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WAO Medical Book Reviews

October 2015

Nutrition, Gut Microbiota and Immunity: Therapeutic Targets for IBD
Nestle Nutrition Institute Workshop Series, Volume 79
Edited by: James D Lewis, Frank M Ruemmele, Gary D Wu
Copyright 2014 Karger AG Basel,  Nestec Ltd. Vevey/S
ISBN: 978-3-318-02669-6
eISBN: 978-3-318-02670-2
DOI:10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-02670-2

$59.00 USD / €52.02 EUR (Online)
Available from: Karger

Reviewer
Andreea Popescu, MD
Pop de Basesti Medical Centre, Bucharest, Romania
Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Description
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic relapsing and remitting conditions that involve inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, causing significant morbidity. The precise aetiology of IBD is still to be clearly elucidated, however it is known that its development, progression and phenotype are multifactorial with genetics and environment playing a role. There is increasing evidence supporting a microbial influence in the pathogenesis of IBD resulting from an inappropriate immune response towards components of the commensal microbiota, which led to focusing on new areas of research on the complex relationship between nutrition, inflammation and the microbiome in IBD.

This monograph includes summaries of talks presented at the 79th Nestlé Nutrition Institute  Workshop held in New York in September 2013, addressing the current understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of IBD, the function of the gut microbiota and its interaction with nutrition in IBD, and the potential manipulation of the gut microbiota as a prophylactic or and/or therapeutic intervention in the management of these diseases.

Purpose
The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBD and the potential therapeutic target it represents are exciting topics of research, and this collection provides the current knowledge in the field.

Features
The book is organized into three sections. The first section deals with the pathogenesis of IBD, with a special focus on the role of the gut microbiota, including new insight on innate and adaptive immune responses to intestinal microbes and the interaction between nutrients and dietary metabolites and commensal microbes in the intestinal environment.

The three chapters of the second section focus on current research of manipulation the gut microbiome as a therapy for IBD, including the use of antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation.

The third section discusses unmet needs and future strategies for the treatment of IBD, such as enteral nutrition as a therapeutic option, and medical foods as part of the long-term therapeutic plan in IBD. The final chapter examines potential new targets of treatment, including the interaction between the gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system, by manipulating both the microbial dysbiosis and the exaggerated immune response using food or pre-/probiotics in adjunction to immunosupressors and biologics.

Assessment and Audience
Those with an interest in the pathogenesis and treatment of IBD, such as immunologists and gastroenterologists, as well as nutritionists and dieticians, or anyone looking to learn more about the intriguing complex relationship between the gut microbiota, nutrition and immune responses in IBD, will find this book a valuable and concise source of information on the latest advances in this field.