagmar L, Welinder H. 1986. Prevalence of specific IgE antibodies against piperazine in employees of a chemical plant. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 81:12-16.

Welinder H, Hagmar L, Gustavsson C. 1986. IgE antibodies against piperazine and N-methyl-piperazine in asthmatic subjects. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 79:259-262.

Quirce S, Pelta R, Sastre J. 2006. Occupational asthma due to piperazine citrate.
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol.;16:138-9.

Quaternary amine

Benzalkonium

Cleaning products

Berstein JA, et al. 1994. A combined respiratory and cutaneous hypersensitivity syndrome induced by work exposure to quaternary amines. J Allergy Clin Immunol 94:257-259.

Triethylene tetramine

C6H18N4

Laquering

Fawcett IW, Taylor AJ, Pepys 1. 1977. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents—epoxy resin systerns containing phthalic acid anhydride, trimellitic acid anhydride and triethylene tetramine. Clin Allergy 7:1-14

Savonius B, Keskinen H, Tuppurainen M, Kanerva L. 1993. Occupationa1 respiratory disease caused by acrylates. Clin Exp Allergy 23:416-424.

Metals

 

 

 

Aluminum

 

Potroom

Sorgdrager B, de Looff AJ, Pal TM, van Dijk FJ, de Monchy JG. Factors affecting FEV1 in workers with potroom asthma after their removal from exposure.Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001;74:55-8.

Ammonium hexachloroplatinate

Cl6H8N2Pt

Platinum refinery

Murdoch RD, Pepys J, Hughes EG. 1986. IgE antibody responses to platinum group metals: a large scale refinery survey. Br J Ind Med 43:37-43.

Chloroplatinum

 

Platinum refinery

Baker DB, Gann PH, Brooks SM, Gallagher J, Bemstein IL. 1990. Cross-sectional study of platinum salts sensitization among precious metals refinery workers. Am J Ind Med 18:653-664.

Chromium salts (VI)

Cr

Paints, Metal plating

Park HS. Yu HJ. Jung KS. 1994. OccupationaI asthma caused by chromium. Clin Exp Allergy 24:676-681

Novey HS, Habib M, Wells ID. 1983. Asthma and IgE antibodies induced by chromium and nickel salts. J Allergy Cliln Immunol 72:407-412.

Chromium sulphate

Cr2(SO4)3

Paints, Metal plating

Sastre J, Fernandez-Nieto M, Marañón F, Pelta R, Fernandez Caldas E, Quirce S 2001. Allergenic cross-reactivity in occupational asthma caused by chrome and nickel. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 108: 650-651.

Cobalt

Stellite ( cobalt-based alloy)

Co

 

Shirakawa T, Morimoto K. 1997. Interplay of cigarette smoking and occupational exposure on specific immunoglobulin E antibodies to cobalt. Arch Environ Health 52:124-128

Pisati G. Zedda S. 1994. Outcome of occupational asthma due to cobalt hypersensitivity. Sci Total Environ 150:167-171

Hannu T, Piipari R, Tuppurainen M, Tuomi T. 2007. Occupational asthma due to welding fumes from stellite. J Occup Environ Med.; 49:473-4.

Cobalt sulphate

SO4Co

Polishers

Gheysens B, Auwerx J, Van den Eeckhout A, Demedts M. 1985. Cobalt-induced bronchial asthma in diamond polishers. Chest 88: 740-744.

Shirakawa T, Kusaka Y, Fujimura N, Kato M, Heki S, Morimoto K. 1990. Hard metal asthma: cross immunological and respiratory reactivity between cobalt and nickel? Thorax 45:267-271.

Hexachloroplatinate

Cl6H2Pt

Platinum refinery

Merget R, Schultze-Weminghaus G. Muthorst T. Friedrich W, Meier-Sydow J. 1988. Asthma due to the complex salts of platinum-a cross-sectional survey of workers in a platinum refinery. Clin Allergy n 18:569-580.

Iridium chloride

Cl3Ir

 

Bergman A, Svedberg U, Nilsson E. 1995. Contact urticaria with anaphylactic reactions caused by occupational exposure to iridium salt. Contact Dermatitis 32: 14-17.

Nickel sulphate

SO4Ni

Metal plating

Sastre J,, Fernandez-Nieto M, Marañón F, Pelta R, Fernandez Caldas E, Quirce S 2001. Allergenic cross-reactivity in occupational asthma caused by chrome and nickel. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 108: 650-651.

Malo JL, Cartier A, Doepner M. Nieboer E, Evans S, Dolovich 1. 1982. Occupational asthma caused by nickel sulfate. J Allergy Clin Immunol 69:55-59.

Estlander T, Kanerva L, Tupasela O, Keskinen H, Iolanki R. 1993. Immediate and delayed allergy to nickel with contact urticaria, rhinitis, asthma and contact dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy 23:306-3l0.

Potassium dichromate

Cr2O7 K2

Tanning, Plating, Various occupations

Keskinen H. Kalliomaki PL, AIanko K. 1980. Occupational asthma due to stainless steel welding fumes. Clin AIlergy 10:151-159

Bright P, Burge PS, O'HicIcey SP, Gannon PF, Robertson AS, Boran A. 1997. Occupational asthma due to chrome and nickel electroplating. Thorax 52:28-32.

Potassium hexachloroplatinate

Cl6Pt K2

Platinum refinery

Bolm-Audorff U. Bienfait HG, Burkhard J, Bury AH, Merget R, Pressel G, Schultze-Weminghaus G. 1992. Prevalence of respiratory allergy in a platinum refinery. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64: 257-260.

Tungsten

C W2

Grinder

Bruckner HC. 1967. Extrinsic asthma in a tungsten carbide worlcer. J Occup Med 9:5l8-519.

Zinc (fumes)

Zn

Welders

Malo JL, Cartier A, Dolovich 1. 1993. Occupational asthma due to zinc. Eur Respir 16:447-450.

Zinc chloride and anmonium

 

Welders

Weir DC, Robertson AS, Jones S, Burge PS. 1989. Occupational asthma due to soft corrosive soldering fluxes containing zinc chloride and ammonium chloride. Thorax 44:220-223.

Drugs

 

 

 

Aescin

 

Pharmaceutical

Munoz X, Culebras M, Cruz MJ, Morell F. 2006. Occupational asthma related to aescin inhalation.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol; 96:494-6.

Aminophylline

 

Pharmaceutical

Rosenberg M, Aaronson D, Evans C. 1984. Asthmatic responses to inhaled aminophy1line: a report of two cases. Ann A1lergy 52: 97-98.

Ampicillin

 

Pharmaceutical

Davies RJ, Hendrick D, Pepys. J, 1974. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents: arnpicillin, benzyl penicillin, 6 amino penicillanic acid and related substances. Clin Allergy 4:227-247.

Amprolium

 

Pharmaceutical

Greene SA, Freedman S.1976. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents: Amprolium hydrochloride. Clin Allergy; 6:105-108.

Cefadroxil

 

Pharmaceutical

 

Sastre J, Quirce S, Novalbos A, Lluch M, Bombín C, Umpierrez A.1993. Occupational asthma induced by cephalosporins.. Eur Respir J;13:1189-1191.

Cephalosporine C

 

Pharmaceutical

Stenton SC, Dennis JH, Hendrick DJ. 1995. Occupational asthma due to ceftazidime. Eur Respir J 8:1421-1423.

Coutts IL, Dally MB, Taylor A1, Pickering CA, Horsfield N. 1981. Asthma in workers manufacturing cephalosporins. Br Med (Clin Res Ed) 283:950.

Chlorhexidine

 

Healthcare

Waclawski ER, McAlpine LG, Thomson NC. 1989. Occupational asthma in nurses caused by chlorhexidine and alcohol aerosols. BMJ 298:929-930.

Chloroquine hydroxychloroquine

 

Pharmaceutical

Meier H, Elsner P, Wuethrich B.1999. Occupationally-induced contact dermatitis and bronchial asthma in a unusual delayed reaction to hydroxychloroquine. Hautarzt; 50:665-669.

Cimetidine

 

Pharmaceutical

Coutts IL, Lozewicz S, Dally MB, Newman-Taylor A1, Burge PS, F1ind AC, Rogers D]. 1984. Respirator y symptoms related to work in a factory manufacturing cimetidine tablets. Br Med (Clin Res Ed) 288:1418.

Ciprofloxacin

 

Pharmaceutical

Broding HC, Chen Z, Baur X. 1996. Occupational asthma in a ciprofloxacin production. Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Umweltrned 31: l56-l58.

Enflourane

 

Healthcare

Schwettmann RS, Casterline CL. 1976. Delayed asthmatic response following occupational exposure to enfluorane. Anesthesioloy 44:166-169.

Hydralazine

 

Pharmaceutical

Perrin B. Malo JL, Cartier A, Evans S. Dolovich J. 1990. Occupational asthma in a phamaceutical worker exposed to hydralazine. Thorax 45:980-981.

 

Ipecacuanha

 

Pharmaceutical

Luczynska CM, Marshall PE, Scarisbrick DA, Topping MD. 1984. Occupational allergy due to inhalation of ipecacuanha dust. Clin Allergy 14:169-175.

Isonicotinic Acid

 

Pharmaceutical

Asai S, Shimoda T, Hara K, Fujiwara K. 1987. Occupational asthma caused by isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) inhalation. J A1Iergy Clin Immunol 80:578-582.

Shimoda T. 1990. Detection of IgE antibodies specific to isonicotinic acid hydrazide and its metabolite by enzyme-Iinked immunosorbent assay and the mechanism of sensitization by inhalation or ingestion of this compound. Jpn J Allergol 39:567-576.

Methotrexate

 

Healthcare

Jones G, Mierins E, Karsh J. 1991. Methotrexate-induced asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis; 143:179-181.

Methyldopa

 

Pharmaceutical

Harries MG, Taylor AN, Wooden J, MacAuslan A. 1979. Bronchial asthma due to alpha-methyldopa. Br Med J 1:1461.

Mitoxantrone

 

Healthcare

Walusiak J, Wittczak T, Ruta U, Palczynski C.2002. Occupational asthma due to mitoxantrone. Allergy.;57:461.

Opiate compounds

 

Pharmaceutical

Biagini RE, Bemstein DM, Klincewicz SL, Mittman R, Bemstein lL, Henningsen GM. 1992. Evaluation of cutaneous responses and lung function from exposure to opiate compounds among ethical narcotics-manufacturing workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89: 108-118.

Penicillamine

 

Pharmaceutical

Lagier F. Cartier A, Dolovich J, Malo JL. 1989. Occupational asthma in a pharmaceutical worker exposed to penicillamine. Thorax 44: 157-158.

Penicillins

 

Pharmaceutical

Davies RJ, Hendrick D, Pepys ]. 1974. Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents: arnpicillin, benzyl penicillin, 6 amino penicillanic acid and related substances. Clin Allergy 4:227-247.

Shmunes E. Taylor JS, Petz LD, Garratty G, Fudenberg HH. 1976. Immunologic reactions in penicillin factory workers. Ann Allergy 36:313-323.

Stejska1 VD, Forsbeck M, Olin R. 1987. Side-chain-specific Iymphocyte responses in workers with occupationa1 allergy induced by penicillins. Int Arch AIlergy Appl lmmunoI 82:461-464.

Phenylglycine

 

Pharmaceutical

Kammerrneyer JK, Mathews KP. 1973. Hypersensitivity to phenylglycine acid chloride. J AIlergy Clin Immunol 52:73-84.

Piperacillin

 

Pharmaceutical

Moscato G, Galdi E, Scibilia J, Dellabianca A, Omodeo P, Vittadini G. Biscaldi GP. 1995. Occupational asthma, rhinitis and urticaria due to piperacillin sodium in a pharmaceutical worker. Eur Respir J 8: 467-469.

Psyllium

 

Pharmaceutical

Healthcare

Vaswani SK, Hamilton RG, Valenline MD, Adkinson NF. Jr. 1996. Psyllium laxative-induced anaphylaxis, asthma, and rhinitis. Allergy 2 51:266-268.

Aleman A, Quirce S, Bombín C, Sastre J.2001 Asthma related to inhalation of Plantago ovata.Med Clin (Barc).;116:20-2.

Salbutamol

 

Pharmaceutical

Agius RM, Davison AG, Hawkins ER, Newman Taylor AJ. 1994. Occupational asthma in salbutamol process workers. Occup Environ Med 51:397-399.

Senna

 

Healthcare workers
Pharmaceutical

Marks GB. Salome CM, Woolcock Al. 1991. Asthma and allergy J associated with occupational exposure to ispaghula and senna: Products in a pharmaceutical work force. Arn Rev Respir Dis 144: 1065-1069.

Helin T, Makinen-Kiljunen S. 1996. Occupational asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis caused by senna. Allergy 51:181-184.

Sevoflurane and isoflurane

 

anaesthetic staff

Vellore AD, Drought VJ, Sherwood-Jones D, Tunnicliffe B, Moore VC, Robertson AS, Burge PS. 2006. Occupational asthma and allergy to sevoflurane and isoflurane in anaesthetic staff.
Allergy;6:1485-6

Spiramycin

 

Pharmaceutical 

Malo JL, Cal1ier A. 1988. Occupational asthma in workers of a pharmaceutical company processing spiramycin. Thorax 43: 371-377.

Tetrachloroisophthalo-nitrile

 

Fungicide

Honda I, Kohrogi H, Ando M, Araki S, Ueno T, Futatsuka M, Ueda A. 1992. Occupational asthma induced by the fungicide tetrachloroisophthalonitri1e. Thorax 47:760-761.

Tetracycline

 

Pharmaceutical

Menon MP. Das AK. 1977. Tetracycline asthma-a case report. Clin Allergy 7:285-290.

Tributil tin oxide

 

Fungicide

Shelton D, Urch B, Tarlo SM. 1992. Occupational asthma induced by a carpet fungicide-tributyl tin oxide. J Al1ergy Clin Immunol 90: to 274-275.

Tylosin tartrate

 

Pharmaceutical

Lee HS, Wang YT, Yeo CR, Tan KT, Ratnam KV. 1989. Occupational asthma due to tylosin tartrate. Br J Ind Med 46:498-499.

Plastics (including their monomers)

 

 

 

Alkyl aryl polyether alcohol+ polipropylene glycol

 

Welders

Stevens JJ. 1976. Asthma due to soldering flux: a polyether alcohol-polypropylene glycol mixture. Ann Allergy 36:419-422.

Alkylcyanoacrylate

 

Adhesive

Savonius B, Keskinen H, Tuppurainen M, Kanerva L. 1993. Occupationa1 respiratory disease caused by acrylates. Clin Exp Allergy 23:416-424.

Cyanoacrylates

 

Adhesive

Quirce S, Baeza ML, Tonero P, Blasco A, Barranco R, Sastre J 2001. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to cyanoacrylate. Allergy 2001;56:446-449.

Diacrylate

 

Adhesive

Weytjens K, Cartier A, Lemiere C, Malo JL. 1999. Occupational asthma to diacrylate. Allergy 54; 287-296.

Methylcyanoacrylate

 

Adhesive

Savonius B, Keskinen H, Tuppurainen M, Kanerva L. 1994. Occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines. Al1ergy 49:877-881.

Methylmethacrylate

 

Adhesive

Lozewicz S, Davison AG, Hopkirk A, Burge PS, Boldy DA, Riordan JF, McGivem DV, Platts BW, Davies D, Newman Taylor AJ. 1985. Occupational asthma due to methyl methacrylate and cyanoacrylates. Thorax 40:836-839.

Plexiglas (dust)

 

Glass fibers

Kennes B. Garcia-Herreros P, Dierckx P. 1981. Asthma from plexiglas powders. Clin Allergy11:49-54.

Polyethylene

 

Cable coating, Paper wrapping

Stenton SC. Kelly CA. Walters EH. Hendrick DJ. 1989. Occupational asthma due to a repair process for polyethylene-coated electrical cables. J Soc Occup Med 39:33-34.

Gannon PF, Burge PS, Benfield GF. 1992. Occupational asthma due to polyethylene shrink wrapping (paper wrapper's asthrna). Thorax 47:759.

Polypropylene

 

Plastic

Malo JL, Cartier A. Pineault L. Dugas M. Desjardins A. 1994b. Occupational asthma due to heated polypropylene. Eur Respir 7:415-417.

Polyvinylchloride

 

Meat wrappers

Lee HS, Yap J, Wang YT, Lee CS, Tan KT, Poh SC. 1989. Occupational asthma due to unheated polyvinylchloride resin dust. Br J Ind Med 46:820—822.

Styrene

 

Plastic

Fernandez-Nieto M, Quirce S, Fraj J, del Pozo V, Seoane C, Sastre B, Lahoz C, Sastre J. 2006. Airway inflammation in occupational asthma caused by styrene. J Allergy Clin Immunol. ;117:948-50.

Hayes JP, Lamboum L, Hopkirk JA, Durharn SR, Tay1or AJ. 1991. Occupational asthma due to styrene. Thorax 46:396-397.

Moscato G. Biscaldi G. Cottica D. Pugliese F, Candura S, Candura F: 1987. Occupational asthma due to styrene: two case reports. Occup Med 29:957-960.

Synthetic textile fibres (rayon, nylon)

Polyester (orlon, terylene)

 

Textile

Muitari et al. 1978. Natural and synthetic fibers as causes of asthma and rhinitis. Ann Allergy 41: 48-50.

Dyes

 

 

 

Basic blue 99 (hair dye)

 

Hairdressing

Wigger-Alberú W, EIsner P, Wuthrich B. 1996. Immediate-type allergy to the hair dye basic blue 99 in a hairdresser. Allergy 51:64-65.

Carmine

Dactolylopius coccus. E-120

Carmine extraction
Food industry

Quirce S, Cuevas M, Olaguibel JM, Tabar AI. 1994. Occupational asthma and immunologic responses induced by inhaled carmine among employees at a factory making natural dyes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:44-52.

Stücker W, Roggenbuck D, Kichbach G. 1996. Asthmatic reaction after occupational exposure to the food colouring material cochineal carmine. Allergo J 5:143-146.

 

Dyes for textile fibers

 

Textile dye

Zuskin E, Mustajbegovic J, Schachter EN, Doko-Jelinic J. 1 997. Respiralory function of tcxtile workers employed in dyeing cotton and wool fibers. Am J Ind Med 31:344-352.

Park HS, Lee MX, Kim BO, et al. 1991. Clinical and immunologic evaluations of reactive dye-exposed workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol;87:639-49.

Henna black

Indigofera argentea

Hairdressing

Scibilia J, Galdi E, Biscaldi G, Moscato G. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by black henna. Al1ergy 52:231-232.

Henna red

Lausonia alba

Hairdressing

Starr JC, Yunginger J, Brasher GW.1982 Immediate type I asthmatic response to henna following occupational exposure in hairdressers. Ann Allergy 48: 98-9.

Ink for ECG

 

 

Keskinen H, Nordman H, Terho EO. 1981. ECG ink as a cause of asthma. Allergy 36:275-276.

Lanasol 4G yellow

 

Dyeing

Romano C, Sulotto F, Pavan I, Chiesa A, Scansetti G. 1992. A new case of occupationa1 asthma from reactive dyes with severe anaphylactic response to the specific chal1enge. Am J Ind Med 21:209-216.

Pyrazolone

 

Photography

Nakano Y, Tsuchiya T, Hirose K, Chida K.2000. Occupational asthma caused by pyrazolone derivative used in silver halide photographic paper. Chest 118:246-8.

Remazol black(dye for textile fibers)

 

Textile dye

Nilsson R, Nordlinder R, Wass U, Meding B, Belin L. 1993. Asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis in workers exposed to reactive dyes. Br J Ind Med 50:65-70.

Other chemicals

 

 

 

1,2-benzisotiazoline-3 Isothiazolinone

 

Chemical industry

Moscato G, Omodeo P, Dellabianca A, Colli MC. Pu gliese F, Locatelli C, Scibilia J. 1997. Occupationa1 asthma and rhinitis caused by 1,.2-benzisothiazolin-3-in a chemica1 worker. Occup Med (Oxf) 47:249-251.

1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3, 3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate

TBTU

Biochemistry laboratories

Miralles JC, Negro JM, Alonso JM, Garcia M, Sanchez-Gascon F, Soriano J. 2003. Occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma due to TBTU and HBTU sensitization. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 13):133-4.

Ammonium chloride

 

Soldering

Weir DC, Robertson AS, Jones S, Burge PS. 1989. Occupational asthma due to soft corrosive soldering fluxes containing zinc chloride and ammonium chloride. Thorax 44:220-223.

Aziridine

 

Chemical industry

Kanerva L, Keskinen H, Autio P, Estlander T, Tuppurainen M, Jolandki R. 1995. Occupational respiratory and skin sensitisation caused by polyfunction alaziride hardener. Clin Exp Allergy; 25:432-39

Azodicarbonamide

 

Plastics, rubber

Normand JC, Grange F, Hemandez C, Ganay A, Davezies P, Bergeret c A, Prost G. 1989. Occupational asthma after exposure to azodicarbonamide: report of four cases. Br J Ind Med 46:60-62.

Slovak AJ. 1981. Occupational asthma caused by a plastics blowing agent, azodicarbonamide. Thorax 36:906-909.

Captafol

 

Pesticide

Royce S, Wa1d P, Sheppard D, Ba1mes J. 1993. Occupationa1 asthma in a pesticides manufacturing worker. Chest 103:295-296.

Chloramine-T

 

Cleaners Healthcare

Kramps JA. Van Toorenenbergen AW, Vooren PH, Dijkman JH. 1981. Occupational asthrna due to inhalation of chloramine-T. II. Demonstration of specific IgE antibodies. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 64:428-438.

Kujala VM, Reijula KE, Ruotsalainen EM. Heikkinen K. 1995. Occupational asthma due to chloramine-T solution. Respir Med 89:693-695. Dijkman JH, Vooren PH, Kramps A. 1981. Occupational asthma due to inhalation of cloramine-T. I. C1inical observations and inhalation-provocation studies. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 64:422-427.

Cutting oils /metal working fluid

 

Metalic molding

Hendy MS, Beattie BE, Burge PS. 1985. Occupational asthma due to an emulsified oil mist. Br Ind Med; 42:51-54.

Robertson W, Robertson AS, Burge CB, Moore VC, Jaakkola MS, Dawkins PA, Burd M, Rawbone R, Gardner I, Kinoulty M, Crook B, Evans GS, Harris-Roberts J, Rice SB, Burge PS. 2007. Clinical investigation of an outbreak of alveolitis and asthma in a car engine manufacturing plant.
 Thorax; 62: in press

Diazonium

 

Photocopying
Fluoro polymers

Graham VA, Coe ML, Davies RJ. 1981. Occupational asthma after exposure to a diazonium salt. Thorax 36:950-951

Luczynska CM, Hutchcroft BJ. Harrison MA, Doman ID, Topping MD. 1990. Occupational asthma and specific IgE to a diazonium salt intermediate used in the polymer industry. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85:1076-1082.

 

EPO 60

 

Mold making

Lamboum EM. Hayes JP. McAUister WA, Taylor AJ. 1992. Occupational asthma due to EPO 60. Br J Ind Med 49:294-295.

Ethylcyanoacrylate

 

Adhesives

Quirce S, Baeza ML, Tonero P, Blasco A, Barranco R, Sastre J. 2001. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to cyanoacrylate. Allergy; 56:446-449.

Kopp SK. McKay RT, Moller DR, Cassedy K. Brooks SM. 1985. Asthma and rhinitis due to ethylcyanoacrylate instant glue. Ann Intem Med 102:613-615.

Ethylene dioxide

 

Healthcare

Verraes S. Michel 0. 1995. Occuptional asthma induced by ethylene oxide. Lancet 346:1434-1435.

Ethyleneimine

 

Plastics

Kanerva L. Estlander T. Jolanki R, Tarvainen K. 1995. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria caused by polyfunctional aziridine hardener. Contact Derrnatitis 33:304-309.

Eugenol

4 allyl-2-methoxy phenol; C10H12O2

Hairdresser

Quirce S, Fernandez-Nieto M, del Pozo V, Sastre B, Conde-Salazar L, Lahoz C, Sastre J. 2007. Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by eugenol in a hairdresser Allergy (in press)

Fluazinam and chlorothalonil

 

Pesticides

Draper A, Cullinan P, Campbell C, Jones M, Newman Taylor A. 2003. Occupational asthma from fungicides fluazinam and chlorothalonil. Occup Environ Med; 60:76-7.

Formaldehyde

 

Resins, Varnish, Healthcare

Lemiere C, Desjardins A, Cloutier Y, Drolet D, Perrault G, Cal1ier A, Malo JL. 1995. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde resin dust with and without reaction to forrnaldehyde gas. Eur Respir J 8: 861-865.

Burge PS, Harries MG, Lam WK, O'Brien IM, Patchett PA. 1985. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde. Thorax 40:255-260.

Gannon PF, Bright P, Campbell M, O'Hickey SP, Burge PS. 1995. Occupational asthrna due to glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in endoscopy and x ray departments. Thorax 50:156-159.

Freon

 

Refrigeration

Malo JL, Gagnon G, Cartier A. 1984. Occupational asthma due to heated freon. Thorax 39:628-629.

Furfuryl alcohol

 

Mold makers

Cockcroft DW. Cartier A, Jones G, Tarlo SM, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE. 1980. Asthma caused by occupational exposure to a furan-based binder system. J Al!ergy Clin Immunol 66:458-463.

Glutaraldehyde

 

Healthcare

.Quirce S, Gómez, M, Aleman A, Cuesta J, De las Heras M, Sastre J 1999. Occupational asthma caused by glutaraldehyde in a nurse in a renal dyalysis unit. Allergy 54:1121-2

Curran AD, Burge PS, Wlley K. 1996. Clinical and immunologic evaluation of workers exposed to glutaraldehyde. Allergy 51:826-832.

Hexachlorophene

 

Healthcare

Nagy L, Orosz M. 1984. Occupational asthma due to hexachlorophene. I Thorax 39:630-631.

Iso-nonanyl oxybenzene sulfonate

 

Laboratory

Hendrick DJ, Connol1y MJ. Stenton SC, Bird AG, Winterton IS. Walters EH. 1988. Occupational asthma due to sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate, a newly deve1oped detergent ingredient. Thorax 43:501-502.

Stenton SC, Dennis JH, Walters EH, Hendrick DJ. 1990. Asthmagenic properties of a newly developed detergent ingredient: sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate. Br J Ind Med 47:405-410.

Isothiazolinono

 

Chemical industry

Bourke SJ. Convery RP, Stenton SC, Malcolm RM, Hendriclc DJ. 1997. Occupational asthma in an isothiazolinone manufacturing plant. Thorax 52:746-748.

Lasamide

2,4-dichloro-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid

Pharmaceutical

Klusackova P, Lebedova J, Pelclova D, Salandova J, Senholdova Z, Navratil T. 2007. Occupational asthma and rhinitis in workers from a lasamide production line. Scand J Work Environ Health.;33:74-8.

Lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride

 

Pharmacist

Burge PS, Richardson MN. 1994. Occupational asthma due to inditrect exposure to lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium manufacturing plant. Thorax; 52:746-8.

Metabisulfite

 

Agricultural

Malo JL, Cartier A, Desjardins A. 1995. Occupational asthma caused by dry metabisulphite. Thorax 50:585-586.

Methyl blue

 

Healthcare

Rodenstein D, Stanescu DC. 1982. Bronchial asthma following exposure to ECG ink. 1982. Ann Allergy; 48:351-2.

Nihydrin

 

Laboratory

Stenton SC, Dennis JH, Walters EH, Hendrick DJ. 1990. Asthmagenic properties of a newly developed detergent ingredient: sodium iso-nonanoyl oxybenzene sulphonate. Br J Ind Med 47:405-410.

Piirila P. Estlander T. Hytonen M, Keskinen H, Tupasela O,Tuppurainen M. 1997. Rhinitis caused by ninhydrin deveIops into occupational asthma. Eur Respir J 10:1918-1921.

Ortho-phthalaldehyde

 

Healthcare

Fujita H, Ogawa M, Endo Y. A case of occupational bronchial asthma and contact dermatitis caused by ortho-phthalaldehyde exposure in a medical worker. J Occup Health. 2006;48:413-6

Persulphates (Na, K)

 

Hairdressing

Parra FM. Igea JM, Quirce S, Ferrando MC, Martin JA. Losada E. 1992. Occupational asthma in a hairdresser caused by persulphate salts. Allergy 47:656-660.

Pulverized fuel

 

Power station

Davison AG, Durham S, Taylor AJ, 1986. Asthma caused by pulverised fuel ash. Br Med J; 292:1561.

Sulphathiazoles

 

Healthcare

Rosberg M. 1946. Asthme bronchiale caused by sulphathiazole. 1946. Acta Med Scand; 126:185-90.

Tetrazene

 

Detonators

Burge PS. Hendy M, Hodgson ES. 1984. Occupational asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis due to tetrazene in a detonator manufacturer. Thorax 39:470-471.

Tooth enamel dust

 

Dentists

Ousholder GT, Chan JT. 1993. Tooth enamel dust as an asthma stimulus. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 75:599-601.

Triglycidyl isocyanurate

 

Painters

Piirila P, Estlander T. Keskinen H. Jolanki R. Laakkonen A. Pfaffli P, Tupasela 0. Tuppurainen M. Nordman H. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC). Clin Exp Allergy 27: 510-514.

Quirce S. Fernández-Nieto M, Górgolas, Rebedo G, Carnés J, Sastre J. 2004. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by triglycidyl isocyanurate. Allergy;59:1128

Animals

 

 

 

Storage mites
Tyrophagus longior, T. putrescentiae, Glycyphagus destructor, G. domesticus, Acarus siro, A. farris, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Ornithonyssus sylviarum

 

Agricultural

Lutsky I, Teichtahl H, Bar-Sela S. 1984. Occupational asthma due to poultry mites. J Allergy Clin Immunol 73:56-60.

Oertmann C. Müsken H. Bergmann K-C. 1995. Allergy by house dust mites in the poultry house. Allergologie 18:327-330.

van Hage-Hamsten M, Ihre E, Zetterstrom 0, Johansson SG. 1988. Bronchial provocation studies in farrners with positive RAST to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor. Allergy 43:545-551.

Blainey AD, Topping MD, Ollier S, Davies RJ. 1989. Allergic respiratory disease in grain workers. The role of storage mites. J Allergy Clin Immunol 84:296-303.

Tetranicus urtica, Panonychus ulmi

Red Spider

Greenhouse workers

Delgado L, Orta C, Navarro AM, Conde J Martinez A. Martinez J, Palacios R. 1997. Occupational allergy in greenhouse workers: sensitization to Teranychus urticae. Clin Exp Allergy 27:640-645.

Burches E, Pelaez A, Morales C, Braso JV, Rochina A, Lopez S, Benito M. 1996. Occupational allergy due to spidermites: Tetranychus urticae (Koch) and Panonychus citri (Koch). Clin Exp AIlergy 26: 1262-l267.

Musk AW, Venables KM, Crook B, Nunn AJ, Hawkins R, Crook GD. Graneek BJ, Tee RD, Farrer N, Johnson DA. 1989. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sensitisation to flour in a British bakery. Br J Ind Med 46:636-642.

Kim YK, Lee MH, Jee YK et al. 1999. Spider mite allergy in apple-cultivating farmers: European red mite (Panonychus ulmi) and two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) may be important allergens in the development of work-related asthma and rhinitis symptoms. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 104:1285-1292.

Panonychus citri

 

Orange agriculture

See : Burches et al.

Kim YK, Son JW, Kim HY. et al. 1999. Citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) is the most common sensitizing allergen of asthma and rhinitis in citrus farmers. Clin Exp Allergy 29:1102-1109.

Amblyseius cucumeris

 

Horticulture

Giséle CM et al.2002. Prevalence of sensitization to the predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris as a new occupational allergen in horticulture. Allergy 57: 614.

Insects

 

 

Dyne D, Campion K. Griffin P. 1996. Occupational ailergy among workers producing arthropods for organic pest conrol purposes. Ann Agric Environ Med 3:33 -36.

Anisakis simplex

Anisakis simplex

Fishmonger

Armentia A, Lombardero M, Callejo A, Martín Santos JM, Gil FJ, Vega J, et al. 1998. Occupational asthma by Anisakis simplex. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102:831-4.

Beetles

Tenebrio monitor, Alphitobius, Diaperinus domestica

Fishing bait
Grain handlers

Siracusa A, Bettini P, Bacoccoli R, Severini C, Verga A, Abbritti G. 1994. Asthma caused by live fish bait. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93: 424-430.

Schroeckenstein DC, Meier-Davis S, Bush RK. 1990. Occupational sensitivity to Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (yel1ow mealworm). J A1Iergy Clin Immunol 86:182-188.

Friedrich H. 1986. Mealworm asthma. A contribution to the allergic occupational asthma. Allergologie 9:519-521.

Sheldon JM, Johnston JH. 1941. Hypersensitivity to beetles (coleoptera). Report of a case. J Allergy 12:493-7.

Cuesta J, Heras M, Sastre J, Lluch M, Fernandez M, Lahoz C, Alvarez Cuesta E.1997. Asthma caused by Dermestidae (Black carpet beetle): a new allergen in house dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99:147-9.

Book louse

Liposcelis bostrychophilus

Cleaners, Millworkers

Wittich FW. The nature of various mill dust allergens.1940. Lancet 60:418-21.

Caddis fly

Trichoptera

 

Kagen SL. Inhalant allergy to arthropods: Insects, arachnids and crustaceans. In: Inhalant Allergy to Arthropods. De SL Kagen. 1986. Clinical Reviews in Allergy 8:1-125.

Chironomid midges

Chironomus thumi

Fish feeders

Liebers V, Hoemstein M, Baur X. 1993. Humoral immune response to the insect allergen Chi t 1 in aquarists and fish-food factory workers. Allergy 48:236-239.

Chrysonilla sitophila

 

Carpenters

Tarlo SM, Wai Y, Dolovich J, Summerbell R. 1996. Occupational asthma induced by Chrysonilia sitophila in the logging industry. J Allergy Clin Immunol 97:1409-1413.

Cockroach

Blatella germanica

Laboratory

Steinberg DR, Bernstein DI, Gallagher JS, Arlian L, Bernstein IL. 1987. Cockroach sensitization in laboratory workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 80:586-590.

Cricket

Achatea domestica

Laboratory

Harfi HA.1980. Immediate hypersensitivity to cricket. Ann Allergy; 44:162-3.

Bagenstose AH, 3d, Mathews KP, Homburger HA, Saaveard-Delgado AP. 1980. Inhalant a1lergy due to crickets. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65:71-74.

Dermestidae spp

 

Museum personnel

Brito FF, Mur P, Barber D, Lombardero M, Galindo PA, Gomez E, Borja J. 2002. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in a wool worker caused by Dermestidae spp.
Allergy 57(12):1191-4.

Ech inodorus plamosus (larvae)

Echinodorus plamosus

Bait, fish-feeders

Resta O, Foschino-Barbaro MP, Carnimeo N, Di Napoli PL, Pavese I, Schino P. 1982. Occupational asthma from fish-feed Echinodorus plamosus larva. Med Lav 73:234-236.

Eurygaster and Ephestia

 

Agriculture

Armentia A, Lombardero M, Martinez C, Barber D, Vega JM, Callejo A. Occupational asthma due to grain pests Eurygaster and Ephestia. J Asthma 2004;41:99-107.

Fruit fly

Drosophila melanogaster

Laboratory

Spieksma FT. Vooren PH. Kramps JA. Dijkman JH. 1986. Respiratory allergy to laboratory fI11it flies (Drosophila melanogasler). J Allergy Clin Immunol 77:108-113.

Gipsy moth

Limantria dispar

Entomologists

Etkind PH, Odell TM, Canada AT, Shama SK, Finn AM, Tuthil1 R. 1982. The gypsy moth caterpillar: a significant new occupational and public health problem. Occup Med 24:659-662.

Grain weevil

Sitophilus granarius, Sitophilus zeamais

Grain handlers

Lunn JA, Huges DT. Pulmonary hypersensitivity to the grain weevil.1967. Br J Ind Med;24:158-61.

Grasshopper

Melanoplus sanguinipes

Laboratory

Von Der Bijl VWF.1963.Asthma als berfskankheit: Allergi gegen heuschrecken. Allergi und Asthma;9:154-5.

Green bottle

Lucilia caesar

Fishing bait

Siracusa A, Bettini P, Bacoccoli R, Severini C, Verga A, Abbritti G. 1994. Asthma caused by live fish bait. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93: 424-430.

Ground bugs

Lygaeidae

Bottling

Garcia Lazaro MA, Abengozar Muela R, Arias Irigoyen L, Cabanes Higuero N, Ventas Alguacil P, Moral de Gregorio A, Senent C1. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by hypersensitivity to ground bugs. 1 Allergy Clin Immunol 99:267-268

Honey-bee

Apis mellifera

Food industry-honey

Ostrom NK. Swanson MC. Agarwal MK. Yunginger JW. 1986. Occupational allergy to honeybee-body dust in a honey-processing plant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 77:736-740.

Johnson A, Dittrick M, Chan-Yeung M. 1999. Occupational asthma caused by honey. Allergy 54:183-90.

Locust

Locusta migratoria

Laboratory workers

Soparkar GR, Patel PC, Cockcroft DW. 1993. Inhalant atopic sensitivity to grasshoppers in research laboratories. J AIlergy Clin Immunol 92:61-65.

Tee RD, Gordon DJ, Hawkins ER, Nunn AJ, Lacey J, Venables KM, Cooter RJ, McCaffery AR, Newman Taylor AJ. 1988. Occupational allergy to locusts: an investigation of the sources of the allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81:517-525.

Hernandez MD, Giner A, Morales P, Alarlar R, et al. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to Locusta migratoria (LM). Clin Allergy 1980; 10:235-6.

 

Moths, butterflies

Galleria mellonella,

Ephestia kuehniella

Bait

Grain handlers

 

Siracusa A, Bettini P, Bacoccoli R, Severini C, Verga A, Abbritti G. 1994. Asthma caused by live fish bait. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93: 424-430

Cabanieu C, Bezian JH, Moichau-Beauchant G, et al. 1971. Recherche des anticorps precipitants dans lállergie a Ephestia kuehniella. Rev Francai Allergol 11:257-63

Mushroom fly

Brachycera spp.

Mushroom workers

Cimarra M, Martinez-Cocera C, Chamorro et al. 1999 Occupational asthma caused by champignon flies. Allergy 54: 521-5.

Sewer fly

Psychoda

alternata

Sewer workers

Gold BL, Mathews KP, Burge HA. 1985. Occupational asthma caused by sewer flies. Am Rev Respir Dis 131:949-952

Sheep blowfly

Lucilia cuprina

Laboratory

Kaufman GL. Gandevia BH, BeUas TE, Tovey ER, Baldo BA. 1989. Occupational llergy in an entomological research centre. Clinical aspects of reactions to the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina. Br J Ind Med 46:473-478.

Silkworm

Bombyx mori

Silkworkers

Harindranath N, Prakash O, Subba Rao PV. 1985. Prevalence of occupational asthma in silk filatures. Ann Allergy 55:511-515

Water Flea

Daphnia

 

Meister W. 1978. Professional asthma owning to Daphnia -allergy. Allergie und Immunologie 24:191-193.

Shellfish

 

 

 

Clams

 

Food industry

Desjardins A, Malo JL, L' Archeveque A, Cartier A, McCants M, Lehrer SB. 1995. Occupational IgE-mediated sensitization and asthma caused by clam and shrimp. J Allergy Clin ImmunoI 96:608-617.

Lobster

 

Food industry

Lemiere C, Desjardins A, Lehrer S, Malo JL. 1996. Occupational asthma to lobster and shrimp. Allergy 51:272-273.

Nacre

 

Pearl industry

Orriols R, Aliaga JL, Anto JM et al. 1977. High prevalence of mollusc shell hypersensitivity pneumonitis in nacre factory workers. Eur Respir J 10: 780-86.

Shrimp

 

Food industry

Desjardins A, Malo JL, L' Archeveque ], Cartier A, McCants M, Lehrer SB. 1995. Occupational IgE-mediated sensitization and asthma caused by clam and shrimp. J Allergy Clin ImmunoI96:608-617.

Lemiere C, Desjardins A, Lehrer S, Malo JL. 1996. Occupational asthma to lobster and shrimp. Allergy 51:272-273.

Snow crab

 

Food industry

Cartier A, Malo JL, Ghezzo H, McCants M, Lehrer SB. 1986. IgE sensitization in snow crab-processing worlcers. J Al!ergy Clin Immunol 78:344-348.

Fish

 

 

 

Salmon, tuna, sardine, trout

 

Food industry

Douglas ]D, McSharry C, Blaikie L, Morrow T, Miles S, Franklin D. 1995. Occupational asthma caused by automated salmon processing. Lancet 346:737-740.

Rodriguez J, Reano M, Vives R, Canto G, Daroca P, Crespo JF, Vila C, Vil1arrea1 D, Bensabat Z. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by fish inhalation. A1Iergy 52:866-869.

Sherson D, Hansen 1, Sigsgaard T. 1989. Occupationally related respiratory symptoms in trout-processing workers. Allergy 44: 336-341.

Animal products

 

 

 

Casein

 

Tanners

0laguibel JM. Hemandez D. Morales P. Peris A. Basomba A. 1990. Occupational asthma caused by inhalation of casein. Allergy 45: 306-308.

Rossi GL, Corsico A, Moscato G. 1994. Occupationa1 asthma caused by milk proteins: report on a case. J Al1ergy Clin Immunol 93: 799-801.

Cow dander

 

Farmers

Hinze S, Bergmann K-C. 1995. Cow hair asthma: symptoms and clinical course. Allergo J 4:97-101

Deer dander

 

Farmers

Nahm DH, Park JW, Hong CS. 1996. Occupational asthma due to deer dander. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 76:423-426.

 

 

Egg

 

Food industry

Smith AB, Bernstein DI, London MA, Gallagher J, Ornella GA. Gelletly SK, Wallingford K, Newman MA. 1990. Evaluation of occupational asthma from airbome egg. Chest; 98:398-404.

Bernstein JA, Kraut A, Bernsstein DI, Warrington R, Bolin T, Warren CP, Bernstein IL. 1993. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg lysozyme. Chest 103:532-535.

Feathers

 

Farmers

Perfetti L, Cartier A. Malo JL. 1997. Occupational asthma in poultry-slaughterhouse workers. Allergy 52:594-595.

Frogs

 

Frog fisherman

Armentia A, aldiv-Santos J, Subiza J, Pola J, Zapata C, Valdivieso R, Losada E. 1988. Occupational asthma due to frogs. Ann Allergy 60:209-210.

Ivory dust

 

Ivory workers

Arrnstrong RA, Nei1l P, Mossop RT. 1988. Asthma induced by ivory dust: a new occupational cause. Thorax 43:737-738.

Laboratory animal danders: Rat, mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, gerbil, hamster, cat, dog

 

Laboratory

Krakowiak A, Szulc B. Gorski P. 1997. Occupational respiratory diseases in laboratory animal workers: initial results. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 10:31-36.

Bush RK, Wood RA.1998. Laboratory animal allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102:99-112.

Hollander A, Doekes G, Heederik D. 1996. Cat and dog al1ergy and total IgE as risk factors of 1aboratory animal allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:545-554.

Laboratory animal urine

 

Laboratory workers

Venables KM, Tee RD, Hawkins ER, Gordon DJ, Wale CJ, Farrer 2 NM, Lam TH, Baxter PJ, Newman Taylor AJ. 1988. Laboratory animal allergy in a pharmaceutical company. Br J Ind Med 45: 660-666.

Lactoalbumin

 

Food industry

Rossi GL, Corsico A, Moscato G. 1994. Occupationa1 asthma caused by milk proteins: report on a case. J Al1ergy Clin Immunol 93: 799-801.

Mink urine

 

Farmers

Jimenez Gomez I, Anton E, Picans I, Jerez J, Obispo T. 1996. Occupational asthma caused by mink urine. Allergy 51:364-365.

Pig urine

 

Laboratory

Haries MG, Cromwell 0. 1982. Occupational asthma caused by allergy to pigs' urine. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 284:867.

Pigeon, dove, cockatiel, parakeet, duck, turkey: Feathers and droppings

 

Breeders

Calvert JE, Baldwin CI, Allen A, Todd A Bourke SJ.1999. Pigeon fancier´s lung: A complex disease. Clin Exp Allergy; 29: 166-75.

Roe Deer

 

Animal rehabilitation center

Carballada F, Sanchez R, Carballas C, Lombardero M, Boquete M. 2006. Occupational respiratory allergy to roe deer.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol.;97:707-10

Shark cartilage

 

Dietetic product industry

San-Juan S, Garces M, Caballero ML, Monzon S, Moneo I. 2004. Occupational asthma caused by shark cartilage dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 14:1227-8.

Plants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3-carene

Terpene

Carpenters

Eriksson KA, Levin 0, Sandstrom T, Lindstrom-Espeling K. Linden G, Stjernberg NL. 1997. Terpene exposure and respiratory effects among workers in Swedish joinery shops. Scand Work Environ Health 23:114-120.

Albilfloxia

Tradescantia

Floral workers

Wuthrich B,Johansson SG. 1997. Allergy to the omamental indoor green plant Tradescantia (Albilfloxia). Al1ergy: 52 (5):556-59.

Algae

Alage chorella

Pharmacist

Ng TP, Tan WC, Lee YK, 1994. Occupational asthma in a pharmacist induced by Chorella, a unicelular algae preparation. Respir Med 88:555-7.

Amarylis

Amaryllidaceae

Horticultural

Jansen AP, Visser FJ, Nierop G, de Jong NW, Waanders-de Lijster de i Raadt J, Vermeulen A, van Toorenenbergen AW. 1996. Occupational asthma to amaryllis. Allergy 51:847-849.

Aniseed

Pimpinella anisum

Food industry

Fraj J, Lezaun A,Colas C, Duce F, DorninguezMA, Alonso MD. 1996. Occupational asthma induced by aniseed. Allergy 51:337-339.

Aromatic herbs

 

Herbalist

Lemiere C, Cartier A, Lehrer SB, Malo JL. 1996. Occupational asthma caused by aromatic herbs. Allergy 51:647-649.

Artichoke

Cynara scolymus

Agriculture, Food industry

Miralles JC, Garcia-Selles J, Bartolome B, Negro JM. 2003. Occupational rhinitis and bronchial asthma due to artichoke (Cynara scolymus).Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. Jul;9:92-5.

Asparagus

Asparagus o.

Food industry

Lopez-Rubio A, Ibañez J, Crespo JF, Vives R, Daroca P, Reano M. 1998. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to asparagus: detection of allergens by immunoblotting. Allergy 53 1216-1220.

Baby´s breath

Gypsophila paniculata

Floral workers

Antepara I, Jauregui I, Urrutia I, Gamboa PM, Gonzalez G, Barber D. 1994. Occupational asthma related to fresh Gypsophila paniculata. Allergy 49:478-480.

Twiggs JT; Yunginger JW Agarwal MK, Reed CE. 1982. Occupational asthma in a florist caused by the dried plant, baby 's breath. J A11ergy Clin Immunol; 69:474-48.

 Bells of Ireland

 Molucella laevis

Plant growers

Miesen WM, van der Heide S, Kerstjens HA, Dubois AE, de Monchy JG. 2003. Occupational asthma due to IgE mediated allergy to the flower Molucella laevis (Bells of Ireland).Occup Environ Med 60:701-3.

Brasil Gingseng or Voacanga africana

Pfaffia paniculata

Pharmaceutical

Subiza J, Subiza JL, Escribano PM. Hinojosa M, Garcia R. Jerez M, Subiza E. 1991. Occupational asthma caused by Brazil ginseng dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 88:731-736.

Cabbage

Brassica oleracea

Food industry

Quirce S, Madero MF, Fernandez-Nieto M, Jimenez A, Sastre J. 2005. Occupational asthma due to the inhalation of cauliflower and cabbage vapors. Allergy. ;60:969-70

Cacao

Theobroma cacao

Food industry

Perfetti L. Lehrer SB. McCants M. Malo JL. 1997. Occupational asthma caused by cacao. A11ergy 52:778-780.

Carnation

Dianthus caryophyllus

Floral workers

Sanchez-Guerrero I, Escudero A, Bartolomé B, Palacios R. 1999. Ocupational allergy caused by carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). J Allergy Clin Immunol; 104:181-185.

Cauliflower and broccoli  pollen

Brassica oleracea botrytis B. oleracea italica/cymosa

Agriculture

Hermanides HK, Lahey-de Boer AM, Zuidmeer L, Guikers C, van Ree R, Knulst AC. 2006. Brassica oleracea pollen, a new source of occupational allergens.
Allergy;61:498-502.

Chicory

Chichorium intybus

Food industry

Nemery B, Demedts M. 1989. Occupationa1 asthma in a chicory grower. Lancet 1:672-673.

Chrysanthemum

Chrysanthemum

Floral workers

Blamoutier E. 1956. Un cas de sensibilisation au chrysanteme (jeuilles et fleurs) asthme et dermite du visage. Sem Hop Paris 32:2865.

Schuberl H, Prater E, Diener C. 1990. Pollinosis bei Chrysanthemenzüchtern. Z Gesamte Hyg 36:162-166.

Suzuky S, Kuroume, Tomoooro M, Tomidokoro Hkanbe Y, Matsumura. 1975. Chrysanthemum pollinosis in Japan. Int Arch A11ergy Appll Immunol; 48:800-811.

Coriander

Coriandrum sativum

Food industry

Schwartz HJ, Jones RT, Rojas AR, Sqillace DL, Yunginger JW. 997. Occupatioanl rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to fennel seed. Ann Allergy Astha Immunol; 78:37-40

Diplotaxis erucoides (pollen)

 

Vine growers

Garcia-Ortega P, Bartolome B, Enrique E et al. 2001. Allergy to Diplotaxis erudoides pollen: occupational sensitization and cross-reactivity with other common plants. Allergy 56:679-683.

Entada gigas

Entada scandens

Floral workers

Rubin JM, Duke MB. 1974. Unusual cause of bronchial asthma. Cacoon seed used for decorative purposes. N Y State J Med 74 538-539.

Fennel

Foeniculum vulgare

Food industry

Schwartz HJ, Jones RT, Rojas AR, Squillace DL, Yuyinger JW. 1997. Occupational allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to fennel seed. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol;78: 37-40.

Fenugreek

Trigonella foenumgraecum

Food industry

Dugue J, Bel J, Figueredo M.1993. Le fenugrec responsable d´un nouvel asthme professionel. Presse Medd 22:922.

Fibers: Linen, jute, stipa grass

Linen

usitatssimum,

Corchorus olitorius,

Stipa tenacissima

 

Fiber processors

Plaster workers

Muittari A, Veneskoski T. 1978. Natural and synthetic fibers as causes of asthma and rhinitis. Ann Allergy 41:48-50

Baz G, Hinojosa M, Quirce S, Cuevas M 1999. Occupational asthma caused by esparto grass (Stipa tenacissima) fibers. Allergy 54:86-7.

Ficus

Ficus benjamina

Plant keepers

Diez-Gomez ML, Quirce S, Aragoneses E, Cuevas M. 1998. Asthma caused by Ficus benjamina latex: Evidence of cross-reactivity with fig fruit and papain. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 80:24-30.

Axelsson IG, Johansson SGO, Zetterstrom O. 1987. Occupational allergy to weeping fig in plant keepers. Allergy 42:161-167.

Flowers and dry flowers

 

Floral workers

Piirila I: Keskinen H, Leino T; Tupasela O, Tuppurainen M. 1994. Occupational asthma caused by decorative flowers: review and case reports. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 66:131-36.

Freesia

Freesia spp.

Horticulture

Toorenbergen van AW, Dieges PH. 1984. Occupational allergy in horticulture: demonstration of immediate-type allergic reactivity of freesia and papriha plants. Int Arch A11ergy Appll Immunol 75:44-47.

Garlic dust

Allium sativa

Food industry

Falleroni AE, Zeiss CR, Levitz D. 1981. Occupational asthma secondary to inhalation of garlic dust.J Allergy Clin Immunol 68: 156-160.

Gluten

 

Bakers

Lachance P, Cartier A, Dolovich J. Malo JL. 1988. Occupational asthma from reactivity to an alkaline hydrolysis derivative of gluten. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81:385-390.

Grass

Lolium p.

Gardeners

Subiza J, Subiza JL, Hinojosa M, Varela S, Cabrera M, Marco F. 1995. Occupational asthrna caused by grass juice. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96:693-695.

Green and roasted coffee

Coffea arabica

Coffee proccesors

Larese F, Fiorito A, Casasola F, Molinari S, Peresson M, Barbina P, Negro C. 1998. Sensitization to green coffee beans and work-related allergic symptoms in coffee workers. Am J Ind Med 34: 623-627.

Zuskin E, Kanceljak B, Skuric Z, Bulkovic D. 1985. Bronchial reactivity in green coffee exposure. Br J Ind Med 42:415-420.

Jones RN, Hughes JM, Lehrer SB, Butcher BT, Glindmeyer HW, Diem JE, Hammad YY, Salvaggio J. Weill H. 1982. Lung function consequences of exposure and hypersensitivity in workers who process green coffee beans. Am Rev Respir Dis 125:199-202.

Lemiere C, Malo JL, McCants M, Lehrer S. 1996. Occupational asthma caused by roasted coffee: immunologic evidence that roasted coffee contains the same antigens as green coffee, but at a lower concentration. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:464-466.

Green bean

Phaseolus

Homemakers

Igea JM, Femandez M, Quirce S, de la Hoz B, Diez Gomez ML. 1994.  Green bean hypersensitivity: an occupational allergy in a homemaker. J Allergy Clin Immuno1 94:33-35

Hop

Humulus lupulus

Brewing Industry

Newmark FM. 1978. Hops a1lergy and terpene sensitivity: an occupational disease. Ann Allergy 41:311-312.

Korean ginseng - Sanyak

 

Pharmaceutical

Lee JY, Lee YD, Bahn JW, Park HS. 2006. A case of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by Sanyak and Korean ginseng dusts.
Allergy;61:392-3

Limonium

Limonium tataricum

Floral workers

Quirce S. García-Figueroa B, Olaguibel JM.Muro MD, Tabar AI. 1993. Occupational asthma from dried flowers of Llimonium tataricum. Allergy; 48: 285-29.

Liquorice root

Glycyrrhiza glabra

Herbalist

Cartier A, Malo JL, Labreque M, 2002. Occupational asthma due to liquorice roots. Allergy 57:863.

Madagascar Jasmine

Stephanotis floribunda

Greenhouse workers

Van der Zee JS, de Jager KSN, Kuipers BF, Stapel SO. Outbreak of occupational allergic asthma in a Stephanotis floribunda nursery. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103:950-2.

Marianne thistle

Silybum marianum

Floral workers

Wollemann G, Seifert H-U, Borew. 1987. Berufsbedingte Rhinoconjuntivitis auf Mariendistelsamen (Silybum marianum). Allergologie 10: 505-508.

Mimosa

Acacia floribunda

Florist

Ariano R, Panzini RC, Amedo J 1991.. Pollen allergy to mimosa (Acacia floribunda) in a Mediterranean area: an occupational disease. Ann A11ergy 66: 253-6.

Mushroom

Agaricus bisporus

Mushroom processors

Symington IS, Kerr JW, McLean DA. 1981. Type I allergy in mushroom soup processors. Clin Allergy 11:43-47.

Narcisuss

Narcissus pseudonarcissus

Florist

Concalo S, Freitas JD, Sousa I. 1987. Contact dermatitis and respiratory symptoms from Narcissus pseudonarcissus. Contact Dermatitis; 16:115-17.

Nutmeg

Mysristicia fragans

Food industry

Sastre J, Olmo M, Nova1vos A, Ibáñez M D, Lahoz C. 1996. Occupational asthma due to different spices. A1lergy 51:117-120.

Onion

Allium spp

Food industry or Agriculture

Navarro JA, Pozo MD, Gastaminza, Moneo I, Audicana MT. 1995. Allium cepa sedes:a new occupational allergen. J Allergy Cl in Immunol; 96: 690-3.

Opium

Papaver s.

Pharmaceutical

Moneo I. Alday E, Ramos C. Curiel G. 1993. Occupational asthma o causcd by Papaver somlliferum. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 21:145-148.

Paprika

Capsicum annum

Food industry

Sastre J, Olmo M, Nova1vos A, Ibáñez M D, Lahoz C. 1996. Occupational asthma due to different spices. A1lergy 51:117-120.

Pea

Lathyrus odoratus

Horticultural

Jansen A, Vermeulen A, van Toorenenbergen AW, Dieges PH. 1995.  Occupational asthma in horticu1ture caused by Lathyrus odoratus. J Allergy Proc 16:135-139.

Pectin

 

Food industry

Cohen AJ, Forse MS, Tarlo SM. 1993. Occupational asthma caused by pectin inhalation during the manufacture of jam. Chest 103:309-311.

Raspberry

 

Food industry

Occupational asthma due to freeze-dried raspberry. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2003 Jun 90(6):660-3.

Ricine

Ricinus communis

Pharmaceutical

Merget R. Heger M, Wahl R. Cromwell O, Rasche K, Schultzen Weminghaus G. 1994. Seasonal occupational asthma in an agricultural products merchant-a case report. Allergy 49:897-901.

Rose

Rosa rugosa.

Pharmaceutical

Greenhouse workers

Kwaselow A, Rowe M. Sears-Ewald D. Ownby D. 1990. Rose hips: a new occupational allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85:704-708.

Demir AU, Karakaya G, Kalyoncu AF. 2002. Allergy symptoms and IgE immune response to rose: an occupational and an environmental disease. Allergy.57:936-9.

Saffron

Crocus sativus

Saffron proccesors

Feo F, Martinez J, Martinez A, Galindo PA, Cruz A, Garcia R, Guerra F, Palacios R. 1997. Occupational allergy in saffron workers. Allergy 52:633-641.

Sarsaparilla

Smila

Herbalist

Vandenplas 0, Depelchin S, Toussaint G, Delwiche JP, Weyer RV. C Saint-Remy JM. 1996. Occupational asthma caused by sarsaparilla root dust. J Allergy Clin Immuno 97:1416-1418.

Sesame

Sesame indicum

Food industry

Keskinen H, Ostrnan P, Vaheri E, Tarvainen K, Grenquist-Norden B, Karppinen O; Nordman H. 1991. A case of occupational asthma. Rhinitis and urticaria due to sesame seed. Clin Exp Allergy 21: 623-624.

Sisal

Agave sisalana

Sisal workers

Zuskin E, Kanceljak B, Mustajbegovic J. Schachler EN, Kem J. 1994.

Respiralory function and immunological reaclions in sisal workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 66:37-42.

Spatheflower

Spathiphyllum wallisii,

Spathiphyllum tloribundum

Floral workers

Kanerva L, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Kiistala R, Granlund H. 1995 Ocupational allergy caused by Spatheflower (Spathiphyllum wallisii). A11ergy; 50(2): 174-178.

Cahen YD. Lundberg, M. Wüthrich B 1997. lndoor Allergy to Spatheflower (Spathiphyllum tloribundum) A11ergy; 52:114-115.

Sunflower

Helianthus annua

Agricultural

Bousquet J, Dhivert H, Clausel A-M, Hewitt B, Michel F-B. 1985. Occupational allergy to sunflower pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 75: 70-74.

Quirce S. Garcia-Figueroa B, Olaguibel JM, Muro MD, Tabar AI. 1985. Occupational asthma and contact urticaria suflower pollen. J A11ergy Clin Immunol; 75: 70-74.

Vandenplas O, Van der Borght T, Delwich JP. 1998. Occupational asthma caused by sunflower seed dust. Allergy 53:907-8.

Sunflower, pollen and seeds

Helianthenum annuus

Agricultural, Laboratory

Vandenplas 0, Vander Borght T, Delwiche JP. 1998. Occupational asthma caused by sunflower-seed dust. Allergy 53:907 –908.

Bousquet J, Dhivert H. Clauzel AM, Hewitt B, Michel FB. 1985. Occupational allergy to sunflower pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 75:70-74.

Tea

Camelia sinensis

Tea proccesing

Cartier A, Malo JL. 1990. Occupational asthma due to tea dust. Thorax 45:203-206.

Shirai T, Sato A, Hara Y. 1994. Epigallocatechin gallate. The major causative agent of green tea-induced asthma. Chest;106:1801-5.

Tobacco dust

Nicotiana tabacum

Tobacco workers

Lander F. Gravesen S. 1988. Respiratory disorders among tobacco workers. Br J Ind Med 45:500-502.

Baur X. 1993. Occupational hypersensitivity against tobacco dust.: Allergologie 16:94-95.

Tulip, lily

Tulipa,

Lilium longiflorum

Floral workers

Äuer A. 1986. Contact urticaria and respiratory symptoms from tulip and lilies. Contact Dermatitis; 14: 317 –319.

Piirila P, Kanerva L, Alanko K, Estlander T, Keskinen H, Pajari-Backas M, Tuppurainen M. 1999. Occupational IgE-mediated asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and contact urticaria caused by Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) and tulip. Allergy, 54:273-7.

Vetch

Vicia sativa

Agriculture

Juste-Picon S, Blanco Cannona JG, Garces Sotillos MD. 1991. Occupa-tional asthma caused by vetch (Vicia sativa). J Allergy Clin Immunol 88:135-136.

Yarrow and Safflower

Achillea millefolium,

Carthamus tinctorious

Florist

Compes E, Bartolome B, Fernandez-Nieto M, Sastre J, Cuesta J. 2006. Occupational asthma from dried flowers of Carthamus tinctorious (safflower) and Achillea millefolium (yarrow). Allergy.;61:1239-40.

Vegetable gums

 

 

 

Arabic or acacia gum

Acacia del senegal

Printers
Food industry

Fowler PBS. 1952. Printer´s asthma. Lancet 2:755-7.

Aleman A, Quirce S. 1999. Asma ocupacional por goma arábiga en la industria alimentaria. Rev Esp Alergol Inmunol Clin 14:2-3.

Carob bean gum

Ceratonia siliqua

Food industry

Scoditti A, Peluso P, et al.1996. Asthma to carob bean flour. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol, 77: 81.

Guar gum

Cypamopsis tetragonolobus

Carpet manufacturing

 

Malo JL, Cartier A, L' Archeveque J. Ghezzo H, Soucy F, Somers 1, Dolovich 1. 1990. Prevalence of occupational asthma and immunologic sensitization to guar gum among employees at a carpet-manufacturing plant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 86:562-569.

Karaya gum

Sterculea urens

Hairdresser

Wagner W. 1980. Karaya gum hypersensitivity in an enterostomal therapist. JAMA 243:432.

Natural rubber latex

Hevea brasiliensis

Health care

Latex processing

Vandenplas O, Binard-Van Cangh F, Brumagne A, Caroyer JM, Thimpont J, Sohy C, Larbanois A, Jamart J.2001. Occupational asthma in symptomatic workers exposed to natural rubber latex: evaluation of diagnostic procedures. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107:542-7.

Yassin MS, Lierl MB, Fischer TJ. O'Brien K, Cross J, Steinmetz C. 1994. Lalex allergy in hospital employees. Ann Al1ergy 72:245-249.

Baur X. Chen Z. Allmers H, Beckmann U, Walther I. 1995. Relevance of latex aeroallergen for healthcare workers. Allergology Intemational 20:105-111.

Grzybowski M, Ownby DR, Peyser PA, Johnson CC, Schork MA 1996. The prevalencc of anti-latex IgE antibodies among rcgistered nurses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:535-544.

Tragacanth gum

Astragalus gummifer

Food industry

Danoff D, Lincoln L, et al.1978.”Big Mac Attack”.N Engl J Med 298(19):1095-6.

Flours

 

 

 

Barley

Hordeum vulgare

Bakers

Vidal C, Gonzalez-Quintela A. 1995. Food-induced and occupational asthma due to barley flour. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 75:121-124.

Buckwheat

Fagopyrum esculentum

Bakers

Park HS. Nahm DH. 1996. Buckwheat flour hypersensitivity: an occupational asthma in a noodle maker. Clin Exp Allergy 26: 423-427.

Fernandez R, Moneo I, Pola J, uerc T, Zapata C, Hinojosa M, Losada E. 1989. Occupational asthma and contact urticaria caused by buckwheat flour. Ann Allergy 63:149-52.

Corn

  Zea mays

Food processing

Martin-Garcia C, Hinojosa M, Porcel S, Leon F, Berges P. 2003. Corn-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis.Allergy;58:534-5.

Grass pea

Lathyrus sativus

Carpenter

Anton Girones M, de la Hoz Caballer B, Munoz Martin T, Cuevas Agustin M, Sanchez-Cano M. 2005. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma by exposure to Lathyrus sativus flour.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr).;33:326-8.

Lupin seed /flour

Lupinus albus

Bakers

Crespo J, Rodríguez J, Vives R, James JM, Reaño M, Daroca P, Burbano C, Muzquiz M.2001. Occupational IgE mediated allergy after exposure to lupine seed flour. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 108: 295-297.

Campbell CP, Jackson AS, Johnson AR, Thomas PS, Yates DH. 2007. Occupational sensitization to lupin in the workplace: occupational asthma, rhinitis, and work-aggravated asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 119:1133-9.

 

Oilseed rape

Brassiba napus

Grain handlers

Suh CH, Park HS, Nahm DH, Kim HY. 1998. Oilseed rape allergy presented as occupational asthma in the grain industry. Clin Exp Allergy;28:1159-63.

Pea

Lathyrus odoratus

Food industry

Bhagat R, Swystun VA, Cockcroft DW. 1995. Occupational asthma caused by pea flour. Chest 107:1772.

Rye

Secalle cerealle

Bakers

Baur X, Degens PO, Sander 1. 1998. Baker's asthma: still among the most frequent occupational respiratory disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102:984-997.

Soy: bean, flour, lectine, trysin inhibitor

Glycine max

Bakers

Quirce S, Polo F, Figueredo E, Gonzalez R, Sastre J. 2000. Occupational asthma caused by soybean flour in bakers-differences with soybean-induced epidemic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 30:839-846.

Quirce S, Fernandez-Nieto M, Polo F, Sastre J.2002. Soy-bean trysin inhibitor is an occupational inhalant allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 109:178.

Alvarez MJ, Tabar Al, Quirce S, Olaguibel JM, Lizaso MT, Echechipia S, Fernandez A, Garcia BE. 1996. Diversity of allergens causing occupational asthma among cereal workers as demonstrated by exposure procedures. Clin Exp Allergy 26:147-153.

Baur X. Sauer W, Weiss W, Fruhmann G. 1989. Inhalant allergens in modern baking industry. Immunol Allergy Pract 11:13-15.

Lavaud F, Perdu D, Prevost A, Vallerand H, Cossal1 C, Passemard F. 1994. Baker's asthma related to soybean lecithin exposure. Allergy 49:159-162.

Wheat

Triticum aestivum

Bakers

Baur X, Degens PO, Sander 1. 1998. Baker's asthma: still among the most frequent occupational respiratory disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102:984-997.

De Zotti R, Larese F, Bovenzi M, Negro C, Molinari S. 1994. Allergic airway disease in Italian bakers and pastry makers. Occup Environ Med 51:548-552.

Houba R, Heederik D, Doekes G. 1998. Wheat sensitization and work-related symptoms in the baking industry are preventable. An epidemiologic study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158:1499-1503.

Woods

 

 

 

alpha-amylase inhibitor

 

Sawmill, furniture

López-Rico R, Moneo I, Rico A, Curiel G, Fernandez-Monge R, Salcedo G. 1998. Cereal alpha-amylase inhibitors cause occupational sensitization in the wood industry. Clin Exp Allergy; 28:1286-91

Abiruana

Pouteria

 

Booth BH, Lefoltdt RH, Moffit EM. 1976. Hypersensitivity to wood dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 57:352-7.

African maple

Triplochiton scleroxylon

Sawmill, furniture

S Quirce, Marañón F, Hinojosa M, Ferre A, Fernandez-Caldas E, Sastre J.2000. Identification of obeche wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon) allergens causing occupational asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 106:400-401.

Hinojosa M, Losada E, Moneo I, Fernandez J, CaITillo T, Sanchez-Cano M. 1986. Occupational asthma caused by African maple (Obeche) and Ramin: evidence of cross reactivity between these two woods. Clin Allergy 16:145-153.

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60.

African zebrawood

Microberlinia

Sawmill, furniture

Bush RK, Yunginger JW, Reed CE. 1978. Asthma due to African zebrawood (Microberlinia) dust. Am Rev Respir Dis l17: 60l-603.

Alder

Alnus alginosa

Sawmill, furniture

Ahman M, van Hage-Hamsten M. Johansson SGO. 1995. IgE-mediated allergy to wood dusts probably does not explain the high prevalence of respiratory symptoms among Swedish woodwork teachers. Allergy 50:559-562.

Antiaris

Antiaris

 

Higuero, MC, Zabala, BB., Villamuza, Gómez,CM., de Gregorio, AM, Fernandez CS. 2001. Occupational asthma caused by IgE-mediated reactivity to Antiaris wood dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107: 554-556.

Ash

Fraxinus excelsior

Sawmill, furniture

Fenandez-Rivas M, Perez-Caital C, Senent C. 1997. Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by ash (Fraxinus excelsior) wood dust. Allergy 52:196-199.

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.

Spiewak R, Bozek A, Maslowski T, Brewczynski PZ. 1994. Occupational asthma due to wood dust exposure (ash. oak, beech and pine) -a case study. Ann Agric Environ Med 1:73-76.

Beech

Fagus selvatica

Sawmill, furniture

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60.

Bethabara

 

 

Yacoub MR, Lemiere C, Labrecque M, Malo JL. 2005. Occupational asthma due to bethabara wood dust. Allergy;60:1544-5

Cedar of Lebanon

Cedra libani

Sawmill

Greenberg, M. 1972. Respiratory symptoms following brief exposure to cedar of Lebanon (Cedra libani) dust. Clin Allergy; 2: 219-224

Cedrorana

Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke

 

Eire MA, Pineda F, Losada SV, de la Cuesta CG, Villalva MM. 2006. Occupational rhinitis and asthma due to cedroarana (Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke) wood dust allergy.
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol.;16:385-7.

Central American walnut

Juglans olanchana

Furniture

Bush, R.K., Clayton, O.1983. Asthma due to Central American Walnut (Juglans olanchana) dust. Clin Allergy; 13: 389-394.

Cherry

Prunus avium

Sawmill, furniture

Abendroth RR, Kalveram CM, Kalveram KJ. 1992. Wood dust allergy: clinical findings, diagnosis, prognosis, new trends in protection at work. Allergologie 15:300-303.

 

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum zelanicum

Sawmill

Uragoda. 1984. Asthma and other symptoms in cinnamon workers. Br J Ind Med 41:224-7.

Cocabolla

Dalbergia retusa

Furniture

Eaton, K.K 1973. Respiratory allergy to exotic wood dust. Clin Allergy 1973; 3: 307-310.

Colophony, abietic acid

 

Welders

Burge PS, Harries MG, O'Brien I, Pepys J. 1980. Bronchial provocation studies in workers exposed to the fumes of electronic soldering fluxes. Clin Al!ergy 10: l3 7 –149.

Burge PS. Edge G, Hawkins R, White V, Taylor AJ. 1981. Occupational asthma in a factory making flux-cored solder containing colophony. Thorax 36:828-834.

So SY, Lam WK, Yu D. 1981. Colophony-induced asthma in a poultry vender. Clin Allergy 11: 395-399.

Eastern white cedar

Thuja occidentalis

Sawmill, furniture

Cartier A, Chan H. Malo JL, Pineau L. Tse KS, Chan-Yeung M. 1986ª. Occupational asthma caused by eastem white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) with demonstration that plicatic acid is present in this wood dust and is the causal agent. J Al!ergy Clin Imrnunol 77:639-645.

Malo JL, Cartier A, L. Archeveque J. Trudeau C, Courteau JP. Bherer L. 1994 Prevalence of occupational asthma among workers exposed to eastem white cedar. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150: 1 1697-1701.

Falcata wood

Albizia falcataria

furniture

Tomioka K, Kumagai S, Kameda M, Kataoka Y. 2006. A case of occupational asthma induced by falcata wood (Albizia falcataria). J Occup Health. ;48:392-5.

Fernanbouc

Caesalpinia echinata

Furniture

Hausen BM, Herrmann B. 1990. Bow-makers disease: an occupational disease in the manufacturing of bows for string instrument. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 115:169-173.

Gabon

 

Sawmill, furniture

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60.

Imbuia (Brazilian walnut)

Phoebe porosa

Sawmill, furniture

Jeebhay MF, Prescott R, Potter PC, Ehr1ich RI. 1996. Occupational asthma caused by imbuia wood dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 97: I 1025-1027

Iroko

Cholophora excelsa

Sawmill, furniture

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60

 

Jatoba wood (Brasilian cherry)

 Hymenaea courbaril

 

Quirce S, Parra A, Antón E, Fernández-Nieto M, Jerez J, Sastre J. 2004. Occupational asthma caused by tali and jatoba wood dusts, J Allergy Clin Immunol; 113: 361-3.

Kejaat

Pterocarpus angolensis

Furniture

Ordman, D.1949. Wood dust as an inhalant allergen. Bronchial asthma caused by kejaat wood (Pterocarpus angolensis). S Atr Med 23: 973-975

Limba

Terminalia superba

Sawmill, furniture

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.

Mahagoni african

Khaya anthoteca

Sawmill, furniture

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.

Mahagoni american

Swietenia mahagoni

Sawmill, furniture

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60.

Makone

Tieghemella heckeli

Sawmill, furniture

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60.

Mukali

Aningeria robusta

Sawmill, furniture

Garces Sotillos MM, Blanco Carmona 1G, Juste Picon S, Fernandez-Gaston P, Perez Fernandez R, Alonso Gil L. 1995. Occupational asthma and contact urticaria caused by mukali wood dust (Aningeria robusta). 1 Investig Allergol Clin Irnmunol 5:113-114.

Oak

Quercus robur

Sawmill, furniture

Abendroth RR, Kalveram CM, Kalveram KJ. 1992. Wood dust allergy: clinical findings, diagnosis, prognosis, new trends in protection at work. Allergologie 15:300-303.

Malo JL, Cartier A, Desjardins A. Van de Weyer R, Vandenplas O. 1995. Occupational asthma caused by oak wood dust. Chest 108: 856-858.

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.

Pau marfin

Balfourodendron riedelianum

Sawmill, furniture

Basomba A, Burches E, Almodoyar A, de Rojas DH. 1991. Occupational rhinitis and asthma caused by inhalation of Balfourodendron riedelianum (Pau Marfim) wood dust. A11ergy 46: 316-318

Picea

Picea abis

Sawmill, furniture

Kersten W. Von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60.

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.

Pine

Pinus sylvestris

Sawmill, furniture

Kersten W. von Wahl PG. 1994. Occupational disease in the wood-processing industry. Allergologie 17:55-60

Spiewak R, Bozek A, Maslowski T, Brewczynski PZ. 1994. Occupational asthma due to wood dust exposure (ash, oak, beech and pine)-a case study. Ann Agric Environ Med 1:73-76

Ramin

Gonystylus bancanus

Furniture

Hinojosa M, Losada E, Moneo I, Quercusqz J, Carrillo T, Quercus-Cano M. 1986. Occupational asthma caused by African maple (obeche) and ramin: evidence of cross reactivity between these two woods. Clin Allergy 16:145-153.

Sequoia-California redwood

Sequoia sempervirens

Sawmill

Chan-Yeung, M., Abboud, R. Occupational asthma due to California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) dust. Am Rev Respir Dis 1976; 114: 1027-1031.

Soapbark

Quillaja saponaria

Sawmill, furniture

Raghuprasad PK. Brooks SM. Litwin A, Edwards JJ, Bemstein IL, Gallagher J. 1980. Quillaja bark (soapbark)-induced asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65:285-287

Spindle tree

Eunomimus europaeus

Furniture

Herold DA, WaJ1 R, Maasch HJ, Hausen BM, Kunkel G. 1991. Occupational wood-dust sensitivity from Euonymus europaeus (spindle tree) and investigation of cross reactivity between wood and Artemisia vulgaris pollen (mugwort). Allergy 46: 186-190.

Tali wood

 Erythrophleum suaveolens

Furniture

Quirce S, Parra A, Antón E, Fernández-Nieto M, Jerez J, Sastre J. 2004. Occupational asthma caused by tali and jatoba wood dusts. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 113: 361-3.

Tall oil

Pine resin

Rubber tyres

Tarlo SM. 1992. Occupational asthma induced by tall oil in the rubber tyre industry. Clin Exp Allergy 22:99-101.

Tanganika aningre

 

Furniture

Paggiaro, P.L., Cantalupi, R., Fileri, M. Y cols. 1980. Bronchial asthma due to inhaled wood dust. Tanganyka aningre. Clin Allergy; 11: 605-610.

Teka

Tectona grandis

Sawmill, furniture

Oertrnann C, Bergmann K-C. 1993. Airway diseases in woodworkers. Allergologie 16:334-340.

Western red cedar, plicatic acid

Thuja plicata

Sawmill, furniture

Chan-Yeung M, Desjardins A. 1992. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness and level of exposure in occupational asthma due to westem red cedar (Thuja plicata). Serial observations before and after developrnent of symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis 146:1606-1609.

Lam S, Tan F, Chan H. Chan-Yeung M. 1983. Relationship between types of asthmatic reaction. Nonspecific bronchial reactivity, and specific IgE antibodies in patients with red cedar asthma. J Allergy Clin ImmunoI 72:134-139.

Cote I, Kennedy S, Chan-Yeung M. 1990. Sensitivity and specificity of PC20 and peak expiratory flow rate in cedar asthma. Allergy Clin Immunol 85:592-598.

Microorganisms

 

 

 

Molds

 

 

 

Aspergillus fumigatus

 

Bakers, Refuse collection workers

Allmers H, Huber H, Baur X. 1997. Bronchopulmonary mould allergy of a refuse collection worker. Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Umweltmed 32:64-67.

Quirce S, Cuevas M, Diez-Gomez M, Femandez-Rivas M, Hinojosa M, Gonzalez R. Losada E. 1992. Respiratory allergy to Aspergillus -derived enzymes in bakers. Asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90: 970-978.

Aspergillus niger

 

Laboratory workers

Seaton A, Wales D. 1994. Clinical reactions to Aspergillus niger in a biotechnology plant: an eight year fol1ow up. Occup Environ Med 51:54-56.

Cryptococcus albidus
Trichosporum spp.

Gyrodontium versicolor

 

Summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Miyagawa T, Hamagami S, Tanigawa N. 2000. Cryptococcus albidus-induced summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med.;161:961-6.

Yoshizawa Y, OTAN Y, Hayakawa H, Sat A, Suga M, Ando M. 1999. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis in Japan: a nationwide epidemiologic survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol.;103:315-20.

Debaryomyces hansenii

 

Humidifiers

Yamamoto Y, Osanai S, Fujiuchi S, Yamazaki K, Nakano H, Ohsaki Y, Kikuchi K. 2002. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis induced by the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii. Eur Respir J 20:1351-3.

Dictyostelium discoideum

Slime mould

Cleaners

Gottlieb SJ, Garibaldi E, Hutchesoj PS, Slavin RG. 1993. Occupational asthma to the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. J Occup Med 35:1231-1235.

Dust with molds

 

Bakers

Musk AW, Venables KM, Crook B, Nunn AJ, Hawkins R, Crook GD. Graneek BJ, Tee RD, Farrer N, Johnson DA. 1989. Respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sensitisation to flour in a British bakery. Br J Ind Med 46:636-642.

Wallenstein G, Bergmann I, Rebohle E, Gemeinhardt H, Thürmer H. 1980. Occupational respiratory diseases due to moulds in millers and bakers. Z Erkrank Alm-Org 154:229-233.

Neurospora spp.

 

Carpenters

Cote I, Chan H, Brochu G, Chan-Yeung M. 1991. Occupational asthma caused by exposure to neurospora in a plywood factory worker. Br J Ind Med 48:279-282.

Paecilomyces spp.

 

Carpenters

Wilhelmsson B, Jemudd Y, Ripe E, Holmberg K. 1985. Nasal hypersensivity in wood fumiture workers. Rhinology 23:297-302.

Penicillium citrinum

 

Mushroom worker

Yoshikawa S, Tsushima K, Koizumi T, Kubo K, Kumagai T, Yamazaki Y. 2006. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by spores of Penicillium citrinum in a worker cultivating Enoki mushroom.
Intern Med;45:537-41

Plasmopara viticola

 

Agricultural

Wenzel W, Becker WM, Mazur G, Gödde M.1994. Occupational sensitization to Plasmopara viticola. J Allergy Clin Immunol; 93: 457-463.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

 

Bakers

Belchi-Henandez I, Mora-Gonzalez A. lniesta-Perez I. 1996. Baker's asthrna caused by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in dry powder form. J Allergy Clin Immunol 97:131-134.

Baldo BA, Baker RS. 1988. lnhalant allergies to fungi: reactions to bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and identification of baker's yeast enolase as an important allergen. lnt Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 86:201-208.

Termophilic actinomycetes

 

Farmers

Bourke SJ, Dalphin JC, Boyd G, McSharry C, Baldwin CI, Calvert JE. 2001. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Current concepts.Eur Respir J Suppl 32: 81s-92s.

Gram (-):

Acinetobacter Iwoffi

Klebsiella oxytoca,

Pseudomonas fluorescens,

 

 

Humidifiers

Selman M. 2004. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a multifaceted deceiving disorder.
Clin Chest Med;25:531-47

Amoebas:

Acanthamoeba castellani ;Amoeba proteus; Naegleria gruber,

 

Humidifiers

van Assendelft A, Forsen KO, Keskinen H, Alanko K. 1979. Humidifier-associated extrinsic allergic alveolitis.
Scand J Work Environ Health.;5:35-41.

Mycobacteria

Mycobacterium immunogenum

Mycobacterium avium

 

Metal removal fluids

Trout D, Weissman DN, Lewis D, Brundage RA, Franzblau A, Remick D. 2003. Evaluation of hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers exposed to metal removal fluids.Appl Occup Environ Hyg 18:953-60.

Marras TK, Wallace RJ Jr, Koth LL, Stulbarg MS, Cowl CT, Daley CL. 2005. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis reaction to Mycobacterium avium in household water.
Chest.;127:664-71

Mushrooms:
Lyophyllum aggregatum
(Shimeji), Pleorotus ostreatus, Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji or Japanese mushroom)

 

Mushroom workers

Moore JE, Convery RP, Millar BC, Rao JR, Elborn JS. 2005. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with mushroom worker's lung: an update on the clinical significance of the importation of exotic mushroom varieties.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol.;136:98-102

Tsushima K, Fujimoto K, Yamazaki Y, Takamizawa A, Amari T, Koizumi T, Kubo K.2001. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by spores of Lyophyllum aggregatum. Chest. Oct 120:1085-93.

Sastre J., Ibañez MD., Lopez M., Lehrer SB.1990. Respiratory and immunological reactions among Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) workers. Clin Allergy; 20:13-19.

Vereda A, Quirce S, Fernandez-Nieto M, Bartolome B, Sastre J. 2007. Occupational asthma due to spores of Pleurotus ostreatus. Allergy.;62:211-2

Enzymes

 

 

 

Alcalase from Bacillus subtilis

 

Detergent industry

Johnsen CR, Sorensen TB, Ingemann Larsen A, Bertelsen Secher A, Andreasen E, Kofoed GS, Fredslund Nielsen L, Gyntelberg F. 1997. Allergy risk in an enzyme producing plant: A retrospective follow up study. Occup Environ Med 54: 671-675.

Franz T, McMurrain KD. Brooks S, Bemstein IL. 1971. Clinical, immunologic, and physiologic observations in factory workers exposed to B. subtilis enzyme dust. Allergy 47: 170-180.

Bromeline

 

Pharmaceutical

Gailhofer G, Teubl I, Wilders-Trusching M, Ludvan M. 1987. Allergic asthma caused by Bromelin. Dermatosen 35: 174-176.

Cellulase from Aspergillus niger

 

Bakers
Wood industry

Losada et al. Occupational asthma caused by cellulase.1986. J Allergy Clin Immunol 77: 635-639.

Sander I, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Siethoff C, Lohaus C, Meyer HE, Baur S X. 1998. Allergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in the baking industry: Identification of beta-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger as a new allergen (Asp n 14). J Allergy Clin Immunol 102: 256-264.

Travainen K, Kanerva L, Thpasela O, Grenquist-Norden B, Jolanki R, Estlander T, Keskinen H. 1991. Allergy from cellulase and xylanase enzymes. Clin Exp Allergy 2: 609-615.

Kim HY, Nahm DH, Park HS, Choi DC. 1999. Occupational asthma and IgE sensitization to cellulase in a textile industry worker. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 82:174-8.

Empynase

 

Health care workers

Bahn JW, Lee JY, Jang SH, Kim SH, Kim HM, Park HS. 2006. Sensitization to Empynase (pronase B) in exposed hospital personnel and identification of the empynase allergen.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 36:352-8.

Esperase

 

Detergent industry

Zachariae H, Hoech-Thomsen J. Witrneur O, Wide L. 1981. Detergent enzymes and occupational safety. Observations on sensitization during esperase production. Allergy 36:513-516.

Johnsen CR, Sorensen TB. Ingemann Larsen A, Bertelsen Secher A, Andreasen E, Kofoed GS, Fredslund Nielsen L. Gyntelberg F. 1997. Allergy risk in an enzyme producing plant: a retrospective follow up study. Occup Environ Med 54:671-675.

Glucoamylase

 

Bakers

Quirce S, Bartolomé B, Fernandez.Nieto M, et al, 2002. Glucoamylase: Another fungal enzyme associated with baker's asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 89: 197-202.

Sander I, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Siethoff C, Lohaus C, Meyer HE, Baur S X. 1998. Al1ergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in the baking industry: identification of beta-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger as a new allergen (Asp n 14). J Allergy Clin Immunol 102:256-264.

Glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger

 

Bakers

Baur X. 1981. Isolated enzymes of bacterial, plant and mould origin as potent inhalent and potential ingestiye antigens. A11ergologie 4: 87-89.

Hemicellulase

 

Bakers

Baur X. Sauer W, Weiss W, Fruhmann G. 1989. Inhalant allergens in moderm baking industry. Immunol Allergy Pract 11: 13-15.

Lactase

 

Pharmaceutical

Muir DC, Verrall AB, Julian JA, Millman JM, Beaudin MA, Dolovich J. 1997. Occupational sensitization to lactase. Am J Ind Med 31: 570-571

Lypase

 

Detergent industry

Brant A, Hole A, Cannon J, Helm J, Swales C, Welch J, Taylor AN, Cullinan P. 2004. Occupational asthma caused by cellulase and lipase in the detergent industry. Occup Environ Med 61:793-5.

Lysozyme

 

Food industry Pharmaceutical

Bemstein JA, Kraut A, Bemstein DI, Warrington R, Bolin T, Warren

CP. Bemstein IL. 1993. Occupational asthma induced by inhaled egg Iysozyme. Chest 103:532-535.

Anibarro Bausela B, Fontela JL. 1996. Occupational asthma in a cheese worker. Allergy 51:960-961.

Park HS. Nahm DH. 1996. Buckwheat fiour hypersensitivity: an occupational asthma in a noodle maker. Clin Exp Allergy 26: 423-427.

Pancreatin from pig

 

Food industry

Aiken T, Ward R, Peel E, Hendrick D. 1997. Occupational asthma due to porcine pancreatic amylase. Occup Environ Med 54: 762-764.

Wiessmann KJ, Baur X. 1985. Occupational asthma fol1owing long-term inhalation of pancreatic extracts. Eur J Respir Dis 66: 13-20.

Papain

 

Pharmaceutical

Baur X. Konig G, Bencze K, Fruhmann G. 1982. Clinical symptoms and results of skin test, RAST and bronchial provocation test in thirty-three papain workers: Evidence for strong immunogenic potency and clinically relevant proteolytic effects of airbome papain.Clin Allergy 12:9-17

Merget R, Bergmann E. Schiirling B. 1995. Severe occupational asthma from papain. Allergo J 4:365-369.

Pepsin

 

Food industry (cheese)

Anibarro Bausela B, Fontela JL. 1996. Occupational asthma in a cheese worker. Allergy 51:960-961.

Drexler H, Beyer B. 1997. 0ccupational asthma due to pepsin powder in a women checking meat for Trichinae. Arbeitsmed Sozialmed Umweltmed 32:145-147.

L. Belleri, E. Brunelli, M. Crippa, M. Golia, O. Vanoni, L. Alessio.2002 Occupational exposure to pectinase. Allergy 57: 755.

Peptidase from serratia

 

Pharmaceutical, Food industry

Park HS. Nahm DH. 1997. New occupational allergen in a phannaceutical industry: serratial peptidase and Iysozyme chloride. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 78:225-229.

Phytase from Aspergillus niger

 

Animal formula feed

Straburger K, Bossert J, Baur X, Zober A. 1998. Sensitization due to the enzymes phytase and xylanase. In: Hallier E, Bünger J, editors. 38. Jahrestagung Dtsch Ges Arbeits Umweltmedizin, Fulda, p525-527. Doekes G, Karnminga N, Helwegen L, Heederik D. 1999. Occupational IgE sensitisation to phytase, a phosphatase derived from Aspergillus niger. Occup Environ Med 56:454-459.

Proteases

 

Detergent industry

Franz T, McMurrain KD. Brooks S, Bemstein IL. 1971. Clinical, immunologic, and physiologic observations in factory workers exposed to B. subtilis enzyme dust. Allergy 47:170-180.

ß-xylanase from Asp niger

 

Laboratory

Baur X, Sander I. Posch A. Raulf-Heimsoth M. 1998. Baker's asthrna due to enzyme xylanase-a new occupational allergen. Clin Exp Allergy 28: 1591-1593.

Sander I, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Siethoff C, Lohaus C, Meyer HE, Baur S X. 1998. Al1ergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in the baking industry: Identification of ß-xylosidase from Aspergillus niger as a new allergen (Asp n 14). J Allergy Clin Immunol 102: 256-264.

Travainen K, Kanerva L, Thpasela O, Grenquist-Norden B, Jolanki R, Estlander T, Keskinen H. 1991. Allergy from cellulase and xylanase enzymes. Clin Exp Allergy 2: 609-615.

Suparen

Rennet of Endothica parasitica

Cheese makers

Niinimaki A, Saari S. 1978. Dermatological and allergic hazards of cheesemakers. Scand J Work Environ Hea1th 4: 262-263.

Trypsin from cow and pig

 

Plastic, Pharmaceutical

 

Colten HR, Polakoff PL, Weinstein SF, Strieder D. 1975. Immediate hypersensitivity to hog trypsin resulting from industrial exposure. N Eng J Med 292: 1050-1053.

Johnsen CR, Sorensen TB. Ingemann Larsen A, Bertelsen Secher A, 1 Andreasen E, Kofoed GS, Fredslund Nielsen L. Gyntelberg F. 1997. Allergy risk in an enzyme producing plant: a retrospective follow up study. Occup Environ Med 54:671-675.

α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae

 

Bakers

Baur X. Chen Z, Sander I. 1994. Isolation and denomination of an important allergen in baking additives: a-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae (Asp o 1). Clin Exp Allergy 24:465-470.

Quirce S, Cuevas M, Diez-Gomez M, Femandez-Rivas M, Hinojosa M, Gonzalez R. Losada E. 1992. Respiratory allergy to Aspergillus-derived enzymes in baker's asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90: 970-978.

Losada et al. 1992. Occupational asthma caused by a-amylase inhalation: Clinical and immunological findings and bronchial response patterns. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89: 118-125.

Vanhanen M, Tuomi T, Hokkanen H, Tupasela 0, Tuomainen A, Holmberg PC, Leisola M, Nordman H. 1996. Enzyme exposure and enzyme sensitisation in the baking industry. Occup Environ Med 53: 670-676.


OCCUPATIONAL EOSINOPHILIC BRONCHITIS

Acrylate

 

Industry

Lemiere C, Efthimiadis A, Hargreave FE. 1997. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma: an unknown occupational airway disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol.;100:852-3.

Bunashimeji or Japanese mushroom

Hypsizigus marmoreus

Mushroom worker

Tanaka H, Saikai T, Sugawara H, Takeya I, Tsunematsu K, Matsuura A, Abe S. 2002. Workplace-related chronic cough on a mushroom farm. Hypsizigus marmoreus (Bunashimeji) Chest.;122:1080-5

Chloramine T

 

Heath care worker

Krakowiak AM, Dudek W, Ruta U, Palczynski C. 2005. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma due to chloramine exposure. Occup Med ;55:396-8

Formaldehyde

 

 

Yacoub MR, Malo JL, Labrecque M, Cartier A, Lemiere C. 2005. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis. Allergy.;60:1542-4.

Latex

Hevea brasiliensis

Health care worker

Quirce S, Fernandez-Nieto M, de Miguel J, Sastre J. 2001. Chronic cough due to latex-induced eosinophilic bronchitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol.;108:143.

Lysozyme

 

Baker

Quirce S. 2004. Eosinophilic bronchitis in the workplace.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol.;4:87-91.

Stainless  steel (welding)

 

Industry

Yacoub MR, Malo JL, Labrecque M, Cartier A, Lemiere C. 2005. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis. Allergy.;60:1542-4.

Toluene diisocyanate

TDI

Industry

Di Stefano F, Di Giampaolo L, Verna N, Di Gioacchino M. 2007. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour. Thorax ;62:368-70.

Wheat flour

 

Baker

Di Stefano F, Di Giampaolo L, Verna N, Di Gioacchino M. 2007. Occupational eosinophilic bronchitis in a foundry worker exposed to isocyanate and a baker exposed to flour.Thorax;62:368-70.

Tetrahydro phthalic anhydride.

 

Industry

Kobayashi O. 1994.  A case of eosinophilic bronchitis due to epoxy resin system hardener, methle endo methylene tetrahydro phthalic anhydride. Arerugi;43:660-2.