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WAO News & Notes - March 2008
Volume 5, Issue 3

Medical Journal Reviews

Medical Journal Reviews


Reviewed by Prof. Richard F. Lockey, MD, WAO Web Editor-in-Chief


1. Oral or IV prednisolone (P) in the treatment of COPD exacerbations - A randomized, controlled, D-B study.
435 patients were referred for a COPD exacerbation warranting hospitalization. 107 received P, 60 mg IV and 130, 60 mg orally. Rx failure, the primary outcome, was defined as death, admission to ICU, readmission to ICU because of COPD, or intensification of pharmacologic Rx during a 90-day follow-up period. Overall Rx failure within 90 days was similar in both groups. The authors conclude that oral P is equally effective as is IV Rx for up to 90 days after starting Rx. Editor's comment: Oral vs. IV P Rx for COPD is easier and probably more cost effective; findings are similar for Rx of asthma exacerbations. de Jong YP, et al., Chest 2007; 132(6):1741-47. (editorial: Tashkin, pp. 1728-29).

名患者因慢性阻塞性肺病恶化而住院治疗。107例接受强的松龙60毫克静脉注射,130例接受60毫克口服治疗。主要观察指标是治疗失败,包括死亡、入住ICU、因COPD再次入住ICU,或在为期90天的随访期内需要增加治疗药物的剂量。90天内的总体治疗失败率在两组间类似。作者的结论是在治疗后90天内,口服强的松龙和静脉注射治疗COPD同样有效。编者按:慢性阻塞性肺病用强的松龙口服与静脉注射治疗效果类似,口服治疗比较容易,可能更具成本效益。de Jong YP, et al., Chest 2007; 132(6):1741-47. (editorial: Tashkin, pp. 1728-29).

2. Budesonide/formoterol (B/F) maintenance and reliever Rx: impact on airway inflammation in asthma.

After two weeks of usual therapy, 1538 patients were randomized for six months to open-label B/F maintenance and reliever Rx 160/4.5΅g 2X/day and as needed or guideline-based conventional best practice. Severe asthma exacerbations, reliever medication use and total inhaled glucocorticosteroid (IC) dose were analyzed in all patients. No differences were seen in time to severe exacerbation and severe asthma exacerbation rate. However, there were numerically fewer ED visits/hospitalizations with B/F maintenance and reliever Rx (4.4 vs. 7.5/100 patients/year; 41% reduction; p=0.09). Mean total IC dose, reliever use, asthma medication costs and total annual costs per patient were all significantly lower with B/F maintenance and reliever Rx (all p<0.01). The authors conclude that B/F maintenance and reliever Rx is superior compared to conventional best practice in patients with persistent asthma. Side-effects were similar in the 2 groups. Editor's comment: B/F 160/4.5΅g 1 spray 2X/daily plus additional doses as needed up to 12 inhalations daily is effective asthma therapy. Sears MR, et al., ERJ Express 2008; doi: 10.1183/09031936.00104007.

经过两周的常规治疗, 1538例患者被随机分为两组,一组进行为期6个月的开放标签的布地奈德/福莫特罗(160/4.5 μg 每天两次)维持和按需治疗,另一组依据哮喘治疗指南(GINA)的最佳治疗方案治疗。分析所有患者的重症哮喘加重次数、急救药物使用情况和吸入皮质激素(IC)的总剂量。在出现严重恶化的时间间隔和严重哮喘恶化率方面两组间无显著性差异。不过B/F维持和按需治疗组的急诊就诊/住院次数减少, 分别为4.4例和7.5/100患者/; 降低41; P=0.09 )。B/F维持和按需治疗组患者在吸入皮质激素的平均总剂量,急救药,哮喘药物的费用和每年的总费用均显著降低(P<0.01)。作者总结认为,在持续性哮喘患者,B/F维持和急救治疗优于传统的GINA治疗方案。两组之间药物副作用相似。编者按:B/F160/4.5 μg每日2吸,加按需吸入(最多12/日),是有效的哮喘治疗。Sears MR, et al., ERJ Express 2008; doi: 10.1183/09031936.00104007.

3. Clarithromycin (CL) targets neutrophilic (N) airway inflammation in refractory asthma.
45 patients with severe refractory asthma were randomized to receive CL 500 mg 2X/daily or placebo for eight weeks. The primary outcome was sputum IL-8 concentration. Other inflammatory outcomes included sputum N numbers and concentrations of N elastase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Clinical outcomes included lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness to hypertonic saline, asthma control, QOL and symptoms. CL significantly reduced airway concentrations of IL-8, N numbers, and improved QOL scores vs. placebo. Non-significant reductions in N elastase and MMP-9 concentrations were also observed. The authors conclude that CL can modulate IL-8 levels and N accumulation and activation in the airways of refractory asthma and could reduce noneosinophilic, particularly N inflammation, in asthma. Editor's comment: CL could be helpful in individuals with N airway inflammation and refractory asthma.
Simpson JL, et al., Am J Res Crit Care Med 2008; 177:148-55.

例重症难治性哮喘随机接受克拉霉素500毫克2x/日或安慰剂8周。主要观察指标是是痰液IL-8浓度。其他观察指标包括痰液中性粒细胞的数目、N弹性蛋白酶和基质金属蛋白酶-9MMP-9浓度。临床观察指标包括肺功能,对高渗盐水的气道高反应性,哮喘控制情况和生活质量和症状。与安慰剂组相比,克拉霉素可显著降低气道中IL-8的浓度,中性粒细胞数量,并改善生活质量,还观察到在中性粒细胞的弹性蛋白酶和MMP - 9浓度降低但两组间并无显著性差异。作者的结论是,克拉霉素可调节难治性哮喘的气道IL-8水平和中性粒细胞的聚集和激活,并可以减少非嗜酸粒细胞性炎症 ,特别是哮喘的中性粒细胞炎症。编者按:克拉霉素可有助于难治性哮喘患者的中性粒细胞气道炎症。Simpson JL, et al., Am J Res Crit Care Med 2008; 177:148-55.

4. Platelet-activating factor (PAF), PAF acetylhydrolase (PAFA), and severe anaphylaxis (A).
PAFA activity was measured in 41 patients with A and 23 controls. PAFA was also measured in nine patients who had fatal A to peanuts and compared to 26 nonallergic pediatric controls (C), 49 nonallergic adult C, 63 patients with mild peanut allergy, 24 patients with nonfatal A, 10 people who died of nonanaphylactic causes, 15 with life-threatening asthma, and 19 with non-life threatening asthma. PAF levels were significantly higher in the A (805±595 pg per ml) than in C (127±104 pg per ml, P<0.001 after log transformation) and were correlated with the severity of A. There was an inverse correlation between PAF and PAFA activity (P<0.001). The authors postulate that failure of PAFA to inactivate PAF may contribute to the severity of A. Editor's comment: The lack of adequate amounts of PAFA may contribute to increased severity of A. Vadas P, et al., N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 28-35. (editorial: Burks, pp. 79-81).
血小板活化因子(PAF),血小板活化因子乙酰水解酶(PAFA 和严重过敏反应(A
本文对41例严重过敏反应患者和23例健康对照测定血小板活化因子乙酰水解酶(PAFA)活性。另外分别测定了9例花生过敏致死性休克患者,26例非过敏性儿童健康对照,49例健康成人对照,63例轻度花生过敏患者,4例非致命性过敏性休克,10人死于非过敏性疾病患者,以及15例危及生命的哮喘患者,19例未危及生命的哮喘患者的PAFA值。与对照组(127±104pg/ml,经log转换后P<0.001)相比,严重过敏反应组的血PAF水平明显增高(805±595pg/ml)。PAF水平与反应的严重程度呈正相关;PAF水平与PAFA呈负相关(P<0.001)。作者认为PAFA灭活PAF障碍可导致严重过敏反应的发生。编者按:缺乏足够数量的PAFA可能导致了严重过敏反应的发生:Vadas P, et al., N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 28-35. (editorial: Burks, pp. 79-81).

5. Allergology International.

The December issue of Allergology International contains 3 reviews on airway remodeling and asthma. The first, by Yamauchi K, et al., is entitled "Airway Remodeling in Asthma and Irreversible Airflow Limitation - ECM Deposition in Airway and Possible Therapy for Remodeling"; the second, by Tagaya E, et al., is entitled "Mechanisms of Airway Remodeling in Asthma"; and the third, by Sumi Y, et al., is entitled "Airway Remodeling in Asthma". Editor's comment: This is a nice update on the subject of airway remodeling and asthma.
Yamauchi K, et al., Allergology International 2007; 56: 321-29. Tagaya E, et al., 331-40. Sumi Y, et al., 341-48.

月份出版的《国际变态反应学》杂志刊登了3篇关于气道重塑和哮喘的综述。第一篇作者是Yamauchi K题为“气道重塑在哮喘和不可逆转性气流受限中的作用--气道的ECM沉积和气道重塑的治疗”;第二篇综述作者是Tagaya题为“哮喘气道重塑的机制”;第三篇作者是Sumiy题为“哮喘的气道重塑”编者按:这是一篇关于气道重塑和哮喘这一题目的非常好的最新进展。Yamauchi K, et al., Allergology International 2007; 56: 321-29. Tagaya E, et al., 331-40. Sumi Y, et al., 341-48.

6. Atopic features of cough variant asthma (CVA) and classic asthma (CA) with wheezing.
These authors examine specific IgE levels to seven common aeroallergens in 74 CVA patients (subjects who had a cough in absence of wheezing or dyspnea, the presence of airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and a symptomatic response of coughing to bronchodilators) vs 115 CA patients of varying severity. Patients with CA had higher total IgE levels (P<0.0001), more sensitization to allergens (P = 0.03), and higher rates of sensitization to dog dander (24% vs 3%, P<0.0001), HDM (46% vs. 28%, P = 0.02), and moulds (17% vs. 7%, P = 0.047) vs. CVA. Wheezing developed in 6 (15%) patients with CVA, who were sensitized to a larger number of allergens (P = 0.02) and had higher rates of sensitization to HDM (P = 0.01) and dog dander (P = 0.02) than the 34 patients in whom wheezing did not develop. The authors conclude that atopy is related to the development of wheezing in CVA and that to prevent progression from CVA to CA, avoidance of relevant allergens may be helpful. Editor's comment: This is a nice study on CVA, a disease which is rarely studied and with which all physicians who care for patients with CA are familiar. Takemura M, et al., Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:1833-39.

作者给变异型哮喘患者(74例)和经典型哮喘(115例,哮喘严重程度不等)检测7种常见气传性过敏原的特异性IgE。咳嗽变异型哮喘定义为咳嗽,无喘鸣或呼吸困难,乙酰甲胆碱激发试验证实有气道高反应性,支气管扩张剂治疗后症状改善。与咳嗽变异型哮喘组相比,经典型哮喘组患者总IgE水平较高(P< 0.0001 );对更多的过敏原过敏( P = 0.03 );狗皮屑过敏率较高(分别为 24 %和3%,P < 0.0001 );室内尘螨过敏率较高 分别为46 %和28 P0.02 );霉菌过敏率较高( 分别为17 %与7 P = 0.047 )。6例咳嗽变异型哮喘患者 15 %)发生了喘鸣。相对34例未发生喘鸣的CVA患者而言,这些患者对较多的过敏原过敏(P = 0.02),对尘螨和狗皮屑的过敏率较高(P=0.01P=0.02)。作者总结说,过敏与咳嗽变异型哮喘发展成哮喘相关,并指出避免相关过敏原接触有可能预防咳嗽变异型哮喘发展成哮喘。编者按:这是一个很好的CVA研究。为哮喘医生所熟悉的这种疾病以前研究并不多Takemura M, et al., Clin Exp Allergy 2007; 37:1833-39.

7a. British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) guidelines for the management of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis
7b. BSACI guidelines for the management of rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis
These two clinical guideline articles are on the subject of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis and rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. They summarize the medical science behind these diseases and how they should be treated. Editor's comment: Nice articles and must reading for all those interested in these subjects. Scadding GK, et al., Clin Exp Allergy 2008; 38:19-42. Scadding GK, et al., Clin Exp Allergy 2008; 38:260-75.

7 A 
这是关于过敏性和非过敏性鼻炎及鼻窦炎和鼻息肉的两个临床指南。这两个指南总结了这些疾病背后的科学,以及怎样治疗这些疾病。编者按:这是所有对这个题目感兴趣的人必读的好文章。Scadding GK, et al., Clin Exp Allergy 2008; 38:260-75.

8. HLA-B*5701 screening for hypersensitivity to Abacavir (A)

The presence of the HLA-B*5701 allele is associated with hypersensitivity reactions to A. 1956 patients infected with HIV type 1 who had not previously received A were studied in this D-B prospective randomized study to establish the effectiveness of prospective HLA-B*5701 screening to prevent hypersensitivity reactions to A. Screening eliminated immunologically confirmed hypersensitivity reactions (0% in the prospective-screening group vs. 2.7% in the control group, P<0.001), with a negative predictive value of 100% and a positive predictive value of 47.9%. The authors conclude that HLA-B*5701 screening can prevent a specific toxic effect of A. An editorial entitled "Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers for Prediction of Severe Adverse Drug Reactions" accompanies this article. There are now at least seven biomarkers which predict reactions to: 6-mercaptopurines, irinotecan, warfarin, tricyclic anti-depressants, abacavir, carbamazepine, and ximilagatran. Editor's comment: Some pharmacogenomic biomarkers can predict severe adverse drug reactions. Mallal S, et al., N Engl J Med 2008; 358:568-79. (editorial: Ingelman-Sundberg, pp. 637-38).

8   HLAB* 5701
HLA-B* 5701
等位基因与阿巴卡韦过敏相关。1956例未用过阿巴卡韦治疗的I型艾滋病毒感染者参加了这项双盲前瞻性随机研究,以明确HLA-B* 5701对前瞻性筛查阿巴卡韦过敏,防止出现阿巴卡韦过敏的有效性。筛查可消除免疫阿巴卡韦过敏反应(阿巴卡韦筛选组0 %,控制组2.7 %, P < 0.001 ),阴性预测值为100 ,阳性预测值47.9 。作者的结论是,HLA-B* 5701筛选可以防止出现阿巴卡韦的特异性毒性作用。一篇编者评论题为“遗传药理生物标志物预测的严重药物不良反应”和这篇文章同时发表。目前有至少7生物标志物可以预测严重药物不良反应反应: 6 -巯基嘌呤,伊立替康,华法林,三环类抗忧郁症,阿巴卡韦,卡马西平,希美加群(一种口服抗凝剂)编者按:一些遗传药理学生物标志物可以预测出现严重药物不良反应。Mallal S, et al., N Engl J Med 2008; 358:568-79. (editorial: Ingelman-Sundberg, pp. 637-38).

9. Seafood allergy (SA) and radiocontrast media (RCM): Are physicians propagating a myth?

This is an anonymous survey of 231 faculty radiologists and interventional cardiologists at six Midwest academic medical centers to question whether SA is related to RCM reactions. 69% of the responders indicated that they inquire about a history of SA before RCM administration and 37.2% replied that they withhold it or recommend premedication on the basis of this history. The authors conclude that the myth that SA is a risk factor for RCM reactions is common among physicians. Editor's comment: SA is not a risk factor for RCM reactions. Beaty AD, et al., Am J Med 2008; 121:158.e1-158.e4.

海鲜过敏( SA )的和放射造影剂(RCM ):医生在宣传一个错误说法?
个中西部医疗中心的231位放射及心脏介入医生参加了这项匿名调查,内容是海鲜过敏是否与放射造影剂是否相关。 69 %的受访者表示,他们会在使用放射造影剂之前询问患者是否海鲜过敏;37.2 %受访者回答如果患者海鲜过敏,他们就不用放射造影剂或建议给患者进行预防性治疗。作者认为, 医生中普遍存在一个错误看法:海鲜过敏是放射造影剂过敏的危险因素。编者按: 海鲜过敏不是放射造影剂反应的危险因素。Beaty AD, et al., Am J Med 2008; 121:158.e1-158.e4.

10. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society
This entire journal is devoted to adult and pediatric sleep-disordered breathing. It covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment, as well as potential sequelae from this disease. Editor's comment: A wonderful symposium on a very common problem in patients seen by allergists/immunologists. Mokhlesi B, Gozal D (guest eds). Proc of the Am Thoracic Society 2008; 5:135-284.

本期杂志的专题是成人及儿童睡眠呼吸障碍。涵盖了这种疾病的流行病学,病理生理学,诊断,内科和外科治疗以及后遗症。编者按:睡眠呼吸障碍是变态反应医生和免疫学医生经常遇到的问题。这是关于这一问题的非常好的研讨会。Mokhlesi B, Gozal D (guest eds). Proc of the Am Thoracic Society 2008; 5:135-284.

11. Supplement to the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology entitled "Mini-Primer on Allergic & Immunologic Diseases."
This issue contains CME review articles on "Lymphocytes," "Dendritic Cells as Regulators of Immunity and Tolerance," "Adhesion Molecules and Receptors," "Gastrointestinal Mucosal Immunity," "Genetics of Allergic Disease," "Secondary Immunodeficiencies, Including HIV Infection," "Immunologic Lung Disease," " Hereditary Angioedema," "Anaphylaxis," and "Occupational Asthma." Editor's comment: Drs. Ed Shearer and Don Leung (eds) and the authors are to be congratulated for this wonderful JACI CME issue. JACI (Suppl) 2008; 121: S363-S411.

《变态反应和临床免疫学杂志》的 “过敏性及免疫性疾病的微型”增补本
这个问题包含临床继续教育文章: “淋巴细胞” “树突状细胞在免疫反应和免疫耐受中的调节作用” “粘附分子与受体” “胃肠道粘膜免疫” “过敏性疾病的遗传学” “继发性免疫缺陷 ,包括艾滋病感染”“免疫肺疾病” ,“遗传性血管性水肿”“”过敏症“ ”职业性哮喘“ 编者按:祝贺Ed Shearer Don Leung (编辑)和作者们,感谢他们编写了这么好的JACI继续教育项目文章。JACI (Suppl) 2008; 121: S363-S411.

<P>12. Effect of glucosamine sulfate (GS) on hip osteoarthritis (O).
This is a 222 patient randomized, controlled trial study of hip O to determine whether or not GS affects symptoms and structural progression of hip O during 2 years of Rx. Primary outcomes include pain and function subscales over 24 months and joint space narrowing after 24 months. Secondary outcomes include pain, function, and stiffness after 3, 12 and 24 months. There are no statistical differences between the Rx vs. the placebo groups. Editor's comment: GS is not effective treatment for hip O. Rozendaal RM, et al., Annals of Int Med 2008; 148:268-77.

Makowska JS, et al., JACI 2008; 121:348-54

13. Snoring (S) in preschool children: prevalence, severity and risk factors.
6,811 children aged 1-4 yrs were evaluated for the prevalence, severity and risk factors for S, especially habitual S. In 59.7% of the children, parents reported S in the previous 12 months, including 7.9% with habitual S and 0.9% with habitual S and sleep disturbance. Prevalence increased with age from 6.6% in 1-yr-olds to 13.0% in 4-yr-olds. Habitual S was associated with: one and both parents smoking (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.46 and 2.09, respectively); road traffic (OR 1.23); single parent (OR 1.60); and in White but not South Asian children, socioeconomic deprivation (OR 1.25 and 2.03 for middle and upper thirds of Townsend score, respectively). There was a strong association with atopic disorders, viral infections and environmental exposures suggesting a complex etiology. Editor's comment: S occurs in children and adults. Physicians should be aware that children develop sleep disorders leading to educational and behavioral problems. Kuehni CE, et al., Eur Respir J 2008; 31:326-33.

评价6,8111-4岁儿童的鼾症尤其是习惯性打鼾的患病率,严重度及危险因素。59.7%的孩子的父母反应,在过去12个月其小孩有打鼾,7.9%是习惯性打鼾,0.9%有习惯性鼾症及睡眠障碍。患病率随年龄递增,1岁儿童为6.6%,而4岁儿童为13%。习惯性打鼾的相关因素有:父母一人或两人吸烟(调整后的比值比(OR)分别为1.462.09);公路交通拥堵(OR1.23);单亲(OR1.60);白人儿童鼾症的发病与贫困的社会经济地位相关(鼾症Townsend评分在上1/3位的OR2.03,中1/3位的OR1.25),但在南亚儿童未发现这种相关性。另外,特应性疾病,病毒感染及环境暴露也和鼾症发病密切相关,提示该病的病因是多因素的。编者按:鼾症在成人及儿童都有发生。医生要注意儿童的睡眠障碍会引起很多教育及行为问题。Kuehni CE, et al., Eur Respir J 2008; 31:326-33.

14. Systemic responses after bronchial aspirin challenge in sensitive patients with asthma.
19 patients with a history of aspirin-induced asthma underwent placebo (P)-controlled bronchial challenges with lysine-aspirin (LA). Peripheral blood was collected before and then 1 and 20 hours after challenge with P or LA and numbers of leukocyte and eosinophil progenitors determined. The challenge was positive in 13 with six having an isolated local bronchial reaction and seven systemic (bronchial and extrabronchial symptoms). Leukocyte progenitors increased significantly at 1 and 20 hours (P<0.05). Eosinophil progenitors increased significantly from mean 0.017% before challenge to 0.04% (P<0.05) at 20 hours after the challenge. At the 20 hour challenge, the increase in leukocyte and eosinophil progenitors was observed only in patients with systemic reactions. Eotaxin was also increased with positive challenges in two subjects. Bronchial challenge with LA causes a systemic reaction associated with mobilization of leukocyte and eosinophil progenitor cells from the bone marrow. Editor's comment: Aspirin sensitive asthmatics have a systemic disease, not just asthma. Makowska JS, et al., JACI 2008; 121:348-54.



19名阿司匹林哮喘患者进行了安慰剂对照的赖氨酸-阿司匹林(LA)支气管激发试验。在激发前1小时,激发后1小时及20小时采集外周血进行白细胞及嗜酸细胞祖细胞计数。13名患者激发试验阳性,其中6名发生局部的支气管反应而7名发生了系统反应(包括支气管及支气管外的症状)。激发后1小时及2小时的白细胞祖细胞显著增加(P<0.05)。嗜酸细胞祖细胞在激发前占0.017%,激发后20小时显著增至0.04%(P<0.05)。激发后20小时,仅在有系统反应的患者观察到了白细胞及嗜酸细胞祖细胞的增高。两名激发试验阳性的患者观察到了嗜酸细胞趋化因子的升高。LA支气管激发试验引起了骨髓动员白细胞及嗜酸细胞祖细胞这个系统性反应。编者按:阿司匹林哮喘患者不仅有哮喘,还有全身反应。Makowska JS, et al., JACI 2008; 121:348-54.


WAO Web Site Editors:
Editor-in-Chief: Richard F. Lockey, USA
Regional Assistant Editors: Juan Carlos Ivancevich, Argentina; Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos, Greece; Hirohisa Saito, Japan; Cassim Motala, South Africa; Emil J. Bardana, Jr., USA
Editors at Large: Connie H. Katelaris, Australia; Bob Q. Lanier, USA; Cassim Motala, South Africa; Ruby Pawankar, Japan
Translators: Juan Carlos Ivancevich (Spanish), Dirceu Sole, Carlos Nunes (Portuguese), Yehia El Gamal (Arabic), Hirohisa Saito (Japanese), Yin Jia, Gu Jian Qing, Wen Li Ping, Guan Kai (Chinese), Krysztof Kowal (Polish), Georgy Gudima (Russian)

WAO Web Site Mission Statement
The World Allergy Organization (WAO) Web Site supports the WAO mission. WAO is a global resource and advocate in the field of allergy, asthma and clinical immunology, advancing excellence in clinical care, education, research and training through a world-wide alliance of allergy and clinical immunology societies. 

The WAO website is an up-to-date compendium of information about allergy, asthma and immunology for all physicians, including specialists, other health care professionals and patients.  It also provides a network for global contacts in the field. 

The following information is found on the WAO website:

1.       A monthly WAO News and Notes E-Letter, translated into seven languages, providing up-to-date reviews of the scientific literature in the specialty from approximately 15 major journals, as well as meeting announcements, postings of educational resources, and reviews of new books.

2.       Up-to-date reviews of allergy, asthma and immunologic diseases, slide presentations for lectures on these subjects, interactive case studies, an “Ask the Expert” column for physicians who have a clinical question, Conversation interviews with world experts, and web-based seminars in basic immunology and allergic diseases.

3.       Links to major web-based allergy, asthma, and immunology resources.

4.       Information about WAO, WAO Member Societies, and the biennial WAO World Allergy Congresses.


世界过敏组织(WAO)网站支持WAO使命。 WAO是全球性资源中心,过敏、哮喘和临床免疫学领域的提倡者,通过全世界过敏和临床免疫学会联盟推进过敏性疾病的最佳临床治疗、教育、研究和培训。





1. 每月一次更新的WAO新闻和纪要,被翻译成七种语言,从大约15本主要专业杂志中摘取的文献摘要,公布会议教育资源、新书评论

2. 过敏、哮喘和免疫学疾病的最新复习,专题研究幻灯片,交互式病例讨论,“问专家”专栏提供一个讨论临床问题的机会、世界级专家的采访纪录,基础免疫学和过敏疾病的网上研讨会

3. 链接到过敏、哮喘和免疫学的主要资源网站

4. 关于WAOWAO成员学会的信息和每两年一次的WAO世界过敏会议信息

The World Allergy Organization's mission is to build a global alliance of allergy societies to advance excellence in clinical care, research, education and training. Visit us on the Web at www.worldallergy.org

World Allergy Organization (WAO)
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Milwaukee, WI 53202-3823

Email: info@worldallergy.org

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世界变态反应组织的使命是建立一个全球性的变态反应学会联盟,不断推动临床、科研、教学与培训工作的进步。欢迎您浏览我们的网站: http://www.worldallergy.org/

World Allergy Organization (WAO)
555 E. Wells Street, Suite 1100
Milwaukee, WI 53202-3823
Email: info@worldallergy.org


Made possible through an unrestricted educational grant from Novartis.

Translator: Liping Wen MD Peking Medical College Hospital   译者:北京协和医院变态反应科 文利平